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Long-term business success requires organizations to transform, innovate, and take risks.
This principle drives companies to embrace the latest high-tech products and services to ensure they don’t fall behind in the digital economy.
Unfortunately, the integration of new martech sometimes comes at the expense of discarding traditional tools – a potentially costly mistake.
Traditional marketing is still a valuable asset for any B2B organization.
And as new technologies emerge, the art of synergizing traditional marketing with digital marketing is worth mastering.
The digital revolution has greatly enhanced marketers’ ability to reach, engage, and convert their ideal target audiences.
But traditional marketing tactics like direct mail, networking, and cold calling are still vital for building a memorable and ultimately, profitable brand.
Building an effective marketing strategy means reaping the best of both worlds by seamlessly integrating new channels with traditional assets.
Here are five ways to combine your traditional and digital marketing.1. Cold Calling + Intent Data
There is an ongoing debate around cold calling and whether it’s still an effective strategy.
Should we leave it in the 1970s or defiantly proclaim that cold calling is not dead?
When intent data is added to the mix, the cold calls of yesterday could become the warm calls of tomorrow.
By incorporating intent data into the cold calling process, marketers can reach better-qualified prospects, while foregoing contacting the least promising contacts.
By signaling which prospects are most likely to convert, intent data makes cold calling far more efficient.
The prospects that are looking for their solution.
What other solutions they may be considering.
What context clues might be telling about their readiness to buy.
How to evaluate and address the prospect’s specific needs.
Armed with this critical information, sales teams will see conversion rates skyrocket.
Every marketer strives to learn as much as possible about their prospects.
When it comes to cold calling, an inherently intrusive tactic, LinkedIn profiles and firmographics simply aren’t enough.
To optimize conversion rates and reduce the stress for the sales team that comes with calling unqualified prospects, intent data is the critical missing piece.2. Print Media + Deep Media Nurturing
Successful marketers understand the value of developing and nurturing buyer relationships at every stage of the sales funnel.
They’ve cultivated a buyer-focused mindset that is wired to drive more sales at lower costs and adapt according to the shifting buyer journey.
With the rise of deep media nurturing – an integrated, omnichannel strategy that employs the full range of digital assets – marketers have already taken lead nurturing beyond the inbox.
And now, the savviest marketers are going a step further by expanding lead nurturing beyond the digital space.
And while print media is obviously not as prominent as it once was, there’s a reason why print editions of digital magazines are still in circulation: audiences read them.
Moreover, print media provides more flexibility when it comes to ad placement.
Finally, just as the promise of deep media nurturing relies on crafting customized messaging attuned to the buyer’s journey, print media allows marketers to get granular and target their audience in niche industry publications with relevant messages.3. Events + ABM
Today, virtually all successful B2B marketers rely on Account-Based Marketing (ABM) to target and engage accounts that are most likely to convert.
Leveraging the targeting power of ABM with the intimacy of live event marketing can help marketers realize the full potential of both.
A top-class ABM technology stack will not only help practitioners hone in on their most lucrative accounts but also get a prioritized view of the key decision-makers (and influencers) at a target account.
Putting this marketing intelligence to work will aid any professional in planning – and ultimately, executing – a high-impact event engagement strategy.
As marketers narrow in on the best-fit accounts, they have to monitor the online activities of their targets and identify the signals that may trigger the event outreach.
One way or another, every group of targets will signal their interest in attending or sponsoring a specific event.
ABM technology gives marketers access to real-time insights based on their accounts’ actual online activity and allows them to act on these signals.
ABM also enables marketers to de-prioritize low-yielding industry-events.
By pinpointing must-attend events and the exact locations of the most valuable contacts within the target accounts.
Knowing which trade shows a target account is sponsoring or attending enables marketers to allocate resources to the highest-impact events and locations.
Once the event (or geographic region) that may feature the ideal prospects is identified, marketers should determine which decision-maker is ready for a one-to-one conversation.
In-person communication is the unifying piece of a thriving ABM campaign simply because it encourages the richest two-way value exchange between a marketer and the target accounts.
Utilizing the full power of ABM to gain maximum insight into a prospect enables marketers to foster authentic relationships founded on a comprehensive understanding of the prospect’s needs and buying habits.4. Traditional Content Platforms + Geotargeting
Traditional content platforms like billboards and banners are making a resurgence in B2B marketing, helping to drive brand awareness, reinforce brand messaging, and engage new audiences.
Placing messages in strategic locations creates brand equity in the areas that matter.
The right target location could be a conference, a sports arena within the vicinity of the audience, or a bus whose route is in a business district where several target accounts are headquartered.
The marker of a good strategy is the extent to which it speaks to the right audience at the right time and in the right place.
Marketers can use geotargeting as their compass and leverage location data as a powerful strategy for personalized content outreach.5. Direct Mail + Lead Nurturing
While lead nurturing is integral to conversion rate optimization, the sheer volume of online exchanges increases the odds that digital communications end up in digital spam.
A prudent tactic to hedge against the digital message being drowned out by the unquantifiable volume of online content is to augment lead nurturing with direct mail.
It might seem like a blast from the past, but at the current rate of inbox saturation, it’s a strategy that works.
The underlying idea is to send prospects something relevant and of value that will help a brand stand out.
If five follow-up emails fail to elicit a response, what are the odds that the sixth email will convert?
On the other hand, a follow-up in the form of a physical letter, a postcard, or a thoughtful gift can be the differentiator that triggers a prospect to consider the offering and agree to an appointment.
The endless personalization opportunities that direct mail entails can go a long way toward building trust by speaking directly to the prospect’s needs.
It makes them more likely to respond and move down the sales funnel.Conclusion
In the era of unprecedented technological innovation, some marketers might be tempted to abandon the low-tech traditional marketing channels.
