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Introduction to the IPO Process

You would have heard much about the IPO Definition if you were a finance guy. Business newspapers keep featuring why a particular IPO process is hot, whether it will succeed, how much the company would raise, and many other things. For those new to this term, an IPO Definition or the IPO Meaning is “Initial Public Offering,” where a private firm decides to transform itself into a public one. The company will offer its stock for trading on the stock exchange for the first time, inviting the public to invest in it.

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They were the IPOs once considered hot, and people bet on their successes, but unfortunately, market conditions, investor sentiments, and various other factors caused their demise. So this the all about the IPO Definition and the IPO Meaning.

7 Important IPO Process and Definitions

Below are the 7 biggest IPO processes and IPO definitions:

1. IPO Process (Vonage)

It was all geared up for a successful IPO, and everything seemed to be in place. It raised $531 million on the very first day of the IPO. But what happened next made it the “worst first trading day.”

They offered shares at $17 per share but quickly dropped 12.7% within the day and closed at $14.85. Wondering what went wrong? This IPO differed from others in that Vonage offered its customers 13.5% of the IPO shares. However, the tech company was strangely caught up in a technical glitch. When the attracted investors visited the site to buy shares, many received messages that their purchases didn’t happen. After a few days, there was a twist again; by then, the share price had dropped considerably by 30% in a week. The customers were informed that their purchases did happen and that the original price of $17 was due to them. Irate customers filed a suit which they won, against the underwriters and Vonage for misleading them. and this was the IPO Meaning

The company was selling products at less than it took to produce them and undercharged shipping costs. It recorded losses of $147 million in just the first nine months of its business in 2000. They went public in February 2000 and raised $82 million! The share price began at $11 per share and rose to $14, but the success was short-lived, plummeting to a meager 22 cents. It remained there and consequently filed for bankruptcy within the same year.

3. IPO Process (Webvan)

Webvan had a unique idea of delivering groceries without you having to carry the heavy grocery bags and take the pains to take them back home. You just had to sit at home and order the groceries, and within a span of 30 minutes, the groceries would arrive right at your doorstep. The investors were in agreement with this idea. Webvan decided to go for an IPO in 1999. They were valued at $6 billion, although the revenue was slightly less than $5 million. At the end of the IPO, it raised a good enough $375 million from the IPO, and the stock price doubled on the first day itself.

What next? Well, the company did not get a fairy tale ending. The great idea lost its charm against the whopping logistics cost it had to bear. Processing and delivering each order costs them around $27, along with refined and automated systems of warehouses and delivery vans. To save costs, Webvan radically cut the type of products bringing sales to a halt. Just 18 months after its flaring IPO, it declared bankruptcy.

4. IPO Process (Blackstone Group)

Steve Schwarzman, the larger-than-life billionaire, is Blackstone’s CEO and co-founder, a Private Equity firm. Considered to be a spendthrift, and rightly so, he threw himself a multi-million dollar birthday party. The firm specializes in leveraged buyouts (LBO). It generated most of its wealth by leveraging cheap debt to finance hostile takeovers of numerous stressed businesses, typically using a deal structure of 10% cash and 90% debt.

It was quite a surprise when Blackstone announced their plans to go public in 2007. In their haste to get a part of Blackstone’s 23 % annual return since 1987, twice the S&P 500 average, the investors ignored that the IPO was that of Blackstone Holdings, a spin-off of the Blackstone Group. The underwriters valued the IPO at $40 billion, but Blackstone Holdings had only $2.3 billion in annual revenues! The IPO prospectus warned the investors about the company’s potential revenue fluctuations over the months or years, but people did not pay attention.

The IPO resulted in Blackstone raising $4.1 billion, enabling Schwarzman and his co-founder Peter Peterson to generate $2.6 billion. Still, the investors ended up as the losers, having bought a stock that lost 42% of its value in the first year.

