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How your users’ content can boost your results

The best things in life are free. And user-generated content (or UGC) — which costs nothing — is one of the best marketing strategies available to brands, especially on Instagram. While its user base isn’t as large as that of its parent company, Instagram is crushing Facebook in terms of brand engagement.

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What Is UGC?

While the name is fairly self-explanatory, here’s a quick primer: If a customer or fan posts a photo or video about your brand, it’s user-generated content.

Any photo, video, tweet, snap, post, or review that’s shared about a brand can be considered UGC — which is great news for your marketing team.

Why Repurpose UGC?

Brands have a lot to gain by incorporating UGC into their marketing mix — both in terms of building customer loyalty and driving sales. UGC helps you build authentic and trusted relationships with consumers because it allows your audience to see how your products are used in real life.

If that’s not enough to convince you, consider this: Engaging with a brand’s UGC makes customers 97 percent more likely to purchase than those who don’t interact with it, and this engagement boosts the brand’s conversion rates by a staggering 78 percent. That’s a pretty clear indication of just how valuable UGC can be for your brand!

Consequently, user-generated content can save you money. Every post or endorsement that’s made by one of your customers is akin to free marketing — especially among Millennial consumers, who trust user-generated media 50 percent more than any other type.

In effect, by repurposing UGC, you benefit from an army of brand ambassadors who do the work for you, providing future customers with real-life testimonials and compelling imagery. If someone is searching for specific details about a certain product, for instance, UGC can even serve as a free (and candid) type of outsourced customer service.

Is Repurposing UGC Legal?

Using another person’s social media post in your marketing efforts does raise some legal and ethical questions. Before you invest in UGC for your marketing efforts, there are some finer points you need to address.

People who use your branded hashtag may be implying that they give permission for your brand to repurpose their content (with credit), but your bedrock principle should be that all UGC is, by default, copyrighted by the owner or creator of that content.

That means you’re technically required to ask for permission for use. But what exactly does that mean? Does getting someone to reply “Yes” when you ask, “Can I repost this photo?” count as permission? Do you need to send a link to an agreement and have the person sign it? Can you get an agreement from certain users to repost any of their content?

In summary, assume that all content is copyrighted, check the terms on each social network, and get permission from the original post creators. They should have no doubts about how you intend to use their content. Playing fast and loose with permissions may jeopardize your brand’s reputation in the long run. You need to ensure that your intentions don’t contradict the creators’ reasons for posting it to begin with.

Generating UGC

Of course, these questions about permission assume that you already have a system in place for curating user-generated content. If not, the first step is to create a branded hashtag and encourage your followers to post with it. By inviting your followers to post with your hashtag, you’re offering them a chance to stand in the spotlight — especially if you repost UGC on your own feed. Perhaps that’s why 65 percent of people will grant permission to use their photos within 24 hours.

Japanese retailer MUJI, for example, found great success with a contest it launched to encourage its followers on social media to post photos of artwork they had created with MUJI pens. Using the hashtag #mujipenart, MUJI saw more than 2,500 people enter the contest, greatly increased its social reach, and created an entirely UGC-driven campaign for the cost of a few special awards and prizes.

If contests and invitations fall short of meeting your goals, you can always turn to the power of influencer marketing. What better way to bring attention to your brand than to have a celebrity, an industry leader, or a popular media figure recognize your products in a social media post?

Instagram influencers with a large following can create content on behalf of your brand, allowing you to gain credibility and have impactful conversations with your customers. Influencers can give a shout-out to your brand or a specific product in a variety of ways, from simply using your hashtag to directly expressing the reasons they love the product. The goal of working with an influencer is to move your consumers to action by building brand trust that you may not be able to acquire easily or quickly on your own.

Succeeding With UGC

These days, repurposing UGC is considered standard, not standout. But there are a few things you can do to make sure your UGC efforts are actually furthering your business.

1. Publish UGC alongside your product.

Aligning UGC with your own marketing materials shows people how they can use it in their everyday lives, which amplifies the overall impact.

Sonos has mastered this by embedding Instagrammed UGC as part of the buying process on its website. On a Sonos product page, you’ll find not only marketing material and product specs, but also customer photos depicting how they use the brand’s speakers in their homes. These images seamlessly invite new customers to imagine how a Sonos product could improve their own lives.

2. Supplement emails and promotional materials with UGC.

When you sign up for promotional emails from shorts brand Chubbies, you receive newsletters bursting with UGC. Instead of promoting its products with models, the company uses photos of real, happy customers, which lends a sense of authenticity to the brand. In this way, Chubbies leverages its UGC to promote customer satisfaction with its products.

How does Chubbies manage to collect so much UGC? The brand actively encourages its customers to share their personal experiences with Chubbies on social media. By integrating UGC into all of its social accounts, the brand has inspired more than 331,000 people to follow Chubbies on Instagram and more than 1.6 million to do so on Facebook.

3. Build a branded hashtag.

A branded hashtag should be unique to your business. It can be as simple as your company name, your tagline, or the name of one of your products or campaigns, like Coca-Cola’s #shareacoke campaign, which resulted in a more than 2 percent increase in sales. Or it can be a hashtag that has nothing to do with your brand name but has everything to do with your brand identity. For instance, Always’ well-known “Like a Girl” campaign is meant to inspire confidence in young women and turn the common expression upside down by showcasing the stories of women doing amazing things #likeagirl.

A branded hashtag can help start a conversation with those unfamiliar with your brand, build or re-establish brand loyalty among current customers, and lead to the generation of more UGC. A branded hashtag with a good hook can spark a cascade of content from your best customers and help you reach previously untouchable — or even unknown — markets.

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Top 10 User Engagement Kpis To Measure

In today’s low-attention economy, site engagement can be considered an indicator of your website’s success.

Content engagement metrics are important because they show how your content strategy aligns with user interest.