But far from being antiquated, these channels have the potential to significantly bolster marketing initiatives.
Leading organizations are currently reimagining the interplay between traditional and digital marketing, employing a holistic mix of the old and the new to create rich forms of engagement that accelerate conversion rates.
Driving ROI is not just about implementing the latest technologies.
It’s about evaluating how to strategically deploy each marketing capability in the service of broad marketing objectives.
Abandoning capabilities just because they’re not new or “cutting edge” is shortsighted and ultimately, counterproductive.
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There are two ways to generate PDF containing your desired multiple images on Android. Here’s how you can get it done:
1. Open the Gallery app on your Android device and select the photo that you wish to include in a new PDF file.
2. Next, tap on the three-dots icon and press the Generate PDF/PPT option.
3. Choose the Generate PDF option from the drop-down menu in the top left corner and tap on the Save icon to create a new PDF file.
That’s it! You’ve successfully created a PDF file containing multiple selected images from your Gallery app.
However, if you can’t find such an option in your native gallery app, you can use Google Photos instead to achieve similar results. Here’s how:
1. Open your desired photo/set of Photos inside the Google Photos app and tap on the three-dot icon in the top-right corner.
3. Finally, choose to Save as PDF option in the drop-down list on the top-left corner and press the Save button to generate your required PDF.
Similar to Android, you can also combine multiple images into a single PDF file using the Photos app on iPhone. Here’s how:
1. Select the desired photos that you wish to add to the new PDF file and tap on the send icon in the bottom-left corner.
2. Next, tap on the Print option and make sure that no printer is selected on the next page.
3. Finally, tap on the Print button in the top-right corner and press the Save to Files option.
4. Notice the title at the top stating the file name with the PDF extension (.pdf) added as default. Choose your destination location to save this PDF file and press the Save button to export it to your device.
5. Additionally, you can also use Apple Shortcuts and Files app to convert any photo to PDF on iPhone.
Like native apps, there are tons of free third-party apps on both Android and iOS platforms that offer to combine multiple images into a single PDF file. Adobe Scan and Apple Books are two such popular apps that can help you achieve the same. Here’s how:
You can use the Adobe Scan app on Android and iOS to combine multiple images into a single PDF file as follows.
2. Next, tap on the Gallery icon in the bottom-left corner to choose your desired images to add.
3. Once added, provide a unique file name to this PDF file and press the Save PDF option in the top-right corner to create it.
4. That’s it you’ve successfully created a PDF file combining multiple images from your gallery. You can also share this PDF file directly to different apps and social media platforms by tapping on the Share button.
Similar to Adobe Scan, Apple Books also offers the feature to conveniently generate PDFs using your selected images. Here’s how:
1. Install the Apple Books app on your iOS device and open it.
2. Next, open the Photos app on your iPhone and select the images that you wish to add to the new PDF file.
4. The Apple Books app will instantly generate a new PDF file containing your selected images.
5. Finally, tap on the three-dot icon next to the newly created PDF file title and press the Share PDF option to share it. You can also tap on the Google Drive icon here to quickly upload this file to your Google Drive account.
Besides native and free third-party tools, you can also combine multiple images into a single PDF file using online web tools. Follow these easy steps to achieve the same:
1. Open a new tab in your phone’s web browser app and access the JPG2PDF online conversion tool.
3. Wait for a few seconds to let the files upload completely and press the Combined button to download the merged image files as a single PDF file.
Viola! You’ve successfully combined and downloaded multiple images as a single PDF file using this online tool.
In addition to choosing different images from your gallery app, you can capture multiple photos in real time and convert them instantly to a single PDF file using the Google Drive app. This app works flawlessly for both Android and iOS devices. Here’s how you can achieve the same:
1. Install and open the Google Drive app and tap on the + icon situated at the bottom-right corner.
3. You can further capture and add multiple images by tapping on the + icon located at the bottom-left corner.
4. Once done, tap on the Save button at the bottom-right corner and provide a unique name to this PDF file.
5. Finally, tap on the Save button to export the PDF file with your combined images to your Google Drive account.
Like Google Drive, Microsoft Lens also offers the feature to combine multiple images into a single PDF file using its Lens scanner app on both Android phones and iPhones. Follow these easy steps to get it done:
2. Now, capture multiple images from your phone’s camera to include them in the new PDF file. Alternatively, you can also tap on the existing device photos to add them quickly.
3. Once selected, tap on the Done button to confirm it.
4. On the next page, check the PDF option and press the Save button to export your chosen images to a single PDF file on your device’s storage.
That’s it! You’ve successfully combined multiple images into a single PDF file using the Microsoft Lens app.
So, that’s all for the top five ways to combine multiple images into a single PDF file on your smartphone. If this detailed read has helped you to simplify the conversion process to create a PDF file containing your desired images, then hit the like button and share this guide with your work colleagues who you think might need it. Check out other useful tips linked below, and stay tuned for more awesome explainers.
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In today’s world, artificial intelligence (AI) has become an essential part of our daily lives. Chatbots are one of the most popular applications of AI, and they have gained immense popularity over the years. One such chatbot is ChatGPT-4, which is based on the GPT-3.5 architecture. ChatGPT-4 is a state-of-the-art chatbot that has been trained on vast amounts of data and is capable of generating human-like responses to text input. While ChatGPT-4 is a paid service, there are ways to use it for free. In this article, we will discuss how to use ChatGPT-4 for free and get the most out of this powerful AI tool.
See More: How To Make Money With ChatGPT ($5.00 Every 5 Minutes) *Step By Step*
As ChatGPT-4 is not yet publicly available, there are limited ways to use it for free. However, there are some ways to use ChatGPT-4 for free or at a low cost:
Nat.Dev is a platform that provides free access to AI models, including ChatGPT-4. To use ChatGPT-4 for free on chúng tôi follow these steps:
Step 1: Go to chúng tôi and create a free account using a valid email address and phone number.