5. IPO Process (Omeros)

6. IPO Process (VeraSun)

VeraSun Energy was known as a leading producer of renewable fuel and one of the topmost ethanol producers. This was during 2006 when there was an ethanol boom, and quite a few companies reputed themselves as producers of greener energy sources. This sector was at its peak, and that was the time when VeraSun went public and successfully raised $420 million in June 2006. Ethanol producers attracted investor interest due to the viability of ethanol production costs resulting from low oil and gas prices. As a resultant effect, the share price of VeraSun grew by 30% by the end of the day from the offering price of $23 to $30.

But the company went bankrupt just two years later. Why? The market for ethanol production completely sunk due to the saturation of competitors, as well as the surge in the price of corn during the recession, which diminished the demand for ethanol. The one-two punch of the saturated market and decreased demand ultimately pushed the company into bankruptcy two years later. Similarly, a company called Aventine raised $389 million and died the same way.

7. IPO Process (Shanda Games)

Shanda Games is a huge name in the online gaming market of China. They produce multi-player role-playing games and are a division of Shanda Interactive Entertainment. Shanda decided to go for a U.S. IPO in 2009. JP Morgan and Goldman Sachs were the underwriters determining the number of shares offered and the price. At the very last second, the underwriters increased the number of shares offered from 63 million to 83.5 million. The result was extraordinary, as the IPO raised $1.04 billion. Inappropriately greedy underwriters pushed the share price to a limit of $12.50, attracting investors willing to pay top dollar. However, since no new investors left, the stock price hit bottom, falling 14% in value to $1.75 the next day.

Apart from the Biggest IPO Flops in History, as we discussed above, many IPOs have gone down the drain. The truth is that it is impossible to forecast the nature of stock or investor sentiments. These failed IPO ventures teach us that any company should thoroughly comprehend what it is selling and how it intends to sell it before making its stocks available for public trading. This is what IPO definition and IPO meaning are all about.

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7 Things Parents Should Know About The Measles Outbreak

Vaccinations are key to keeping your family safe.

With more 700 cases of measles across the United States, this outbreak is the worst the country has faced in decades, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. There have been cases reported in 22 states, with the largest outbreaks centered in New York and Washington state.

Felice Adler-Shohet, M.D., a pediatric infectious disease specialist at Children’s Hospital of Orange County, chalks up the outbreak up to laws that allow parents to send unvaccinated children to schools, among other issues.

“The outbreak currently happening is the result of a confluence of factors, including growing anti-vaccine messaging and propaganda as well as poor enforcement of vaccine policy with states such as New York allowing vaccine exemptions for religious reasons,” she says. “This is despite the fact that no mainstream religious group prohibits vaccination.”

1. Should I keep my newborn at home?

It may not be possible to keep your baby at home all of the time, but it is probably best to limit exposure with others. This is especially true since babies can’t receive a measles vaccination until they are at least 1 year old, says Beulette Hooks, M.D., a family physician in Fort Benning, GA, and Chair of the American Academy of Family Physicians’ Commission on Health of the Public and Science.

2. Should I get a shot myself? Will insurance cover it?

The good news is that it is not too late, and physicians suggest you get the shot as soon as possible. “It is a two-shot series with the second shot being at least 28 days after the first shot,” explains Dr. Hooks. “If you are not sure about your status, you can have blood drawn to check your status and if you are not immune, many insurance companies will cover.”

If you were born before 1989, it’s worth checking. Until that year, the CDC only recommended one dose of the vaccine, but according to the agency, a single shot is 93 percent effective, compared to 97 percent for two doses. The CDC also noted some earlier versions of the shot weren’t as effective.

3. Should you ask that your unvaccinated coworker be sent home? 4. How do I find out if my child goes to school with unvaccinated children?

Due to the exemptions that some schools have for various reasons, it’s safe to assume there might be at least some unvaccinated children, says Dr. McTigue. It’s also unlikely schools would release names to parents or single out individual children who are exempt.