Furthermore, customer engagement is related with overall profitability, as engaged users are more likely to buy, become repeat customers, and share the product/service with other people.

Before you decide on the specific user engagement metrics you want to track, you have to determine which ones make the most sense for your business.

Here are some of the most common (and most important) user engagement metrics.

1. Pageviews What are Pageviews?

Pageviews, sessions, and users are the most common metrics used to indicate traffic on your website. Pageviews are the most basic of all user engagement metrics, measuring an instance of a user visiting a particular page on your website.

Measuring pageviews can help you to understand how often people visit your website. A higher number can be assumed to be an indicator of interest and/or good SEO practices, since search engines are often the biggest drivers of traffic to websites.

Conversely, pageviews can also indicate that people are poking around your website because they can’t find anything.

Pageviews show traffic but without tying in the context of other related metrics, they can’t help you to fully understand the meaning behind these numbers.

How to Track Pageviews

You can use Google Analytics to track most user engagement metrics. It is perhaps the most comprehensive free analytics software tool available.

As a simple rule of thumb, when your pageviews increase, it means that the changes you implemented must be working — at least in terms of driving traffic.

How to Optimize/Improve Pageviews

An increase in pageviews can be an indicator of good SEO practices.

Some things you can do to increase pageviews:

Promote your website: Get the word out on social media, guest blogging, and related forums.

2. Time on Page

With so many websites churning out content on a regular basis, gaining an understanding of how much time people actually spend on your content has become an important user engagement metric.

There are two ways to look at time spent:

Micro view: time spent on page

Macro view: the average session duration or average time spent on site

What is Time Spent on Page?

It’s fairly straightforward: the time spent on page user engagement metric measures the time a user spends on a page on your website.

This metric provides an indication of interest.

What is Average Session Duration?

Average Session Duration (formerly known as Average Time Spent on Site) measures the length of an average session (Session Duration), over a specific time period, divided by the total number of sessions over a specific time period.

Session refers to a group of user interactions with your website. The average session duration refers to the total time spent on your website. This is different from time spent on page because it tracks all the activity a visitor has completed on your website versus tracking just the time spent on a certain page.

How to Track Time Spent

You can use Google Analytics to track how much time people spend on your website. You can find both average session duration metrics under the ‘Acquisition’ tab.

For example: if a page was viewed at 9:23 am and the next one was viewed at 9:26 am, the time spent on page for the first page is 3 minutes.

The problem with using timestamps to track activity is that it cannot track the time spent on the exit page. The exit page is the last page the visitor sees before they exit the website completely.

This means that if a visitor spends 5 minutes on your website but does not visit another page, Google Analytics has no way of knowing or recording this.

So if someone only visited one page and exited it, Google Analytics records the session duration as 0 — regardless of how much time they actually spent on your website.

Thus, the values of average session duration and time spent on page reported are usually lower than what they actually are and should not be taken at face value.

Instead, look at the distribution of session duration data to have a better idea of the typical session — and remove outliers.

What Counts Toward Time Spent?

Many people wonder about what exactly counts toward the time spent on site user engagement metric. Website parking occurs when you open a tab and leave it open to read later on.

The answer is that it depends on how the Google Analytics code is triggered and how fast it is sent to Google Analytics.

Additionally, Google answers, “By default, a session lasts until there’s 30 minutes of inactivity, but you can adjust this limit so a session lasts from a few seconds to several hours”.

A similar question you may have: does watching video count toward time on site? The answer? Yes! Google Analytics tracks interaction events, or events where a user interacted with the website.

How to Optimize/Improve Time Spent on Page

Because every website is different (in terms of industry, size, optimization), you should focus on comparing your current website statistics to your own past data.

On the Primary Dimension field, choose Page. Then, make your way to the Advanced filtering option. Choose to filter by Unique Pageviews, then choose a number to match up against.

You’ll see the average time spent on page change.

If you know that your average blog post is about 500 words, and your readers spend between 1-2 minutes reading them, then you’re in a good range.

But if they spend less time on the page, then analyze what could be making them exit prematurely: Is it your writing style? Does your page take a long time to load?

How to Optimize/Improve Average Session Duration

Session durations are a little harder to optimize. Because it measures more of a macro view, there are different considerations than that of time spent on page.

For one, you need to consider the overall user experience on your site. This includes:

The variety and value of content on your site.

Ease of navigation on your site and user site experience.

Clear calls-to-action (CTAs).

If you’re able to optimize these three things, you may see average session duration rise.

3. Bounce Rate

Closely related to time spent is the bounce rate. A common trend observed is that the bounce rate is inversely proportional to the average session duration: as the bounce rate increases, the average session duration decreases.

What Is Bounce Rate?

The bounce rate is the percentage of visitors to a website that exit after only viewing one page. The bounce rate gives an indication of how good your content is, because if people are leaving without taking action, then your content isn’t doing its job.

People may bounce for several reasons:

Your CTA/offer isn’t clear.

Your content/offer isn’t what they expected.

They got bored.

You’re not offering something different.

While it is important to measure how engaged your visitors are, it’s also important to measure how unengaged your visitors are.

You might have high traffic numbers but if you also have high bounce rates, this means your content isn’t engaging enough to make website visitors stick around.

How to Track Bounce Rate

Recall that using Google Analytics can be slightly problematic because you need a trigger event so that Google Analytics won’t count an early exit towards your bounce rate.

Aside from Google Analytics, you can use the SimilarWeb tool to track bounce rates and even size yours up against your competitors.

How to Improve Bounce Rate

Look at your pages with high engagement and low bounce rates. Try to determine what you did right on the page that could be applied to other pages.

Similar to Average Session Duration, some specific ways you can lower bounce rates:

Deliver on your content. Be reliable, helpful, and memorable.

Use clear CTAs.

4. Top Exit Pages What is the Top Exit Page?

Exit pages are the last pages accessed before leaving a website. The exit rate measures the percentage of people that leave your website from the exit page.