Step 2: Once you’ve created an account, log in to the dashboard and navigate to the “Models” tab on the left sidebar.
Step 3: In the “Models” tab, select “gpt-4” from the drop-down menu to access the ChatGPT-4 model.
Step 5: Wait for a few seconds, and you’ll get a response generated by ChatGPT-4.
It’s essential to note that when signing up for a free account on chúng tôi you need to use a real phone number for verification.
HuggingFace is a platform that provides access to various language models, including ChatGPT-4. To use ChatGPT-4 on HuggingFace, follow these steps:
Step 1: Go to HuggingFace and navigate to the “Models” tab on the top menu bar.
Step 2: In the search bar, type “ChatGPT-4” and press enter.
Step 3: Once you’re on the ChatGPT-4 page, enter a question in the “Input” field.
Step 4: Press the “Run” button to generate a response from ChatGPT-4.
Step 5: Wait for a few seconds, and you’ll get a response generated by ChatGPT-4.
Using ChatGPT-4 on HuggingFace is a simple and easy way to test the capabilities of ChatGPT-4.
OpenAI provides access to ChatGPT-3 for free, but to access ChatGPT-4, you need to either subscribe to ChatGPT Plus or purchase tokens in API. The common pricing for subscribing to the premium features of the chatbot is $20/month. To use ChatGPT-3 for free, follow these steps:
Step 1: Go to OpenAI’s GPT-3 Playground.
Step 2: Enter the text you want to generate a response for in the “Prompt” field.
Step 3: Select the model “davinci” from the “Model” drop-down menu.
Step 4: Press the “Generate” button to generate a response from ChatGPT-3.
Step 5: Wait for a few seconds, and you’ll get a response generated by ChatGPT-3.
It’s important to note that while using ChatGPT-3 on OpenAI is free, you’ll need to pay to access ChatGPT-4.
Microsoft Bing is a search engine developed by Microsoft Corporation, and it has integrated OpenAI’s language model, ChatGPT-4, into its search results. This means that users can interact with ChatGPT-4 directly from the Bing search engine without having to pay any additional fees.
See Also: 21 Innovative and Realistic Ideas to Make Money Using ChatGPT
As ChatGPT-4 is not yet publicly available, there is no direct way to sign up for a free account. However, you can sign up for a free account on OpenAI and access the basic version of ChatGPT-3. Alternatively, you can use other platforms like chúng tôi chúng tôi HuggingFace, or Binbg Chat to use GPT-4 for free. Note that GPT-4 is not free, and you must purchase a $20/month subscription to access the new AI model through ChatGPT Plus.
As of now, ChatGPT-4 is not publicly available for free use. However, once it becomes available, there could be limitations to using it for free. One of the limitations of using the Microsoft Bing chatbot, which uses GPT-3, is that it may not always provide accurate, relevant, or satisfactory responses to user inquiries.
Similarly, with ChatGPT-4, there could be limitations to the amount and type of data it can process and the accuracy of its responses. Additionally, using the model for free may come with restrictions on the frequency and volume of requests that can be made.
Every startup offers a one-of-a-kind environment composed of equally unique ideas and employees. While your company may be small in terms of size, it’s certainly big in terms of company culture.
With 87 percent of startups hiring nationwide, it’s surprising to hear many startup executives say filling jobs is still a challenge. When it comes to hiring for your startup, it’s not only essential to attract qualified individuals, but also to hire great candidates who share your startup’s values and passion. In the hunt for startup talent, you’re not only competing against larger companies with higher pay scales, you’re also going up against employer brands who’ve mastered the art of showcasing company culture to attract talent.
A strong startup culture can act as the unifying element that drives your company forward. Therefore, ensuring a successful hire for your startup means finding a value-match to your culture. Attracting and hiring great talent shouldn’t be a struggle.
Here are five ways your startup can ensure it’s matched its company culture when hiring top talent:
1. Identify your needs. Before beginning the search for the perfect hire, you must lay down your terms for hiring. Simply identifying the position you’re interested in filling isn’t enough when you’re looking to hire for your startup as a whole, and not just a job. Hit the drawing board and come up with the exact skills and traits necessary for the candidates you’re seeking.
Delve into your startup’s culture by asking these questions: What three words describe your startup? What three values does your startup holds above the rest? The answers to those questions will allow you to identify the key ingredients you need your potential hires to possess. If your startup’s culture holds innovative thinking above all else, this is one trait your candidates must showcase to even be considered.
2. Write better job descriptions. Drawing in the perfect candidates often comes down to how much effort you put into creating job descriptions for your openings. Many companies struggle to hire top talent, but fail to realize their job and company descriptions lack the necessary elements for success.
Create job descriptions easily conveying your startup’s culture, key value statements, and an enticing description of both the position and the company. A strong job description will act as a beneficial marketing tool for drawing in candidates who are not only qualified, but also interested in your one-of-a-kind work environment.
3. Showcase your company culture. Is your startup making a point to show off what you’ve got? Businesses everywhere are coming to understand the value of showcasing their unique company culture. From your website to your social networking platforms — your startup’s culture should be easy to identify and experience. Think of it as your startup’s personality. Whoever comes in contact with it shouldn’t be able to forget it.
If you’re singing the song of your startup, you will inspire the interest of others. Candidates shouldn’t just want a position, they should want to take part in the company culture you have to offer them.
4. Make your hiring process as unique as your startup. The traditional resume-to-interview hiring process doesn’t cut it for every company. If you’re really looking to hire for your startup and not just for a position, it’s important to switch-up the way you hire to ensure effectiveness for the future of your company.