5. Should you ask your kid’s principal to keep unvaccinated kids home from school?

The problem with doing this, Dr. McTigue points out, is that there are some children who can’t be vaccinated for legitimate medical reasons. “While the measles vaccine is very safe and highly effective, it is a live virus vaccine,” he says. “This means that the vaccine contains an active but highly weakened strain of the measles virus. For this reason, children with highly compromised immune systems—such as those who have had a bone marrow transplant or are on certain medications for conditions, such as cancer or auto-immune disorders, or those with primary immunodeficiency—cannot be vaccinated against measles.” It wouldn’t be fair to exclude these children from getting an education.

6. Where are people most likely to get infected? The playground? Public transit?

The most likely locations are typically enclosed spaces filled with people, like airplanes, movie theaters and school classrooms, Dr. Hooks says. There is also a high risk in places that have a lot of people from different areas, like an airport, Dr. McTigue adds. There is, of course, also higher risk in any part of the country that is currently experiencing an outbreak.

7. What’s the best way to protect myself and my kids?

Both Dr. Hooks and Dr. MicTigue agree that the best and simplest thing you can do is to make sure you and everyone in your family is properly vaccinated.

Apple’s Self Service Repair: Everything You Should Know

Apple has always restricted the right to repair their devices to a chosen few. But now that Apple’s Self Service Repair program is finally released, things are changing, albeit a bit slowly. Now, we can all be geniuses.

The announcement in November opened the door to a lot of speculations. While some questions are answered now as the program is available to US customers, some still remain. I have done a deep dive into the matter to get all the answers* you need, so read on.

What is Apple’s Self Service Repair program?

Self Service Repair is Apple’s current stance on the right-to-repair moment. For years, Apple has gone to extreme lengths to lock the user in its network of authorized service centers, from using microcontroller chips to blocking features or tagging products as non-genuine components.

But now, this program gives users the freedom to repair their Apple devices independently. Users can access Apple genuine parts, tools, and repair manuals, similar to those used at Genius Bar (repair teams).

To help you become an Apple genius, the tech giant gives you all you’ll need, from repair manuals to over 200 individual parts and tools. You can also buy all the tools outright or rent them at $49 or buy individual tools to keep them.

Note: Apple has also published a supporting paper, “Expanding Access to Safe, Reliable, and Secure Service and Repair,” wherein it mentions that it will provide service and parts for products for at least seven years after they’re last sold.

Which devices can you repair?

iPhone 12 Series

iPhone 13 Series

iPhone SE (3rd generation)

MacBook Air / MacBook Pro

Furthermore, the program currently helps you repair the iPhone’s




Bottom speaker

SIM Tray

Taptic Engine

Self Service Repair for MacBook Air and MacBook Pro offers more than a dozen different repair types for each model, including the display, top case with battery, and trackpad, with more to come.

Who can access the program?

For now, the service program is limited to the US only. Although, Apple expressed plans to include other countries and regions, starting with Europe, later this year.

Source: Apple

Who is this targeted at?

While open for all Apple users, Self Service Repair is not designed for all. Not everyone has the skill, knowledge, and experience to pull apart an electronic device and fix it back together. It is intended for individual technicians deft at repairing such devices.

However, Apple also states that users without experience should restrain and depend on certified technicians.

Note: Apple currently boasts 5,000+ Apple Authorized Service Providers (AASPs) and 3,000 Independent Repair Providers (IRPs), and over 100,000 active technicians.

How does the Self Service Repair program work?

Apple has also released a four-step outline on how the Self Service Repair program works.

Step 1: Use the repair manual to find what you need

A free-to-use, in-depth guide on fixing your device and what parts, tools, and materials you’ll need to order.

Important: You’ll need a repair manual ID in the next step, and you’ll find it in the manual’s introduction. This indicates to Apple that you’ve indeed read the manual.