The exit pages (and subsequently, the exit rates) are related to bounce rates in that they both consider the last pages a visitor goes to on a website.

The main difference between these user engagement metrics?

The bounce rate takes into consideration the number of visitors that exit your website after visiting a single page.

Calculating the exit rate can be helpful, especially when your website encourages customers to follow a certain path (the buyer’s journey). Knowing your top exit pages can help you make sense of why your exit rate is the way it is.

Some pages are designed to have high exit rates, like your contact page, or a “Thank You” page. When a page is designated as an exit page, a high exit rate indicates that customers completed the desired action.

A high exit rate on a non-exit page can be caused by:

Poorly organized information on your website (hierarchical issues).

Missing CTA (so the person just exits the website).

Overwhelming amount of information.

Lacking/Missing information.

How to Track Top Exit Pages

There, you’ll see the number of exits, the number of pageviews, and the exit rate (% Exit). To calculate the exit rate, divide the number of times a visitor exits a particular page by the total number of page views.

It’s worth noting that a high exit rate is correlated to time on page values that vary a lot, and can, in fact, contribute to bloated data.

How to Optimize/Improve Top Exit Pages

Carefully plan your user flow/journey so that you can plan for which pages should have high exit rates.

Since top exit pages and exit rates are related to bounce rates, to optimize them, you have to:

Improve your content.

Improve site usability/information organization.

Have clear CTAs.

5. Pages per Session What is Pages per Session?

Another way of measuring interest in your content is pages per session, or the number of unique page visits per session.

From a business perspective, the higher the pages per session metric, the better. This is because a high pages per session count shows that your website visitors looked around and visited more than one page – truly engaging with your website.

Bounce rates are similar to pages per session, but while bounce rates look at the next step (or page), pages per session looks at the whole path the visitor follows.

How to Track Pages per Session

To calculate the number of pages per session, take the sum of the number of pages each user visited and divide it by the total number of sessions.

A high value of pages per session does not necessarily mean that people are interested in your content – that’s why it is important to look at pages per session in conjunction with average session duration and bounce rate.

A page with high pages per session – but low session duration and bounce rate – can indicate page flipping behavior due to disinterest, irrelevant content, or difficulty in navigating your website.

How to Optimize/Improve Pages per Session

Provide ‘next steps’, or content that aligns with visitor interest. Align your content hierarchy/flow with the buyer’s journey.

6. Page/Scroll Depth What is Page/Scroll Depth?

Page (or scroll) depth measures how thoroughly your audience consumes your content by tracking where on the page they stop reading.

This can indicate two things:

Readability: If your content is easy to read, people will go further down the page.

Interest: It is assumed that the further people scroll down your page, the more they want to consume your content.

How to Track Page/Scroll Depth

Google Analytics does not have a built-in option to measure scroll depth, which is why you have to install the Scroll Depth Google Analytics plugin to enable tracking.

The plugin tracks the percentage of your page where visitors stop: 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% depth, as well as which elements they scroll to, and pixel depth.

Pixel depth provides an absolute measure of where the audience stops, comparing this across devices where screen heights vary. The plugin sends the data to Google Analytics via Events.

Another option is to use Google Tag Manager. Just like the Scroll Depth plugin, it allows you to track pixel and percentage depth.

How to Improve Page/Scroll Depth

Consider the elements that correlate to the various scroll depths where people drop off:

What’s happening?

Is there something about the page that’s negatively impacting user experience?

Is content starting to fall flat as visitors make their way deeper into an article?

Armed with the data and understanding you now have behind the most popular user engagement metrics, you’ll have multiple options to approach fixing this problem.

7. Unique Visitors What Is a Unique Visitor?

Unique visitor is a term used to refer to a person that visits a website at least once during the reporting period. Google puts more emphasis on tracking page views (or visits) but the unique visitors metric shows how many individuals your website actually reaches.

How to Track Unique Visitors

Whenever you visit a website, Google Analytics assigns you a client ID that is stored in a cookie in your browser. This client ID is unique to every browser and not IP address, so if you visit a website using another browser, Google Analytics will recognize you as another unique user.

This can pose a problem or report inaccurate results because of situations such as:

Multiple people in a household sharing one computer. There may be multiple visitors but only one is registered.

A single user can visit your website from different computers or different browsers. This will be counted as multiple visits, when they actually came from one person.

Someone manually clears their cookies and will be counted as two users in reporting.

How to Optimize/Improve Unique Visitors

Know your audience. If you have a good grasp of who your existing audience is, you can use these metrics to take steps to find a new/related audience segment.

Promote your website, taking care to look toward the impact on different audience segments.

8. New vs. Returning Visitors What Are New vs. Returning Visitors?

New users are users who are accessing your website for the first time on a specific device.

As mentioned, Google uses client IDs to track users. If you’re using a mobile phone to access a website — then using your desktop to visit the same website again (but the first time on the desktop) — Google counts this activity as two new visitors.

To their credit, Google is becoming smarter about this. When you’re signed in on Google Chrome using two different devices, it will only record the first device as a new visitor and the second device as a returning visitor.

Returning visitors are those that have previously visited your website. Google defines new users within a two-year time frame. If you revisit a website within the two-year time frame, you are considered a returning visitor, and if you visit a website again after more than two years, you will be counted as a new visitor again.

This metric is presented as a pie graph, comparing the ratio between the two.

How to Track New Visitors vs Returning Visitors

You’ll see a table comparing the behavior of new and returning visitors with some of the metrics previously discussed, such as bounce rate, pages/session, and average session duration.

If your returning visitors metric is higher than new users, this might be a sign that you have a loyal band of followers. The opposite situation demonstrates that you have some work to do to get people to come back again.

How to Optimize/Improve New vs. Returning Visitors

Your New vs Returning Visitors graph can reflect the results of campaigns you used to promote your website.

A few examples:

Organic search tends to result in even distribution.