Drop the bulleted list of standard questions and head straight to questions indicating a candidate’s values. Consider asking your candidates to solve a challenge in the early stages of the application process. Testing your candidates not only ensures their proficiency, but also gives you a chance to see how they work under pressure. You can also create a more efficient hiring process through the use of video interviews — you’ll actually be able to see how your candidates carry themselves before setting foot in your office.
5. Learn and grow. Perfecting your hiring process doesn’t happen overnight. You’re bound to hire a few employees who don’t work out. Use these experiences as a way to transform your hiring process and to improve the way you define your needs. Your startup is likely to evolve, and so should your methods for acquiring top talent.
Attracting and acquiring talent that portrays a value-match should be a concern for your startup. Continually seek out new ways to showcase what you have to offer.
How are you showcasing your startup’s culture?
Kandis Leslie Abdul-Aziz: Assistant Professor, Chemical and Environmental Engineering; University of California, Riverside University of California, Riverside
After earning a bachelor’s in chemistry in 2007, Kandis Leslie Abdul-Aziz took a position at an oil refinery along the Schuykill River in South Philadelphia. Part of her job was to analyze refined petroleum products, like acetone and phenol, that other industrial manufacturers might buy. She was also tasked with testing the refinery’s wastewater—which, she couldn’t help but notice, flowed out right next to a residential neighborhood. “Literally, if you looked out past the plant,” she says, “you could see houses close by.”
That was more than a decade before an explosive fire forced the refinery to close and spurred an unprecedented cleanup effort. But the experience got Abdul-Aziz thinking about the life cycle of chemical byproducts and their potential impacts on human health. She went back to school for a PhD in chemistry, and her lab at the University of California, Riverside, now focuses on giving problematic waste streams—from plastic trash to greenhouse gases—a second life.
To start, Abdul-Aziz decided to investigate whether she could convert corn stover into something with economic value. The stalks, leaves, tassels, and husks left over from harvest add up to America’s most copious agricultural waste product. Much of it is left to rot on the ground, releasing methane and other greenhouse gases. A small percentage does get salvaged and converted into biofuels, but the payoff usually isn’t worth the effort.
Abdul-Aziz and her colleagues set out to test multiple processes for turning the refuse into activated carbon, the charcoal-like substance that’s used as a filter everywhere from smokestacks to your home Brita pitcher. Her analysis, published in 2023, looks at the activated carbon produced by various methods—from charring stover in an industrial furnace to dousing it in caustic substances—and the molecular properties that affect which contaminants it can soak up. The ultimate aim: Tell her what kind of chemicals you want to clean up, and she’ll create a carbon filter that can do the trick.
Abdul-Aziz has since applied to patent her customizable process, and is looking into other sources of detritus and use cases. Wastewater treatment companies have expressed interest, she says, in using her tools on environmental toxins such as PFAS—the stubborn, hormone-disrupting “forever chemicals” ubiquitous in household products and prone to contaminating drinking water. At the same time, she has also demonstrated that she can derive activated carbon from citrus peels, and is now investigating whether she can do the same with plastic trash.
She’s also exploring an even bigger swing. Earlier this year, the National Science Foundation awarded her half a million dollars to develop absorbent materials to capture carbon dioxide emissions and help convert them back into useful materials such as polymers and fuels. Abdul-Aziz wants to identify practical recycling processes that don’t require overhauling existing infrastructure. “For us it’s about trying to develop realistic solutions for these sustainability problems so they can actually be implemented,” she explains. It’s these small steps that she believes will move us toward a truly circular economy—one where materials can be reused many times. And with any luck, her innovations will help buffer the worst impacts of the very petrochemicals that inspired her quest.—Mara Grunbaum
Sangeetha Reddy: Assistant Professor, Internal Medicine; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Courtesy Sangeetha Reddy
In recent decades, immunotherapy has been a game-changer in cancer treatment. Drugs that augment the body’s natural immune response against malignant tumors have dramatically improved survival rates for patients with diseases like lymphoma, lung cancer, and metastatic melanoma. But the method has been far less successful in breast cancers—particularly the most aggressive ones. Sangeetha Reddy, a physician-scientist at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, is trying to change that. “We could do better,” she says.
Reddy works with patients with triple-negative breast cancers, so-called because the malignancies don’t have any of the three markers scientists have historically targeted with anti-cancer drugs. Even with aggressive chemotherapy and surgery, the prognosis for these patients—who account for about 15 percent of breast cancer diagnoses worldwide—is relatively poor. Immunotherapies, in particular, often fail because breast cancers tend to hobble the body’s dendritic cells, the roving molecular spies that sweep up pieces of suspicious material and carry them back to immune system headquarters to introduce as the new enemy. When the body doesn’t know what it’s supposed to be attacking, boosting its power is of little use.
Reddy is therefore trying to figure out how to restore dendritic cell function. As a physician-scientist, she uses a relatively new approach that she describes as “bedside to bench and back.” She treats patients in her clinic, conducts in vitro and mouse experiments in her lab, and designs and manages her own clinical trials. This physician-scientist method enables a positive feedback loop: Reddy can analyze tumors excised from her own patients to assess whether treatments are working. Then she can test out new drugs on those same cancer cells. When she identifies a promising tactic, she can design clinical trials to test things like safety, dosage, and timing. At every step, she can find something in what she learns to incorporate back into her research or her patients’ care.
This cyclical strategy has led Reddy to the combination of three drugs that she’s currently testing against triple-negative breast cancer: Flt3-ligand, a protein that stimulates the proliferation of dendritic cells; a chemical that helps activate these cells and others; and anthracycline, a standard chemotherapy agent. In mice, this triad kept breast cancer tumors at least 50% smaller than chemotherapy alone. “A couple of our mice, we actually cured them,” says Reddy. A Phase-1 clinical trial investigating the safety and efficacy of the regimen in people began enrolling patients earlier this year.