You’ll also see,

The tools you’ll need for the repair

Step-by-step repairing guide with appropriate images

Caution messages to help you avoid the risky areas

Source: Apple

Visit the Self Service Repair Store and select Start your order. Here select the product, its model, and repair type.

On the main page, where all parts and tools are listed, scroll down to Apple Tools (79 pounds packed into two heavy-duty cases). You’ll find a neat $49 tool rental option; add this to your cart.

As per Apple’s tool kit rental page,

The rental will start the day you receive the tool kit and last for 7 days.

It costs $49, including shipping.

Your credit card will have temporary authorization equivalent to the full replacement value of the tool kit.

If tools are not returned on time, a fee (including taxes) will be charged.

Also, if any tool is missing or damaged, Apple will deduct its charge.

Step 3: Repair your device

Once you receive the parts and tools you need, open the repair manual and get on with it. There’s a hitch here; you’ll need to call Apple to complete the repair process.

Apple has put a System Configuration requirement (some call it silly, Apple’s call is compulsory) without which your device will not recognize the parts as genuine and won’t work as intended.

To complete this step and your self-repair process, go to the Contact Us section of the Self Service Repair Store. You can contact the service team via chat or phone to initiate System Configuration.

Step 4: Return replaced part for recycling

As part of Apple’s carbon-neutral approach, you can return the replaced part and get a portion of the money back. Like with their AASPs and IRls, these parts will be refurbished or recycled responsibly.

Of course, there are terms and conditions applied. Apple will inspect the part to determine the credit eligibility and then refund a portion of the original payment.

Apple Self Service Repair cost

The cost of parts and tools vary as per the repair and device type. For reference and comparison purposes, let’s take the example of the iPhone 13 Pro.

The display bundle costs $269.96 upfront, if we subtract the return credit of $33.60, it will be $236.36. Although we’ll also have to consider the $49 tool rental, the total comes up to $318.96 (before) and 285.36 (after return credit). Notably, Apple’s screen replacement service costs $279 (add your commuting cost, if applicable).

Is Apple Self Service Repair really cheap?

By the above calculation, absolutely no. I even compared the battery replacement cost; the battery bundle costs $71, while battery service through Apple costs $69.

Furthermore, there is the added risk of spoiling your device more rather than repairing it. And on the other hand, trained technicians are handling your device, plus it’s Apple’s responsibility to fix your device.

Should you exercise your right to repair?

With great freedom comes a greater responsibility of using the rights in the right manner. In simple words, only a skilled and experienced user can handle a successful repair.

However, plenty of curious souls would like to take things into their hands, and it might do more harm than good. Even if you put your faith in a friendly neighborhood technician’s hand, risks are involved. Plus, it isn’t saving much money either.

So, I’ll suggest accessing the situation with a broader perspective. Understand how difficult is the repair, the risks involved, and whether going to an authorized repair shop will be better.

Apple Self Service Repair: The real catch

Whenever Apple releases something that attempts to go outside their walled garden, users should accept it with a pinch of salt (sometimes even more). Thanks to this program, Apple users now have three choices.

Repair the device themselves.

Visit nearby small shops.

Send the device to Apple or visit an authorized repair shop.

However, the right to repair is not just about these choices; it also means ease of access, saving money, cutting down the monopoly, and reducing the e-waste by a large margin. But is the program really doing that?

The Serial / IMEI number limitation

While it might not sound preposterous at the start, it limits a lot of things. For instance:

What if you don’t use the part for the same phone you ordered it for?

The Serial/IMEI number gives Apple the right to reject/block the repair, starting from the System Configuration step.

Why does a skilled technician have to wait every time?

Imagine you know a skilled technician who can resolve your Mac and iPhone’s issue quicker than sending it to Apple. But, they can only order the parts when you give them your Serial/IMEI number. Then you’ll have to wait for parts to arrive before the repair can begin.

Why can’t the technician order some extra parts and prepare them for your rainy days? Agreed this might open the flood gate to fake parts, but Apple can keep a service code for parts and continue the System Configuration step accordingly.

