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A daily schedule is vital to a school functioning at its optimum level. The schedule, if done correctly, will ensure that the school day can meet the needs of all students. When I became the assistant principal of an elementary school, I felt overwhelmed when the school’s schedule became part of my duties. But after six years of constructing my school’s schedule, I have come up with a few steps that ensure the school day runs smoothly. An effective schedule serves the goals of the school, covers necessary courses, provides teachers the time they need, and meets the learning needs of students.

Steps to Building an Effective Schedule

1. The basics: I start creating the schedule over the summer. I look at the previous school year’s schedule and ask myself what worked and what didn’t work. As you construct your school’s schedule, start with the basics, imagine the schedule as being like a pyramid, and build up from a solid foundation. Here are some basic questions to ask:

How many periods per school day?

How many minutes for each period?

How many lunch periods?

What are the required courses by grade?

How many times a week or minutes do required courses meet?

Are there courses that require block scheduling?

What are school-system-wide requirements? 

2. Teacher needs: Once these questions are answered, make sure to take into account teacher contracts. For example, in New York City, every teacher must have a duty-free lunch and a preparation period.

I also ask teachers for feedback. If I am able to accommodate their requests, I do, but I am transparent with everyone that their class is a piece of the greater puzzle and not all requests will be accommodated. For instance, we have three lunch periods, and the coveted lunch period is second because it lands in the middle of the day. We assign that lunch period carefully, based on how quickly children eat and what other courses might be planned. Kindergarten eats lunch during the last lunch period, with a snack built in prior to their lunch. One would think that they should eat during the first period, but they tend to eat slowly, so if they are not finished, the teachers can stay with them in the cafeteria and not overlap with another lunch period.

3. Setting scheduling priorities and school goals: Based on end-of-year meetings with the district and school leadership, I gather the projected priorities and take those into account when planning. Each year, the school or district leaders will prioritize a specific goal or focus. One year, math was a district priority, so I rearranged the schedule so that every class had double-period math blocks in the morning twice a week. This scheduling change improved the scores on math assessments.

4. Recognize the needs of different grade bands: Schedules should be flexible in meeting the goals of specific grades. In my school, K–2 grades spend one period each day on a phonics program to help them learn how to read. Grades 3–5 don’t have a phonics period, so that extra period in their schedule becomes a writing skills course where teachers review basic grammar.

5. Making time for special need and programming: Students may need additional support provided by classroom teachers, including students with disabilities, students who need additional academic support, and English language learners. For example, I schedule one period a week for each teacher to pull students who are struggling to provide one-on-one support. Other administrators may create time in a teacher’s schedule for them to work individually with English language learners or other students needing individualized attention.

Special programming may also require shifting schedules. For example, we have contracted with a vendor to give STEM classes to our students for a span of about four weeks during the school year. Programming the classes during this time requires shifting courses. Another year, we were awarded an arts grant, so we adjusted the schedule so that each class was able to have art instruction. This kind of flexibility allows students to be exposed to exciting opportunities, while also ensuring that the core curriculum is taught.

6. System for covering teachers: Even the best-created schedule can fall into turmoil when teachers are absent. Setting aside money in the budget for substitute teachers is critical to ensuring that the school runs smoothly. Having a system in place for teachers and staff to report absences due to personal days, sickness, professional development, and leaves is important, but it is critical to have a system where learning continues even when a teacher is absent. Teachers at my school create lesson plans that the substitute teachers must teach in their absence.

7. Benefits of communicating the school schedule with parents: Finally, communicating with parents the courses and programs your school is offering is vital to the parent-school partnership. Communicating the content of the courses allows parents to assist when work is sent home.

8. Scheduling technology: There are many programs on the market for scheduling. I use Microsoft Excel, where I created formulas that generate the schedules. One year the drive I was using was corrupted and I lost the file, so make sure to back up!

The school schedule is a daunting and rather thankless task. I often think of it as a thousand-piece puzzle. It takes hours, maybe even days, to complete, but once it is finished and you step back, you can see the full picture of how each piece not only is vital to running the school but also helps to meet the learning needs of all students.

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A Guide To Building An End

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

Knock! Knock!

Who’s there?

It’s Natural Language Processing!

Today we will implement a multi-class text classification model on an open-source dataset and explore more about the steps and procedure. Let’s begin.