Though it can take years to work out all the kinks in a new cancer treatment and clear the hurdles on the way to FDA approval, Reddy’s multi-pronged strategy should streamline this process as much as possible. Doing so will allow her to enable a transformation she’s been eyeing since she started to specialize in cancer treatment more than eight years ago. As a fellow at the MD Anderson Cancer Center, Reddy worked with melanoma patients in clinical trials of immunotherapy, which gave her a firsthand look at the treatment’s emerging potential. “We were taking patients who would have passed away within months and giving them ten years,” she says. “Just that hope that we can get there with [triple-negative breast cancer] led me to this path.”—M.G.
Mohammad Hajiesmaili: Assistant Professor, Manning College of Information and Computer Sciences; University of Massachusetts Amherst Zinj Guo
The internet as we know it is inextricable from the cloud—the ethereal space through which all e-mails, Zooms, and Instagram posts pass. As many of us well-know, however, this nebulous concept is anchored to the Earth by sprawling warehouses that crunch and store data in remote places. Their energy demands are enormous and increasing exponentially: One model predicts they will use up to 13 percent of the world’s power by 2030 compared to just 3 percent in 2010. Gains in computing efficiency have helped matters, says University of Massachusetts Amherst assistant professor of informatics and computer science Mohammad Hajiesmaili, but those improvements do little to reduce the centers’ impact on the environment.
“If the power supply is coming from fuel sources, it’s not carbon optimized,” explains Hajiesmaili. But renewable power is sporadic, given its reliance on sun and wind, and geographically constrained, since it’s only harvested in certain places. This is the puzzle Hajiesmaili is working to solve: How can data centers run on carbon-free energy 24/7?
The answer involves designing systems that organize their energy use around a zero-carbon goal. Several approaches are in the works. The simplest uses schemes that schedule computing tasks to coincide with the availability of renewable energy. But that fix can’t work on its own given the unpredictability of bright sunlight and gusts of wind—and the fact that the cloud doesn’t sleep. Another strategy is “geographical load balancing,” which involves moving tasks from one data center to another based on local access to clean power. It, also, has drawbacks: Transferring data from one place to another still requires energy, Hajiesmaili notes, and, “if you’re not careful, this overhead might be substantial.”
An ideal solution, and the focal point of much of his work these days, involves equipping data centers with batteries that store renewable energy as a reserve to tap, say, at night. “Whenever the carbon intensity of the grid is high,” he says, “you can just discharge from the battery instead of consuming local high-carbon energy sources.” Even though batteries that are big enough, or cheap enough, to fully power data centers don’t exist yet, Hajiesmaili is already developing algorithms to control when future devices will charge and discharge—using carbon optimization as their guiding principle. This “carbon-aware” battery use is just one of many ways in which Hajiesmaili thinks cloud design should be overhauled; ultimately, the entire system must shift to put carbon use front and center.
Most big technology companies have pledged to become carbon-neutral—or negative, in Microsoft’s case—in the coming decades. Historically, they have pursued those goals by buying controversial offset credits, but interest in carbon-intelligent computing is mounting. Google, for one, already uses geographical load balancing and is continuing to fine-tune it with Hajiesmaili’s input, and cloud-computer company VMWare has its own carbon-cutting projects in the works. In his view, though, the emerging field of computational decarbonization has applications far beyond the internet. All aspects of society—agriculture, transportation, housing—could someday optimize their usage through the same approach. “It’s just the beginning,” he says. “It’s going to be huge.”—Yasmin Tayag
Rachael Bay: Assistant Professor, Evolution and Ecology; University of California, Davis David Slipher/UC Davis
Evolutionary biologists typically think about changes that took place in the past, and on the scale of thousands and millions of years. Meanwhile, conservation biologists tend to focus on the needs of present wildlife populations. In a warming world, where more than 10,000 species already face increased risk of extinction, those disciplines leave a crucial gap. We don’t know which animals will be able to adjust, how quickly they can do it, and how people can best support them.
Answers to these questions are often based on crude generalizations rather than solid data. Rachael Bay, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Davis, has developed an approach that could help make specific predictions about how at-risk species might evolve over the coming decades. “Injecting evolution into conservation questions is really quite novel,” she says.
The central premise of Bay’s work addresses a common blind spot. Conjectures about how climate change will affect a particular creature often assume that all of them will respond similarly to their changing habitat. In fact, she points out, it’s exactly the variation between individuals that determines if and how a species will be able to survive.
Take the reef-building corals she looked at for her PhD research: Thought to be one of the organisms most vulnerable to extinction as a result of warming oceans, some already live in hotter waters than others. Bay identified genes associated with heat tolerance in the coral Acropora hyacinthus and measured the prevalence of that DNA in populations in cooler waters; from there, she was able to model how natural selection would change the gene pool under various climate-change scenarios. Her findings, published in 2023 in Science Advances, made a splash. The data indicated that the cooler-water corals can, in fact, adapt to warming if global carbon emissions start declining by 2050; if they don’t, or keep accelerating as they have been, the outlook becomes grim.
Bay has continued her work on corals and other marine organisms, but she has also applied her method to terrestrial animals. In 2023, work she conducted with UCLA colleague Kristen Ruegg bolstered the case for keeping a Southwestern subspecies of the willow flycatcher on the US endangered list. Though the species as a whole is abundant, with a breeding range that spans most of the US and southwestern Canada, the subgroup that occupies southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico has struggled with habitat loss. The scientists demonstrated not only that the desert-dwelling birds were genetically distinct enough to merit their own listing, but also that individuals in that population have unique genes that are likely associated with their ability to survive temperatures that regularly top 100°F. Protecting this small subgroup—less than one-tenth of a percent of the total population—could help the entire species persist.