Email marketing from your CRM should lead to more returning visitors. If it’s a new list of prospects, expect more new visitors.

You can segment your channels according to these traffic sources.

It’s important to stack these dimensions against other metrics, like goal completion.

If your returning visitors convert more than new visitors, think of strategies to appeal to this group.

Or, if there’s a higher bounce rate with returning visitors, there may be something wrong with your content or user experience.

9. Conversion Rate

Customer engagement is linked to overall profitability and can lead to conversions.

What is Conversion Rate?

The conversion rate is the percentage of website visitors that complete desired actions, such as:

Purchasing any of your products or services.

Downloading your app, ebook, etc.

Contacting your business/submitting a form.

Engaging with your website in some way.

A high conversion rate tells you that your marketing tactics are effective because they resulted in your website visitors completing your end goal.

How to Track Conversion Rate

The great thing about conversion rates is that you can tailor them to be broad or specific in terms of things like:

Overall conversion rate

Marketing channel conversion rate

Keyword conversion rate

Most social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest have their own built-in analytics tools that can be used to track conversion rates. For websites, you can use tools such as Google Analytics or Google AdWords to track certain conversion rates.

There is a dedicated tab on Google Analytics for conversions, which allows you to analyze data based on goals, attribution, or multi-channel funnels. There’s also an option specific to ecommerce.

How to Optimize Conversion Rate

Because conversions are the end goal, marketing is often tasked with conversion rate optimization (CRO), which aims to maximize the number of conversions.

The basic principle of CRO?

To make everything seamless and easy for the website visitors to convert.

What makes CRO unique is that aims to increase revenue with the traffic you’re currently getting—so you can do CRO even if you don’t have that much traffic to begin with.

CRO starts with measuring analytics to know your baseline, analyzing this data and implementing changes (usually called split or A/B testing). OptinMonster has several A/B testing tools and Google Optimize offers a free alternative.

There are several ways to increase conversion rates (here are 53 ways you can do so), depending on what you’re trying to optimize — as well as some uncommon CRO tactics to consider.

10. Abandonment Rate What is Abandonment Rate?

Cart Abandonment Rate (also referred to as abandonment rate) is the percentage of carts abandoned to the number of initiated (or completed) transactions. This is especially pertinent for ecommerce businesses.

Based on the Baymard Institute’s research compilation, about 69.23 percent of online shopping carts are abandoned, meaning that for every 10 transactions, only 3 were successful.

If you’re an ecommerce business owner, the goal is to keep abandonment rates low, and for customers to convert or purchase from their abandoned carts.

How to Track Abandonment Rate

Google Analytics now has a Conversions tab specifically for ecommerce.

This includes customers that:

Didn’t add anything to the cart.

Added something to the cart.

Abandoned it.

Those who abandoned at checkout.

Tracking cart abandonment at different stages allows to you monitor any unusual changes. For example, if one stage’s abandonment rate is higher than usual, then this may be a sign of usability issues.

This is useful so that you can infer what influenced the cart to be abandoned. For example, if visitors are abandoning their carts at checkout, it could be that your checkout process is too long, payment options are too limited, or your shipping fee is too expensive.

How to Optimize/Improve Abandonment Rate

To improve abandonment rates, AcquireConvert suggests a BEFORE and AFTER strategy, specifically:

Improve the buying process BEFORE people check out AND

Implement a follow-up strategy AFTER they abandon their carts


Always ensure that your website is secure and functioning well, with clear CTAs.

Finally, avoid surprises—like shipping costs. Shipping cost is the number 1 reason for abandoned carts. Also, to help avoid surprises, show the customers progress indicators until checkout is complete.


Most importantly, send abandoned cart emails. Depending on your email marketing software, this is fairly easy to set up.

Send at least three emails: the first one within an hour. If they are a first-time customer, you might want to send them a discount code to encourage them to shop. Create urgency with a time-sensitive offer.

Final Thoughts: User Engagement Metrics

User engagement metrics are important to track because increased engagement is linked to increased profitability.

The good news is that a free Google Analytics account can track most of these metrics, and all of these metrics are interrelated. This means that optimizing for one metric can help improve another.

For best results, focus on creating content that your target audience wants to read, with clear CTAs. From there, focus on optimizing your website and user site experience.

Image Credits

Screenshots: Taken by author

How To Enable The Root User On Mac

On macOS, certain parts of the file system are unavailable by default, even if you are the administrator. But if you enable the root user on your Mac, you’ll gain read and write privileges to the entire file system. You can even access files of another user’s account, which is perfect if you forget your username or password or an ex-employee leaves your business without sharing the login details for their company-issued macOS device. Follow this tutorial to learn how to enable the root user on macOS.

How to Enable Root User via the Terminal

You can enable root access via your Mac’s terminal.

In Terminal, type dsenableroot after the “%” symbol and press Enter.

Your username should come up. Enter your user password at the prompt and press Enter.

Enter or create your root password and verify it.

You should see a success message indicating that you have enabled the root user.

How to Enable Root User Using the Directory Utility

If you prefer to use a GUI-based option to enable the root user on your Mac, use the Directory Utility instead of the Terminal.

A pop-up will appear requesting your root user password. Create or enter your root user password.

Note: you won’t get a prompt alerting you that the root user is enabled.

How to Log In as the Root User

Once it’s enabled, you can log in to the root account from the login screen.

Log out of your current user account.

Select “Other” on the login screen.

For “username,” enter your username or “root,” then enter the password you created for your root account.

Log in to the account.

This account may look the same as a regular user account, but it’s now possible to access, edit, and even delete files that would typically be strictly off-limits, so tread carefully!

To avoid accidental damage to your Mac, you should only log in to the root account when you have a task that specifically requires root privileges.

How to Disable the Root User

To help protect your Mac from malicious activities, or even accidental damage, disable root as soon as it’s no longer required.