Repair specialists iFixit very nicely put the situation into perspective – “This program expands the freedom to repair with one hand while locking the door with the other.”

Are we being fooled?

As of now, it certainly looks like it. We now have the right to repair our devices. However, we still don’t have the liberty one might expect. From the Serial/IMEI number restriction to the heavy-duty price point, nothing seems to favor the users.

This initiative looks like an intentionally feeble and doomed attempt to bypass the right to repair regulations and activists. Honestly, I hope Apple gives some levy in upcoming announcements.

It’s a great deal outside the US.

I also need to put a point in favor of Apple. Apple claims that “in the US, eight out of 10 Apple customers are located within 20 minutes of an authorized service provider.” Although that’s not the case for other countries and regions.

So, while we are bitching about the program because we have an option to compare, this might be the best and only option for some people. And when eventually they’ll get this program, it would be godsent. To give credit where it is due, Apple has done a nice deed by introducing the program (albeit flawed).

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A self-professed Geek who loves to explore all things Apple. I thoroughly enjoy discovering new hacks, troubleshooting issues, and finding and reviewing the best products and apps currently available. My expertise also includes curating opinionated and honest editorials. If not this, you might find me surfing the web or listening to audiobooks.

Lmb Key On Keyboard: Everything You Should Know

You might be excused for thinking that keyboards are primarily used for typing, as do the majority of people.

However, if your mouse or trackpad isn’t working, you might be curious about what the LMB key does and how to utilize it. The LMB key can serve you as a helpful button if you learn how to perform all of its functions.

You might be wondering what LMB on a keyboard stands for. Where is it located, and what does it do? We would like you to know you’ve come to just the right place. Let’s get started.

The LMB (left mouse button) is an old standard keyboard key that’s still used today. The definition of “left-mouse button” is simple: it’s any button on a computer mouse, including its left half.

LMB is often confused with the MMB (middle mouse button), also called a scroll wheel or trackpad. However, they’re different and have different purposes in different situations so let’s clear up some confusion!

If you are one of the users of the Mouse Keys feature in Windows, then this button could prove especially useful to you. Also, the LMB key comes in handy if you use a keyboard that has a touchpad built into it or a trackball.

There are several ways you can use the LMB:

For instance, pressing the “5” key on the Numpad, the Minus (-) symbol, and then the “5” key once again would be necessary to push the Left Mouse Button and the Right Mouse Button consecutively using Mouse Keys.

See the best keyboards with touchpad

There is no need for an external mouse if you have a keyboard with this feature because this key is identical to the LMB key on a mouse.

Similar to how a typical trackball mouse is made, the LMB button on a keyboard with a trackball is typically placed beside the trackball itself.

The LMB key is also included on keyboards with a TrackPoint (the red dot that is frequently found on Lenovo laptop keyboards), as the TrackPoint was designed to provide all the functions of a mouse.

Since there isn’t room for it to be placed around the TrackPoint, the LMB key is situated at the bottom of the keyboard.

LMB (left-middle-button) is typically located on the left side of the keyboard. It’s also known as a “touchpad” or “fingerprint” because it looks like a fingerprint. Despite this similarity, it’s not exactly a fingerprint!

For example, press LMB and drag across some text with one hand while holding down SHIFT with your other hand so that all three fingers are touching at once; then release LMB when all three are pressed down again. That way each finger will move independently—and with this, you can avoid any accidental keystrokes!

On laptops, the LMB can be found under your number pad or just above it (on some models). If you don’t have a number pad on your laptop though, then look for an icon that looks like two arrows pointing toward each other in the top row of keys.

This will be where the cursor will move when you press down gently on those arrow buttons with your fingertips instead of pressing them directly into their respective positions (which would result in accidental typing).

The last of the three keys is the MMB key, which stands for Middle Mouse Button.