Table of Contents


Loading the data

Feature Engineering

Text processing

Exploring Multi-classification Models

Compare Model performance



Dataset for Text Classification

The dataset consists of real-world complaints received from the customers regarding financial products and services. The complaints are labeled to a specific product. Hence, we can conclude that this is a supervised problem statement, where we have the input and the target output for that. We will play with different machine learning algorithms and check which algorithm works better.

Our aim is to classify the complaints of the consumer into predefined categories using a suitable classification algorithm. For now, we will be using the following classification algorithms.

Linear Support Vector Machine (LinearSVM)

Random Forest

Multinomial Naive Bayes

Logistic Regression.

Loading the Data

Download the dataset from the link given in the above section. Since I am using Google Colab, if you want to use the same you can use the Google drive link given here and import the dataset from your google drive. The below code will mount the drive and unzip the data to the current working directory in colab.

from google.colab import drive drive.mount('/content/drive') !unzip /content/drive/MyDrive/

First, we will install the required modules.

Pip install numpy

Pip install pandas

Pip install seaborn

Pip install scikit-learn

Pip install scipy

Ones everything successfully installed, we will import required libraries.

import os import pandas as pd import numpy as np from scipy.stats import randint import seaborn as sns # used for plot interactive graph. import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import seaborn as sns from io import StringIO from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer from sklearn.feature_selection import chi2 from IPython.display import display from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfTransformer from sklearn.naive_bayes import MultinomialNB from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier from chúng tôi import LinearSVC from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score from sklearn.metrics import confusion_matrix from sklearn import metrics

Now after this let us load the dataset and see the shape of the loaded dataset.

# loading data df = pd.read_csv('/content/rows.csv') print(df.shape)

From the output of the above code, we can say that the dataset is very huge and it has 18 columns. Let us see how the data looks like. Execute the below code.


Now, for our multi-class text classification task, we will be using only two of these columns out of 18, that is the column with the name ‘Product’ and the column ‘Consumer complaint narrative’. Now let us create a new DataFrame to store only these two columns and since we have enough rows, we will remove all the missing (NaN) values. To make it easier to understand we will rename the second column of the new DataFrame as ‘consumer_complaints’.

# Create a new dataframe with two columns df1 = df[['Product', 'Consumer complaint narrative']].copy() # Remove missing values (NaN) df1 = df1[pd.notnull(df1['Consumer complaint narrative'])] # Renaming second column for a simpler name df1.columns = ['Product', 'Consumer_complaint'] print(df1.shape) df1.head(3).T

We can see that after discarding all the missing values, we have around 383k rows and 2 columns, this will be our data for training. Now let us check how many unique products are there.


There are 18 categories in products. To make the training process easier, we will do some changes in the names of the category.

# Because the computation is time consuming (in terms of CPU), the data was sampled df2 = df1.sample(10000, random_state=1).copy() # Renaming categories df2.replace({'Product': {'Credit reporting, credit repair services, or other personal consumer reports': 'Credit reporting, repair, or other', 'Credit reporting': 'Credit reporting, repair, or other', 'Credit card': 'Credit card or prepaid card', 'Prepaid card': 'Credit card or prepaid card', 'Payday loan': 'Payday loan, title loan, or personal loan', 'Money transfer': 'Money transfer, virtual currency, or money service', 'Virtual currency': 'Money transfer, virtual currency, or money service'}}, inplace= True) pd.DataFrame(df2.Product.unique())

The 18 categories are now reduced to 13, we have combined ‘Credit Card’ and ‘Prepaid card’ to a single class and so on.

Now, we will map each of these categories to a number, so that our model can understand it in a better way and we will save this in a new column named ‘category_id’. Where each of the 12 categories is represented in numerical.

# Create a new column 'category_id' with encoded categories df2['category_id'] = df2['Product'].factorize()[0] category_id_df = df2[['Product', 'category_id']].drop_duplicates() # Dictionaries for future use category_to_id = dict(category_id_df.values) id_to_category = dict(category_id_df[['category_id', 'Product']].values) # New dataframe df2.head()

Let us visualize the data, and see how many numbers of complaints are there per category. We will use Bar chart here.