That kind of specific, forward-looking decision is exactly what Bay hopes to enable for other wildlife facing an uncertain future. Other recent work has focused on how yellow warblers, Anna’s hummingbirds, and a coastal Pacific snail called the owl limpet might shift their ranges in response to climate change. “The pie-in-the-sky goal is to make evolutionary predictions that can be used in management,” she says.—M.G.
John Blazeck: Assistant Professor, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Georgia Institute of Technology Courtesy John Blazeck
When a new pathogen invades, the immune system unleashes a suite of antibodies into the bloodstream—the bodily equivalent of throwing spaghetti at the wall to see what sticks. While most of those proteins will do an okay job of neutralizing the trespasser, a valuable few will zero in with deadly accuracy. The faster scientists can identify and replicate those killers, the better we’ll get at beating disease. Case in point: Antibody therapy helped many at-risk patients sick with COVID-19. The big challenge in studying the body’s natural response, however, is that in order to do so, people have to get sick.
John Blazeck, of Georgia Tech’s School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, is developing a workaround. Instead of using the human body as a “bioreactor” for antibodies, he wants to use microbes. That way, the repertoire that fires off in response to a pathogen can be studied in, say, a flask or a chip. The dream of a “synthetic immune system” has kicked around biotech circles for the last two decades, but Blazeck’s work is ushering it into reality. “We can have a million different microbes, making a million different antibodies that would mimic what a person would be doing,” he says.
Nevertheless, his team has made foundational progress that could underpin the future of this research. Recently, they figured out how to efficiently mutate antibody DNA after it’s been inserted into microbes, which will help them select antibodies that bind more tightly to a given pathogen. The process is meant to mimic how the immune system uses its B cells—the body’s antibody factories—to self-select the proteins that generate the strongest defenses.
Daniella Mendoza DellaGiustina: Assistant Professor; Principal Investigator, OSIRIS-APEX; University of Arizona Courtesy Daniella Mendoza DellaGiustina
The whole world will be watching when a 1,000-foot-wide asteroid called Apophis swoops by Earth in mid-April 2029. But Daniella Mendoza DellaGiustina, a planetary scientist at the University of Arizona, will be looking more closely than anyone else. Her gaze will be trained on what the space rock reveals about our past—and what it means for our future. “It’s going to captivate the world,” she says. In 2023, NASA named her principal investigator of the OSIRIS-APEX mission, which will send the OSIRIS-ReX spacecraft that sampled the asteroid Bennu in 2023 chasing after Apophis.
DellaGiustina wasn’t always interested in space, but as a “cerebral young person” gazing into the famously clear skies of the desert Southwest, she had a lot of big questions: Why are we here? How did we get here? A community college class in astronomy piqued her interest. Then, a university course on meteorites led to an undergraduate research position with Dante Lauretta, who later became the principal investigator of OSIRIS-ReX. DellaGiustina knew “very early on” that the research environment was right for her: “You’re actively pushing the boundary of human knowledge.” A master’s degree in computational physics led her to field work on the ice sheets of Alaska, which resemble those on other planets. Eventually, she returned to the University of Arizona, where completed a PhD in geosciences (seismology) while working on image processing for OSIRIS-ReX.
A belief that asteroids hold answers to the big questions of her youth drives her to understand them from the inside out. “They really represent the leftovers of solar system formation,” she says. “It’s kind of like finding an ancient relic.” So-called carbonaceous asteroids like Ryugu and Europa—rich in volatile substances, including ice—may explain how water and the amino acids that jumpstarted life once made their way to Earth. They may also offer a glimpse of the future: “Near-Earth asteroids, especially, hold tremendous potential for resource utilization,” DellaGiustina says, “but one might also take us out someday.”
Apophis is not considered dangerous, but it will swing by at roughly one-tenth the distance between Earth and the Moon. “If we ever have an incoming threat to our own planet, we need to understand ‘what’s the structure of this thing?’ so that we can properly mitigate against it,” she says. With DellaGiustina at the helm, the OSIRIS-APEX project will use this once-in-7,500-years chance to study how close encounters with planets can change an asteroid. Earth’s tidal pull, for example, is expected to “squeeze” Apophis—a tug DellaGiustina hopes to measure via a seismometer dropped on the surface.
Lauretta, who has worked with DellaGiustina since she was an undergraduate, jumped at the chance to nominate her to lead the next phase of the OSIRIS mission. She had always been keen on designing experiments—Lauretta seriously considered her proposal to equip OSIRIS-ReX with a dosimeter to measure the radiation risk for future asteroid-hopping astronauts. Her “decisive leadership is rare and critical for a program of this size,” he adds. On the off chance that an errant space rock ever threatens Earth, it’ll be a comfort to know she’s at work behind the scenes.—Y.T.
Samitha Samaranayake: Assistant Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Cornell University Charissa King-O’Brien
Picture this: It’s Tuesday morning, and you’re planning to ride the train to work. Walking to the station takes 25 minutes, so you hop on the local bus. Today, though, the bus is delayed, and doesn’t reach the station in time to catch the train. You wait for the next one. You’re late for work.
If your boss is a stickler and you rely on public transit, a missed connection can be make or break. These are the kinds of problems that Samitha Samaranayake, a computer-scientist-turned-civil-engineer at Cornell University, has made it his mission to solve. He designs algorithms to help varied modes of mass transit work more seamlessly together—and help city planners make changes that benefit those who need them most.
Before Cornell, Samaranayake spent several years studying app-based ridesharing, including the potential of on-demand autonomous car fleets. In 2023, he co-authored an influential paper showing that companies like Uber and Lyft could reduce their contribution to urban congestion if cars were dispatched and shared efficiently. But he quickly became disillusioned with entirely car-centric solutions. “It’s convenient for people who can afford it,” he says, but when it comes to moving city-dwellers efficiently and accessibly, mass transit can’t be beat.