Unlike LMB and RMB, the MMB key may not be on every keyboard which contains the LMB and RMB keys, as its functionality isn’t as vital as these keys.

To be quite honest, we don’t know if the LMB key is present on every keyboard in existence. However, we do know that every keyboard, wireless or wired, includes the useful F10 shortcut key in addition to the SHIFT key.

It should come as no surprise that there isn’t enough room for you to work if your workplace is too small to accommodate your desktop or laptop. A peripheral mouse may become difficult to scroll and maneuver as a result. The left mouse button can be key in certain scenarios and can turn out to be a practical and efficient answer to this issue.

When your mouse breaks down or when you accidentally leave it at work but have a deadline for a project or report the next day, you’ll appreciate having a left mouse button on your keyboard the most.

If you lose or permanently damage your mouse and have to wait a few weeks for a replacement to arrive, your computer’s LMB will quickly become your closest buddy. These buttons are very necessary for situations like these when there is no other choice for the majority of people.

Despite the LMB button being quite handy, you shouldn’t immediately put away your mouse. Despite all of its benefits, the LMB key does have certain drawbacks that may become apparent to you after frequent use. A few of the most typical are listed below:

Using the LMB key will be quite difficult if the touchpad sensor chooses to go bad.

According to several studies, using an external mouse is more accurate and productive than using the LMB key on a keyboard.

The left mouse button on the keyboard might not work with some online video games. For avid gamers this is a potential deal-breaker, so be sure to conduct thorough research to prevent it.

When using the LMB key, some tasks could take noticeably longer than they would with an external mouse or might not be possible at all.

Some high-end design and 3D modeling applications, like Fusion 360, might not allow pressing the LMB key on a keyboard.

There is no doubt that the LMB key has its benefits in several situations, even though you won’t find it on many keyboards. Particularly if you would like to take a break from using your external mouse, then it comes up as a good alternative.

8 Inspiring Iranian Women Architects You Should Know

© KHIABAN COMPLEX, Habibeh Madjdabadi

Still, in the 21st century, due to gender inequality, women’s involvement in architecture and design has long been mainly disregarded. However, figures like Zaha Hadid, Denise Scott Brown, Neri Oxman, and more, who have significantly impacted international architecture, have questioned this “world of men” in the past. We have collected successful Iranian women architects and their projects.

Here is the list of 8 Iranian women architects who have burst down barriers that have restricted them despite society’s outmoded thinking.

Leila Araghian

© Tabiat Pedestrian Bridge by Diba Tensile Architecture, 2014 (Tehran, Iran)

Tabiat Bridge is Iran’s one of the largest pedestrian bridges. It links two public parks in Tehran and passes one of the city’s major motorways. The 270-meter-long bridge stands on three tree-shaped columns. It was inaugurated in October 2014 as Tehran’s third landmark. This bridge has won various prizes, including the Aga Khan Architecture Award in 2023.

Nasrine Seraji

Nasrine Seraji-Bozorgzad is an Iranian-origin French-British architect. Seraji arrived in Paris in 1989 after studying at the Architectural Association and working in London. Seraji was awarded the Knight of the Legion of Honor in 2011. She has taught and exhibited across Europe, North America, China, and Southeast Asia. She presently works as a Professor of Architectural Design at University College Dublin.

©  Paris-Saclay Campus by Atelier Seraji (2013 Competition 2rd)

Paris-Saclay Campus concept was a competition project by Atelier Seraji. Residence for 330 students and apprentices, common spaces, administration, university cafes, inter-institutional canteen, commerces, and parking in the southwest suburbs of Paris.

Marziah Zad

© Atlas Medical Office Building / Marziah Zad + Raha Ashrafi + Mohsen Marizad + Ahmad Bathaei, 2023 (Hamedan, Iran)

The Atlas Medical Office Building, located in Hamedan’s main commercial sector and situated between many mixed-use high and low-rise buildings, welcomed its first tenants in late 2023.