How to Disable the Root User Using Terminal

Enter the password for your current account. You should see a prompt letting you know that the root user has been disabled.

How to Disable the Root User Using Directory Utility

Note: you don’t need the root account for most fixes. You can even fix a frozen Mac without root access.

How to Change the Root User Password

Launch “System Preferences.”

Go to “Users & Groups.”

Enter a new root password when prompted.

Frequently Asked Questions Can I change the username for the root user account?

No. The root account username is “root” by default on all macOS devices.

Can the password for my Mac and root user be the same?

If you want to set it that way, it’s possible. However, if you have someone else who knows your Mac’s password, they’ll also have access to your computer’s administrative privileges.

Image credit: markusspiske via Pixabay.

Natalie dela Vega

Natalie is a writer specializing in tech how-tos and gaming. When she’s not writing, she plays PC games and travels. Here at MakeTechEasier, you will see her write about guides, tips, and solutions for Windows and iOS.

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Powershell Remove User From Group

Introduction to PowerShell remove user from group

Removing users from a local group or an active directory group once a user leaves the organization or if he no longer needed to be part of the group is a common requirement. Removing them manually can be tiring and in case of bulk removal, it is very tough and requires immense concentration. To overcome this there are cmdlets in PowerShell that will remove users from local group as well as AD group. This article will cover in detail those cmdlets along with appropriate examples.

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This cmdlet is used to remove members from the mentioned local group.





This inquires for client affirmation before continuing to execute. The datatype of the parameter is switch. Its assumed name is cf. False is the default value. It doesn’t acknowledge pipeline input and wildcard characters are moreover not permitted.


This denotes the group name from which the users or group needs to be removed. The data type of this parameter is Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.LocalGroup. This is an obligatory parameter. The default value is none. It doesn’t accept pipeline input and wildcard characters are moreover not permitted.


This parameter contains the members that should be removed from the desired group. It can be list of users, or a group name, set of SID’s. This is a mandatory parameter. The data type of this parameter is Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.LocalPrincipal[]. Its positional value is 1. The default value is none. It accepts pipeline input, but wildcard characters are also not permitted.


This specifies the group from which the members need to be removed. The data type of this parameter is string. None is the default value. Pipeline input is not accepted also wild card characters are not permitted.


This represents of the security of the group from which the members need to be removed. The data type of this parameter is SecurityIdentifier. The position of this parameter in this cmdlet is 0. It doesn’t have any default value. The default value is none. It doesn’t accept pipeline input and wildcard characters are moreover not permitted.


This lets the user know of the result that would happen if this cmdlet is run. The data type of this parameter is switch. The alias is wi. False is its default value. It doesn’t accept pipeline input and wildcard characters are moreover not permitted.

This is used to remove members from an active directory group.




This alludes to the authentication to be utilized to remove items from the AD group. It can either be negotiate(0) or basic(1). By default, negotiate is utilized. Essential strategy requires a set up SSL association. The information sort of this parameter is ADAuthType. The default esteem is none. Pipeline input isn’t acknowledged, and wild card characters are moreover not allowed.


Whenever a user confirmation is needed before running the cmdlet this parameter is used. The alias is cf. The data type of this parameter is cf. False is the default value. Pipeline input is not accepted also wild card characters are not permitted.


This indicates the credential beneath which the cmdlet will be run. By default, the current user’s profile is considered. On the off chance that the cmdlet is being run from a drive, the drives account is utilized. The datatype of this parameter is PSCredential. None is the default esteem. It doesn’t acknowledge pipeline input and wildcard characters are too not permitted.


This prevents the system from throwing an error, when trying to add an existing user to a group. The data type of this parameter is switch. The default value is false. It doesn’t accept pipeline input and wildcard characters are also not permitted.

This can be a group of users, groups or objects that needs to be removed the AD group. It can take the following as values; DN, Security Identifier, SAM account name and GUID. The data type of this parameter is ADPrincipal[]. None is the default value. It doesn’t accept pipeline input and wildcard characters are also not permitted.


This represents the AD partition’s distinguished name. In AD, a default value is set under one of the following cases. In case of identity parameter is assigned a DN, then the partitions name is generated directly from the DN. If the cmdlets are run from AD drive, value of partition is derived from the current path of the drive. If either of the above two cases are not matched, target domains value is used as the value of the partition. The data type is string. None is the default esteem. It doesn’t accept pipeline input and wildcard characters are also not permitted.


This doesn’t generate any output. It usually returns the object of item we are trying to remove. The data type is switch. None is the default esteem. It doesn’t accept pipeline input and wildcard characters are also not permitted.





Conclusion – PowerShell remove User from group Recommended Articles

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Save Money And Protect The Environment By Repurposing Your Old Outdoor Gear

Most hikers and campers have at least one torn and tattered piece of gear they refuse to let go. Those are the items that tell the stories of what we’ve seen, where we’ve been, and the muddy canyons and thorny bushes we’ve gone through to get there.

But just because a beloved jacket or tent has seen better days doesn’t mean it should go in the trash. In fact, you can often repurpose your old gear by using it to create something new. This has the simultaneous benefits of giving new life to a valuable item, saving you cash, and keeping perfectly usable materials out of the landfill.

Good for you, your wallet, and the environment

New gear is expensive, and so are the materials to make your own. So it only makes sense to save yourself potentially hundreds of dollars in new equipment by repurposing and salvaging what you can from items that seem to have fulfilled their purpose.

But it’s not only your bank account you’ll be doing a favor—there’s also the waste factor. Synthetic materials like those often used in technical clothing and gear are, well, synthetic, which means they don’t decompose like natural fabrics. When you dispose of them, they pile up in landfills, overflowing them and hurting the environment..

The average American throws away 70 pounds of clothing and other textiles every year, so if more crafty outdoors people chose repurposing over trashing, it could make a big difference.