So Samaranayake began investigating how new technology can best be incorporated into city transit systems—and possibly solve some of their most-common pitfalls. Take the “last mile problem:” the challenge of transporting people from transit hubs in dense urban areas to the less-centralized places that they need to go—like their homes in far-out neighborhoods. If these connections aren’t quick and reliable, people may not use them. And if people aren’t using a neighborhood bus line or other last-mile service, says Samaranayake, a transit agency might cut it rather than run more buses, making the problem worse.
That’s where the technology developed by ride-sharing companies becomes useful, says Samaranayake. In recent years, he’s designed algorithms to integrate real-time data from public transit with the software used to dispatch on-demand vehicles. This could let transit authorities send cars to pick up groups of people, then deliver them to a commuter hub in time to make their connections.
This approach is known as “microtransit,” and after pandemic-related delays, a test project with King County Metro in Seattle launched earlier this year. It uses app-based rideshare vans to shuttle shift workers and others who live in the outskirts of the city to and from the regional rail line. Although it’s too early to measure success, Samaranayake has seen enthusiastic uptake from some commuters without many good alternatives.
That points toward his other goal: finding better ways to quantify how equitably transit resources are apportioned, so that city planners can ultimately design new systems that reach more people more efficiently. This social-justice element helps motivate Samaranayake to keep working on mass transit, even though funding has typically been more abundant for flashier technology like self-driving cars.
That could be changing: In recent years, Samaranayake and his collaborators have received nearly $5 million from the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation to pursue their vision. “Transit is not ‘cool’ from a research perspective,” Samaranayake admits. “But it’s the only path forward to a transportation system that is environmentally sustainable and equitable, in my view.”—M.G.
Chantell Evans: Assistant Professor, Cell Biology; Duke University Jeff Fusco / HHMI
Anyone who’s taken high school biology knows that mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells. While it’s true that these organelles are responsible for converting sugars into energy, they also have many less-appreciated jobs, including generating heat, storing and transporting calcium, and regulating cell growth and death. In recent decades, researchers have linked the breakdown of these functions to the development of certain cancers and heart disease.
When it comes to diseases like dementia, Parkinson’s, and ALS, however, Duke University cell biologist Chantell Evans thinks it’s time to look specifically at neurons. “Mitochondria are implicated in almost every neurodegenerative disease,” says Evans. By unraveling how neurons deal with malfunctioning mitochondria, her work could open up possibilities for treating many currently incurable conditions.
Evans’ work focuses on understanding a process called mitophagy—how cells deal with dead or malfunctioning mitochondria—in neurons. There are plenty of reasons to believe brain cells might manage their organelles in unique ways: For one, they don’t divide and replenish themselves, which means the 80 billion or so we’re issued at birth have to last a lifetime. Neurons are also extremely stretched out (the longest ones run from the bottom of the backbone to the tip of each big toe) which means each nucleus has to monitor and maintain its roughly two million mitochondria over a great distance.
Before Evans launched her investigation in 2023, research on epithelial cells—those that line the surface of the body and its organs—had identified two proteins, PINK1 and Parkin, that seem to be mutated in patients with Parkinson’s disease. But, confusingly, disabling those proteins in mice in the lab didn’t lead to the mouse equivalent of Parkinson’s. To Evans, that suggested that the story of neural mitophagy must be more complicated.
To find out how, she went back to basics. Her lab watched rodent brain cells in a dish as they processed dysfunctional mitochondria. Evans gradually cranked up the stress they experienced by removing essential nutrients from their growth medium. This, she argues, is more akin to what happens in an aging human body than the typical process, which uses potent chemicals to damage mitochondria.
Results she published in 2023 in the journal eLife found that disposing of damaged mitochondria takes significantly longer in neurons than it does in epithelial cells. “We think, because [this slowness] is specific to neurons, that it may put neurons in a more vulnerable state,” she explains. Evans has also helped identify additional proteins that are involved in the best-known repair pathway—and determined that that action takes place in the soma, or main body, of a neuron but not in its threadlike extensions, known as axons. That, she says, could mean there’s a separate pathway that’s maintaining the mitochondria in the axon. Now, she wants to identify and understand that one too.
Thoroughly documenting these mechanics will take time, but Evans says charting the system could lead to precious medicine. “If we understand what goes wrong,” she says, “We might be able to diagnose people earlier… and be more targeted in trying to develop better treatment options.”—M.G.
Aaron Streets: Associate Professor, Bioengineering, Computational Biology, and Biophysics; University of California, Berkeley Michelle Tran/Berkeley Computing, Data Science, and Society
Understanding what makes individual cells unique requires insight into the epigenome—the suite of chemical instructions that tell the body how to make many kinds of cells out of the same string of DNA. “This is where the notion of the epigenome comes into play,” says Streets, who runs a lab at the University of California, Berkeley. All cells may be reading from the same book, but each one’s epigenome highlights the most relevant passages—essentially how and which genes are expressed. Streets is inventing the tools scientists need to zero in on those specifics.
Reading the epigenome is important, says Streets, because, in addition to showing why healthy cells act the way they do, it can also reveal why an individual one goes haywire and causes illness—cancer, for example. Once the markers of a rogue actor are known, he explains, researchers can develop therapeutics that address the question: “How can we engineer the epigenome of cells to fix the disease?”
Characterizing cells is highly interdisciplinary work, which Streets is perfectly suited for. He majored in art and physics but “just wasn’t good at” biology organismal studies. It wasn’t until graduate school, where he worked with a physicist-turned-bioengineer, that he realized how much insights gleaned from math, physics, and engineering could benefit the study of living things.