Marziah Zad is lecturing at Computational Design: NEXT 11 on 8-9th October 2023.

Mahsa Majidi

Mahsa Majidi graduated from Tehran University’s Science and Research Branch. She founded the interior design firm “Persian Garden” in 2001 after getting professional experiences in Iran and Dubai. She received the most prestigious Architecture Award in Iran, Mermar Prize, with many projects.

© Ghobadian Office / Persian Garden Studio, 2023 (Tehran, Iran)

Ghobadian Office is a place for a prominent cosmetics firm designed Persian Garden Studio. The 280 sqm area was inspired by outer space and designed as a location for work, engagement, and collaborative meetings to express the identity and aspirations of this corporation’s creative team.

Shiva Aghababaei

© Opal Trade Center Food Hall by Tarh Va Afarinesh Architectural & Engineering Consultants (Tehran, Iran)

Tarh Va Afarinesh Architectural & Engineering Consultants offered commercial design services to the Opal Trade Center‘s newest food court. The Opal Food Hall, with a total space of 2,300 m2, is located on the highest level of an upmarket commercial center in Northern Tehran, Iran.

Habibeh Madjdabadi

Habibeh Madjdabadi is a notable Iranian woman architect of a younger generation. She is an architect whose work is given much credit in the national and international media. After winning her first grand prize and starting her professional carrier, she established her own office in Tehran in 2003. She has been shortlisted for the Aga Khan Award 2023, the Worldwide Brick Award 2014, the Tamayouz Woman in Construction Award 2023, the Memar Award 2014 for House of 40 Knots, and the Chicago Award 2014.

Listen to PA Talks 04 – Habibeh Madjdabadi

© The 70 Peaks Multipurpose Complex by Habibeh Madjdabadi

The 70 Peaks Multipurpose Complex, with a building area of 10,000 sqm, was conceived as a commercial hub for tourists, complete with restaurants, cafés, and motels. It is situated on a 60,000-square-meter property adjacent to the motorway that connects the holy city of Qom to Arak, Iran.

Catherine Spiridonoff

© Tehran World Trade Center by Fluid Motion Architects

Tehran World Trade Center is Iran’s tallest office building; it has become an urban icon and a symbol of Tehran and Iran. So, to identify an appropriate geometry for this building, we looked into the Charbagh, an ancient Iranian architectural paradigm. The project has been named to the WAF Prize Glass Future Prize Shortlist 2023.

Sara Kalantary

Sara Kalantary studied at Tehran Azad University’s Central Branch. She and her partner Reza Sayadian founded TDC Office and won many National and International competitions in consecutive years.

© House No. 6 by Sara Kalantary and Reza Sayadian

House No. 6 examines the bygone metropolitan region and modern confused humans, creating a new place. The city is a bed on which dwellings sleep. Home soothes the heart and spirit; it is a place where life flows. The city comprises several layers, and while they are the most essential regions where human connection happens and social behavior forms, privacy and security are also developed.

Learn more 7 Iranian Architects Merging Technology with Contemporary Architecture

Top Cybersecurity Analyst Interview Questions You Should Know

blog / Cybersecurity How to Ace Cybersecurity Analyst Interview Questions: A Helpful Guide

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With cyber crimes becoming a pressing concern, there has been a growing demand for proficient cybersecurity analysts. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts job growth of 35% for information security analysts in the next ten years, making it one of the fastest-growing occupations. If you are preparing for a lucrative career in this field, prepare to ward off the competition with this comprehensive guide to potential cybersecurity analyst interview questions.  

Entry-Level Cybersecurity Interview Questions 1. Tell Me the Purpose of a Firewall. What is the Best Way to Set it Up?