And while saving money and helping the environment are great reasons to preserve buckles, belts, and fabric, you might find yourself repurposing worn items for more sentimental reasons. Our gear has helped us get through mountains, valleys, and everything in between—no wonder it’s hard for us to let go. But with a little creativity, you don’t actually have to.

“It’s cool to give old things new life and a new story to tell,” says Chase Anderson, program coordinator of the Outdoor Product Design and Development department at Utah State University.

And if there’s anything outdoor people love, it’s a good story.

Repairing vs. repurposing

Before you deconstruct a perfectly adequate piece of gear in order to salvage its parts, make sure the item cannot be repaired. Sometimes washing or re-waterproofing items like tents and rain jackets, or patching small holes in sleeping bags or puffer coats, can make them last months or years longer.

Still, sometimes, it’s time to call it—your beloved stuff sack or backpack is worn beyond repair. You might think all you can do is toss it, but there are likely many parts and pieces that are in good working order and perfectly usable on other outdoor gear or DIY projects.

Identifying useful materials

There are a lot of yards of waterproof fabric up for grabs here. Laura Pluth/Unsplash

Before you drop your gear in the garbage, give it a once-over and look for anything you might be able to use—you’re looking for things like large squares of fabric from a tent floor or rainfly, the internal frame of a backpack, zippers and buckles from a hip pack, and straps and webbing from an old pair of sandals. You can often salvage zipper pulls, metal poles, bungees, hook-and-loop strips, and elastics, too.

After you’ve stripped your items down, see if you can recycle any of what’s left. Often, aluminum or titanium tent poles, broken plastic buckles, or metal bits and pieces fall into this category. Still, we recommend you check with your local waste authority before dropping items in the recycling bin.

Even if you can’t use some (or any) of the parts you’ve collected, consider donating them to programs like USU’s outdoor product design and development department—which teaches students design principles, aesthetics, and technical skills in the outdoor product design space—or a local repair or craft shop.

Develop your skills

After you’ve stockpiled a few materials and you’re ready to start creating new from old, you might be tempted to jump into a project, but Anderson recommends first building a skill set that will help ensure success.

Sewing is a big one, but don’t think you have to be an expert to make gear. “Start simple,” Anderson says. “And slowly move up to items with zippers, or buckles, or multiple seams.” That includes things like jackets or backpacks.

In general, a solid base of tools and skills is never a bad idea. YouTube is a great resource for learning how to do everything from sewing to tying knots. If you’re not much of an online learner, check out your local craft supply stores and colleges—they usually offer courses for students of any age.

Project ideas

The key is to start with small project. Leave that DIY camping tent for when you master the sewing machine. jacqueline macou / Pixabay

If you’re just developing sewing skills, don’t start by making your own waterproof multi-pocket jacket. Instead, practice by using fabric from retired gear or clothing to patch holes or tears in newer items. Then you can move on to simple projects, like cutting a pattern out of a threadbare base layer and sewing a face warmer. Anderson’s students have made beanies by cutting and sewing a pattern out of an old sweater, or crafted covers for ski goggles and sunglasses out of jacket lining and an old bungee cord or shoelace.

And don’t be afraid to think outside the box. Anderson has seen students replace malfunctioning zippers on jackets with buttons or snaps, and come up with an idea for a new chalk bag after digging through boxes of scraps.

I recently had to retire an old backpack. Most of the fabric was worn, torn or tattered, and the bits that were still in good condition were too small to use for other projects. However, I was able to remove several yards worth of straps and webbing, a dozen or more buckles and D-rings, some usable elastic, foam, and the lid of the backpack. I cleaned many of these pieces and used them with some fabric from a leaky inflatable outdoor lounge to make a simple ultralight daypack that would have likely cost me around $50.

One thing to keep in mind, though—never use repurposed materials to make any gear or equipment meant to save your life. This includes items like climbing harnesses, safety ropes, and avalanche airbags. These items must be in perfect condition to perform properly, so you should always buy them new.

Tips and tricks

Obviously, the idea is to make something new using as much recycled material as you can, but if you start a project and don’t have everything you need, don’t hesitate to visit your local craft or art supply store to get it. And if you’re worried about mismatched fabrics, don’t be—part of the beauty of repurposed products is their uniqueness and the story behind it. And if that doesn’t convince you, consider outdoor brands like Cotopaxi, which are famous for their beautiful, mismatched gear made with fabric scraps from their other products. If they can get away with it, so can you.

As for the actual making, Anderson recommends you design your project in cardboard or paper as you practice and experiment with forms and construction. Don’t jump straight into using the expensive materials before you know what you’re creating.

And if you’re struggling for ideas or aren’t sure where to start, find inspiration in the outdoor community by searching for influencers and websites (like Patagonia WornWear or gear repair shops) that celebrate up-cycled and repurposed gear. Browsing through their feeds will definitely help you see products and materials in a new way.

Once you start seeing scraps not for what they were, but for what they can be, you’ll not only save cash on new and original gear and keep non-recyclable materials out of the landfill, you’ll also be giving the items you love a new life.

How Many Keys Are There On A Computer Keyboard?

Most computer keyboards have a total of 104 buttons or keys.

These can differ slightly between different keyboard manufacturers, as well as depending on the country in which the keyboard is designed for. However, in most cases, the number of keyboard keys will stay around this number.

If you’re looking for a new keyboard and are looking on Amazon or eBay for a regular-sized piece of equipment to use in an English-speaking country, the keyboard will most likely have 104 keys.

Of course, not every country uses the same alphabet, though. Some countries are very similar to English but also include accents, umlauts, cedillas, and more. Some keyboards will include extra keys for these characters, whilst others require shortcuts to access them.

Other languages are non-alphabetic, such as Chinese, which is based on characters, or Japanese, which is based on syllables. These again require different keyboard hardware or software to write on a computer.

Let’s explore further to find out the different types of keyboards we have, how they are laid out, and some uses of the F keys on the keyboard.