As a start, this year Streets and his colleagues published a protocol in the journal Nature Methods for reading particularly mysterious parts of the genome. The tool identifies sections within hard-to-read DNA regions that bind proteins—and thus have epigenomic significance—by bookending the strings with chemical markers called methyl groups. To James Eberwine, a pharmacology professor at the University of Pennsylvania and a pioneer of single-cell biology, “it is going to be very useful” for building a cell atlas.
Daniel Larremore: Assistant Professor; University of Colorado Boulder Glenn Asakawa, University of Colorado Boulder
Like everyone in early 2023, Daniel Larremore wondered whether this virus making its way around the globe was going to be a big deal. Would he have to cancel the exciting academic workshop he had planned for March? What about his ongoing research on the immune-evading genes of malaria parasites?
As the answers became clear, so did his next big task: predicting the trajectory of the disease so that scientists and policymakers could get ahead of it. “You have a background in infectious diseases and mathematical modeling,” thought the University of Colorado Boulder computer scientist. “If you’re not going to make a contribution when there’s a global pandemic, when are you going to step up?” He put his work on the epidemiology of malaria on hold as he emailed colleagues studying the emerging outbreak to ask how his lab could help. “I sent that mid-March,” he says, “and didn’t stop working until early to mid-2023.”
Before coming to Boulder, Larremore had been a postdoctoral candidate at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, where he was first immersed in the world of infectious disease—how it was transmitted, how it evaded immunity, and how to model its spread. It prepared him well for the first wave of COVID-19 research questions, which were all about working around the shortcomings of antibody tests. At the time, they were the only tools available for counting infections, but their sensitivity and specificity varied widely. A paper he co-authored in those early months described how to estimate infection rate, a key metric in justifying public health measures like mask mandates and social distancing.
As the pandemic wore on, Larremore and his collaborators continued to think forward: “What’s the question we’re going to be asking six months from now that we’ll wish we had the answer to right away?” The research they conducted now underpins much of American COVID policy: Their modeling found that speed, not accuracy, in testing was more important for curbing viral spread; that the success of immunity passports depended on the prevalence and infectiousness of the virus; and that elderly and medically vulnerable people should be prioritized for vaccination. “Dan did a huge amount of work across a number of different disciplines, and I think the contributions he’s made have really been remarkable,” says Yonatan Grad, an associate professor at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health who frequently collaborates with Larremore.
While his work on COVID-19 winds down, Larremore is already helping develop a general theory of disease mitigation involving at-home testing. Through modeling, he’s hoping to find out how much testing might slow the spread of different infectious diseases—and how that changes with disease or the variant. He’s excited about leveraging the jump in public science literacy induced by COVID-19: “If you tell people to self-collect a nasal swab, they’ll do a great job at it,” he says. He imagines a world where the public can reliably self-diagnose common illnesses like flu, and take the appropriate steps (wearing a mask, opening windows) to protect others. “That just seems really empowering,” says Larremore. “And, potentially, a cool future.” —Y.T.
5 Ways to Fix OneNote’s Saved Offline Error [Sync Problems] Do not hesitate to check Notebook on the web, as described below
First of all, it is a good idea to look for the root of the OneNote saved offline error in connection issues.
Also, you can do the sync process manually or free up your storage to solve the problem.
The ultimate solution would be to transfer your data to a new section and hope everything goes well!
INSTALL BY CLICKING THE DOWNLOAD FILE
To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool
Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:
Download Fortect and install it on your PC.
Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem
Fortect has been downloaded by
readers this month.
If you are interested in note-taking applications, OneNote is one of the best and oldest at the same time. On top of that, Microsoft offers this useful software on all platforms for free.
In addition to the app’s many benefits, there are a few drawbacks, and one of them is OneNote’s saved offline error. However, this article is going to help you to fix it.Why does OneNote keep saying saved offline?
There are multiple factors resulting in OneNote not syncing which Internet connection, outdated OneNote version, not enough space, server errors, service not available, and misplaced sections in OneNote are among them.
Now, let’s dive into the solutions.How do I fix OneNote offline error? 1. Check Notebook on the web
Open your notebook in the OneNote desktop app.
Go to File and then select Info. Then copy the Notebook path located under the notebook name.
Open a web browser and paste the link into the address bar.
Check if the Notebook is opening on the web, then the issue is with the installed app on the devices.
To fix OneNote saved offline error on Mac, open a Notebook, head to the Notebook section on the ribbon, select Copy Link to this Notebook, and repeat Step 3.2. Check service status
If your try for the first method was unsuccessful, you need to make sure about the server connection because there is probably a problem with the OneDrive service.
Using Internet Explorer or Microsoft Edge, you can quickly see the service status using the Downdetector website.
Some errors such as OneNote saved offline error e0001462, E000145C, 0xE40200B4, 0xE401065D, 0xE000145C, or 0xE4010640 appear when syncing notes in OneNote are temporary and occur when the servers are experiencing high traffic and are under load.3. Sync your notebook manually
Expert tip:4. Check storage space and optimize files
Lack of free space in both local and cloud space may cause sync issues. To resolve this problem, you can delete the OneDrive storage or opt for the Microsoft 365 subscription with 1TB of OneDrive space.
For local storage, you need to optimize files or remove unnecessary backup using the abovementioned steps.5. Move to a new section
Most of the time, these five methods can address errors due to OneNote sync problems. However, no worries if they disappointed you because there are some alternatives.
For example, you can empty OneNote Recycle Bin by navigating to the History tab, then selecting Empty Recycle Bin under the drop-down menu.
Also, you can address the conflict issues arising from editing the same part of a page at the same time by another user.
To do this, refer to the yellow information bar at the top of the page and simply delete the page responsible for the error. Updating OneNote to the latest version is always a good idea.
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