A firewall is a system that provides network security by establishing a boundary between an external network and the guarded network or system. It is primarily used to detect and protect the network from malware and other malicious activities. To set up the firewall you need to:  

Secure the firewall 

Architect firewall zones and IP address structure

Configure access control lists 

Configure other firewall services and logging

Test the firewall configuration

Manage firewall continually 

2. Define Botnet. Is it Crucial in Cybersecurity?

A botnet is a collection of connected devices infected by malware and under the remote control of cyber criminals. Botnets are a massive cybersecurity concern as they are hard to detect and can be used to launch sophisticated attacks that can cause extensive damage. 

3. Tell Me the Meaning of VPN

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) helps establish encrypted connections that protect the network from malicious activities. VPN has numerous benefits such as hiding the user’s IP address, securing data transfer, and encrypting online activities on public networks. 

4. Tell Me the Meaning of a Man-in-the-Middle Attack

A man-in-the-middle attack is a cyber attack where attackers insert themselves into a communication between two parties and intercept their data by impersonating them. This attack can steal personal information such as account details and login credentials. 

5. Define Traceroute

Traceroute is a network diagnostic tool for tracing the path an IP packet takes across one or many networks. It is a useful tool to check response delays and points of failure. 

6. Tell Me the Meaning of XSS

XSS, also known as Cross-Site Scripting, is a web security vulnerability that allows an attacker to inject malicious client-side code scripts into a website. It allows an attacker to modify Document Object Model (DOM), crash the server, and hijack sessions, among other things. 

7. Tell Me the Response Code for a Web Application

1xx: Informational 

2xx: Success

3xx: Redirection

4xx: Client Error

5xx: Server Error

Top Cybersecurity Interview Questions 1. Tell Me the Different Layers of the OSI Model

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model provides a standard for different computer systems to communicate with one another.  

Physical layer is responsible for the data transfer from sender to receiver

Data link layer is responsible for setting up links across a physical network 

Network layer manages data transmission between two networks

Transport layer coordinates data transfer across network connections

Session layer handles communication between the two devices

Presentation layer is responsible for performing syntax processing

Application layer directly interacts with data from the user. 

2. Explain the CIA Triad

CIA stands for Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. This model is the basis for the development of security systems.

3. Tell Me the Difference Between Vulnerability Assessment (VA) and Penetration Testing (PT)

Vulnerability Assessment (VA) measures vulnerabilities in IT structures and prioritizes the flaws for fixing. Penetration Testing (PT) recreates the behavior of external and internal cyber-attacks to draw insights into ways a system can be hacked. 

4. What is a Brute Force Attack? Tell Me the Best Way to Prevent it

A brute force attack is a hacking method that uses trial and error to guess login credentials and encryption keys. Some ways to prevent brute force attacks are password length, limiting login attempts, and password complexity. 

5. Tell Me the Best Way to Secure a Server

Some of the best practices for securing a server are: 

Using VPN 

Configuring file backups 

Installing SSL certificates 

Upgrading software and OS regularly 

Using firewall protection

6. What is Port Scanning?

Port scanning is a method for determining open ports and services available on a network. Some common port scanning techniques include TCP connect, ping scan, stealth scanning, and USD.

7. What is a Three-Way Handshake?

A three-way handshake is a method used in TCP/IP networks to create a connection between a host and a client. It is primarily used to create a TCP socket connection to reliably transmit data between devices.

Scenario-Based Cybersecurity Interview Questions

Here are some of the scenario-based cybersecurity analyst interview questions you should also look at: 

How should you perform an initial risk assessment? 

How would you monitor and log cybersecurity events?

How do You Prepare for a Cybersecurity Interview?

Make sure your resume is well done

Do thorough research on the company

Prepare with mock interview questions

Always ask a few questions at the end

Do not lie about possessing a skill you do not hav


Top Companies That Hire Cybersecurity Analysts

Here are some of the top companies that hire cybersecurity analysts:



PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC)



By now you must have a good understanding of cybersecurity analyst interview questions and what to expect on your interview day. To upskill and gain a competitive edge in the job interview, do explore these cybersecurity courses offered by Emeritus.

By Krati Joshi

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