There are many types of keyboards, and they don’t just vary by language. Keyboards can be used for a wide range of tasks, from programming to gaming to flexible portability.

These are the common keyboards you’re probably accustomed to seeing and using in the English-speaking world. QWERTY keyboards are so named because starting from the top left and moving right in the letter section spells out QWERTY.

So, if you want something comfortable and familiar to you and millions of others, a QWERTY keyboard is probably the way to go.

When typing with this type of keyboard, people achieve very high word-per-minute rates while putting no strain on their fingers or brain.

They’re also ideal for a shared computer because they’re easy for children to use and will be familiar to other adults as well.

Many people are slowly switching from laptops to tablets as they later become more powerful and provide many of the same functions that a laptop can.

The one thing clearly missing from the screen-only device, however, is the keyboard. For those looking to spend long periods of time typing, the on-screen keyboard is often too much of a pain. The software was designed for quick Internet searches or for sending and receiving instant messages, not serious word processing.

These are where portable keyboards come in handy. Much like tablets, they are easy to carry around to keep your work or fun going whilst on the move.

However, portability commonly comes at the expense of size and, thus, an insufficient range of keys. The second set of number keys and the function keys that run along the top of standard keyboards are frequently missing from portable keyboards.

This means the keyboard can take up less space and fit in your backpack or possibly even your pocket!

However, with modern technology, even more inventive methods of making keyboards portable have emerged. It is no longer necessary to cut sections of traditional keyboards to make room. Some people are already altering keyboard materials to make them foldable or even rollable.

This means that a piece of equipment that would normally be longer than your forearm can be rolled up and put in your pocket like a newspaper. So, your keyboard could have a full range of keys and still be perfectly portable.

That’s right, 104 keys are fitting snugly in your back pocket!

Be warned, however, that these foldable and rollable keyboards are often lacking in terms of consistency once they’re fully laid out. Key hits are not as easily registered, and you’re unlikely to have the same ease of use as you would with an everyday QWERTY keyboard designed for use at home.

Some keyboards are built without any number keys, meaning you’ll have at least ten fewer keys. These are often built for portability so that you could miss 30 or even more keys.

This means they’re smaller and easier to carry around but can become a pain if you want to sit down and get some serious work done, which often includes regularly needing numbers.

Numeric keyboards are nifty little additions you can get your hands on that usually have between 9 and 18 keys. These can be plugged in or wirelessly connected alongside your numberless main keyboard so that you can have a full set-up.

Some lines of work may even be so number-intensive that the tiny numeric keypad can be your solitary keyboard in some cases. It’s likely to be even more portable than any portable “normal” keyboard that you’d otherwise carry around.

Either way, these can be seen as a useful set of keys to have on their own or a sometimes essential addition to an otherwise incomplete keyboard set you may have.

The main function of ergonomic keyboards is to allow you to type with as little physical strain as possible. These still usually retain the overall QWERTY layout of a regular keyboard but will be laid out in different shapes.

Ergonomic keyboards are designed so that your hands can rest and type in a more comfortable way, and in the long term, will have less wear and tear on your hands and fingers.

If you spend a lot of time with your keyboards or are concerned about the strain on your hands, wrists, and posture, then ergonomic keyboards are worth looking at.

In most cases, you will still have access to the full range of 104 keys and are also less likely to develop medical conditions that are usually related to typing, such as carpal tunnel syndrome.

Sometimes they are split into two separate pieces that can be moved for your preferred way to type. Often, the left piece is smaller and may hold around 30 to 40 of the overall keys, but this varies between different designs.

You will usually have to spend a little bit of extra money to get an ergonomic keyboard, but you will still have access to all of the keys you would get on a regular keyboard and have an even more comfortable time using all of them.

Gaming keyboards are in some ways similar to ergonomic keyboards in that they have utility in mind.

Gamers often spend hours frantically hitting away at buttons, and so it’s crucial they have a well-made piece of tech so they don’t strain themselves and can play well.

These bits of hardware will have all the keys you need and more. Often there is thought put into the aesthetic design of gaming keyboards and the function so that you may see keys included that change the backlight or provide shortcuts to screen-capturing tools.

Portable gaming keyboards also exist, although they are a rarity come by. These will have fewer keys but will still be designed to let you navigate the core tenets of the game in a non-strenuous way and hopefully look good whilst doing so.

The pieces of tech that they lead up to, such as everyday keyboards, are still undoubtedly useful but can be a bit of an eyesore.

They are also not always ideal for traveling, with wires getting tangled, taking up extra space in your suitcase, and possibly getting in other people’s way on your journey.

The introduction of wireless keyboards has threatened to end much of that.

If you were previously tired of all the space on your desk is taken up by wires, then you may feel more comfortable getting a fully-keyed keyboard if it operates wirelessly and doesn’t make your working space look like a mess.

If you’re willing to risk running out of charge every now and then or are happy to trust in your ability to charge your keyboard regularly, then picking a Bluetooth piece of equipment is a great shout.

They’re also much better for many portable devices, which are often low on USB slots and so may not always be a reasonable choice for typing with a wired keyboard.

Both wired and wireless keyboards can be found with the full 104 keys or less.

Portable keyboards are more and more frequently also wireless, and so these are more likely to have less than the full 104 keys, but it should always be possible to check before making a purchase.

These two keyboards come with very similar shapes and layouts, but there’s a different feel between them when you’re typing.

Membrane keyboards are produced so that there is no space between each key. Each button is pressure sensitive since the keyboard’s surface is flat, meaning there’s no physical differentiation between each key.

These are usually very cheap but come with another big benefit that makes people choose them over a mechanical keyboard sometimes, regardless of the price.

Pressing a key on a membrane keyboard is silent, meaning you can type away to your heart’s content without worrying about disturbing anyone else.

Mechanical keyboards, on the other hand, are designed more like old-fashioned typewriters. They still use the QWERTY layout in most cases, as is the case with membrane keyboards, and are what most adults today will be most familiar with.

They’re more expensive than membrane keyboards on average but are reliable when it comes to recognizing when a key has been hit, and they are usually durable.

The space between keys and the feel of individual springs and switches that make up the distinctive feel of a mechanical keyboard also allows many writers to find a comfortable rhythm when using them and hit their highest words per minute rates.

As you can see, there are many different ways that keyboards are made, but did you know there’s actually a great deal of variety in how the keys are placed on them too?

Even within languages that use the Latin alphabet, you can find different designs of how the keys are laid out. The main ones are the QWERTY layout, which we’ve already discussed, and the QWERTZ and AZERTY layouts.

The QWERTZ layout is mainly used in central Europe and, like the QWERTY layout, is named after the first six letters of the top left of the keyboard. It’s the primary layout of choice in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Croatia, and others.

The main difference this has the QWERTY keyboard is that the Z and Y keys are switched, mainly due to patterns in the German language. These include Z coming up much more frequently than Y, and Z and U spelling Zu, meaning ‘to’, making them ideal candidates to be placed next to each other.

The AZERTY layout is often used in countries such as France, Belgium, and Russia, although it is not necessarily always the main layout in those countries. There are variations within the AZERTY layout depending on the country in which it is produced for.

This layout goes back almost as far as the QWERTY layout, first being used at the end of the 19th century in France. That country still spends much time deliberating over the ideal layout for typing its language.

These countries still normally have 104 keys, with normal variations between different types of keyboards, such as portable and numeric devices.

Different combinations of keys are used, too, such as the Alt Gr T being used to put an accent above a typed E.

Some people also use the Dvorak keyboard layout. This was invented in the 1930s by Dr August Dvorak; his intention was to make typing as fast and efficient as possible.

This was done by putting the consonants and vowels that are most common on the home (middle) letter row, aside from U.

It is hard to measure accurately just how fast typists can churn out words using this layout since there is not a wide enough pool of users to compare it to QWERTY typists accurately.

However, the evidence that is available suggests that people who are used to the Dvorak keyboard can type as fast, if not faster, than those using QWERTY keyboards. There are also indicators that can help with the accuracy of typing.

The problem is encouraging the transition; with so many people already used to QWERTY keyboards, the teething period of trying to introduce a new layout widely would be painful for many keyboard users.

However, it’s easy enough to see if you like a different layout from the comfort of your own home. Almost all keyboards can be adjusted with the right software to change what appears on the screen with the same inputs.

It is easy to buy sticker sets online of all 104 keys that let you essentially remap the layout of your keyboard. With these, you could turn your QWERTY keyboard into a Dvorak keyboard or any other layout you wish.

If you’re really willing to commit, you cannot even buy keycap pullers, which let you remove the tops of your keys and place them down as you see fit.

If you’ve been typing for years, don’t expect the transition to be easy or quick. It will take a long time for your muscle memory to readjust, but you may get even better results when using a different layout.

However, expect a lot of complaints from unsuspecting people who come to use your keyboard if they’re suddenly faced with a completely different layout from what they are used to.

With most keyboards designed for desktops, you can be quite confident that there will be 104 keys available to you.

With laptops, however, there is a lot more variation as manufacturers are forced to consider how well the keyboard matches the screen whilst keeping things easy to use and providing you with enough functional capability.

Often, it’s the numeric keyboard that ends up missing out. On full-sized keyboards, this runs along the row above the letters and lets you also type symbols and punctuation. This means that you’re looking at ten or so fewer keys.

In many cases, the function keys will be integrated with the number keys so that one can be accessed by holding the FN key.

You may also still have the number keys to the right of your keyboard, which you may not be used to using but are just as simple to utilize once you get used to their position.

For the smallest laptops, you may just have access to the letter keys and a few more essentials. These could have as few as 50 keys, though one way or another, you should still be able to carry out all the same tasks, even if it requires a few extra steps.

The F keys, also known as Function keys, provide you with some handy ways of navigating and making the most of your computer.

They are usually lined across the top of your keyboard and labeled F1 through to F12. Their use can change depending on your computer or what program you’re using. Let’s have a look at some of the most commonly used and helpful function keys.

F2, F3, and F4 – On many computers, these are used to mute the volume, turn the volume down, and turn the volume up, respectively. Sometimes you’ll also have to hold the Fn key to access these functions.  This is usually much easier than opening the taskbar or settings to change the volume.

F5 – This is mainly used as a shortcut for refreshing a browser page. Almost all modern internet browsers include this function. Holding the Ctrl key simultaneously will force a complete refresh, meaning the cache is also cleared, and everything is loaded from scratch.

F8 – Often used to enter the Windows start-up menu or access Windows Safe Mode, depending on what part of your computer’s software you’re currently navigating.

F10 – Used to enter BIOS set-up when the computer is booting, this key is indispensable to anyone who’s looking to fix a seriously damaged computer or is hoping to create a split partition or install a new operating system on their machine.

F11 – Allows you to enter full-screen mode on most modern browsers and many other programs. So don’t worry if the X in the top right corner suddenly disappears; you can still use this key to return to safety whenever you want!

F12 – Used both alone and in conjunction with other keys for a vast array of functions in Microsoft Word, such as opening, printing, or saving a document.

This is a long way from the full list of potential uses you can get out of the function keys. If you’re really confident, you can even map out your own uses for them.

Most new programs you see nowadays will also include a guide that lays out what keys can be used for. From speeding up your work tasks to improving your gaming performance, the function keys are just as important as many of the other keys on a keyboard!

That’s all there is to it. A detailed explanation of the number of keys on a computer keyboard.

Even though 104 keys are the most common number of keys on a computer keyboard, keep in mind that not all keyboards are made the same, so the number of keys on some keyboards may vary.

We hope you found this guide to be as useful as possible.

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