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(8,6)) colors = ['grey','grey','grey','grey','grey','grey','grey','grey','grey', 'grey','darkblue','darkblue','darkblue'] df2.groupby('Product').Consumer_complaint.count().sort_values().plot.barh( ylim=0, color=colors, title= 'NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS IN EACH PRODUCT CATEGORYn') plt.xlabel('Number of ocurrences', fontsize = 10);

Above graph shows that most of the customers complained regarding:

Credit reporting, repair, or other

Debt collection


Text processing

The text needs to be preprocessed so that we can feed it to the classification algorithm. Here we will transform the texts into vectors using Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF) and evaluate how important a particular word is in the collection of words. For this we need to remove punctuations and do lower casing, then the word importance is determined in terms of frequency.

We will be using TfidfVectorizer function with the below parameters:

min_df: remove the words which has occurred in less than ‘min_df’ number of files.

Sublinear_tf: if True, then scale the frequency in logarithmic scale.

Stop_words: it removes stop words which are predefined in ‘english’.

tfidf = TfidfVectorizer(sublinear_tf=True, min_df=5, ngram_range=(1, 2), stop_words='english') # We transform each complaint into a vector features = tfidf.fit_transform(df2.Consumer_complaint).toarray() labels = df2.category_id print("Each of the %d complaints is represented by %d features (TF-IDF score of unigrams and bigrams)" %(features.shape))

Now, we will find the most correlated terms with each of the defined product categories. Here we are finding only three most correlated terms.

# Finding the three most correlated terms with each of the product categories N = 3 for Product, category_id in sorted(category_to_id.items()): features_chi2 = chi2(features, labels == category_id) indices = np.argsort(features_chi2[0]) feature_names = np.array(tfidf.get_feature_names())[indices] unigrams = [v for v in feature_names if len(v.split(' ')) == 1] bigrams = [v for v in feature_names if len(v.split(' ')) == 2] print(" * Most Correlated Unigrams are: %s" %(', '.join(unigrams[-N:]))) print(" * Most Correlated Bigrams are: %s" %(', '.join(bigrams[-N:])))

* Most Correlated Unigrams are: overdraft, bank, scottrade * Most Correlated Bigrams are: citigold checking, debit card, checking account * Most Correlated Unigrams are: checking, branch, overdraft * Most Correlated Bigrams are: 00 bonus, overdraft fees, checking account * Most Correlated Unigrams are: dealership, vehicle, car * Most Correlated Bigrams are: car loan, vehicle loan, regional acceptance * Most Correlated Unigrams are: express, citi, card * Most Correlated Bigrams are: balance transfer, american express, credit card * Most Correlated Unigrams are: report, experian, equifax * Most Correlated Bigrams are: credit file, equifax xxxx, credit report * Most Correlated Unigrams are: collect, collection, debt * Most Correlated Bigrams are: debt collector, collect debt, collection agency * Most Correlated Unigrams are: ethereum, bitcoin, coinbase * Most Correlated Bigrams are: account coinbase, coinbase xxxx, coinbase account * Most Correlated Unigrams are: paypal, moneygram, gram * Most Correlated Bigrams are: sending money, western union, money gram * Most Correlated Unigrams are: escrow, modification, mortgage * Most Correlated Bigrams are: short sale, mortgage company, loan modification * Most Correlated Unigrams are: meetings, productive, vast * Most Correlated Bigrams are: insurance check, check payable, face face * Most Correlated Unigrams are: astra, ace, payday * Most Correlated Bigrams are: 00 loan, applied payday, payday loan * Most Correlated Unigrams are: student, loans, navient * Most Correlated Bigrams are: income based, student loan, student loans * Most Correlated Unigrams are: honda, car, vehicle * Most Correlated Bigrams are: used vehicle, total loss, honda financial

Exploring Multi-classification Models

The classification models which we are using:

Random Forest

Linear Support Vector Machine

Multinomial Naive Bayes

Logistic Regression.

For more information regarding each model, you can refer to their official guide.

Now, we will split the data into train and test sets. We will use 75% of the data for training and the rest for testing. Column ‘consumer_complaint’ will be our X or the input and the product is out Y or the output.

X = df2['Consumer_complaint'] # Collection of documents y = df2['Product'] # Target or the labels we want to predict (i.e., the 13 different complaints of products) X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.25, random_state = 0)

We will keep all the using models in a list and loop through the list for each model to get a mean accuracy and standard deviation so that we can calculate and compare the performance for each of these models. Then we can decide with which model we can move further.

models = [ RandomForestClassifier(n_estimators=100, max_depth=5, random_state=0), LinearSVC(), MultinomialNB(), LogisticRegression(random_state=0), ] # 5 Cross-validation CV = 5 cv_df = pd.DataFrame(index=range(CV * len(models))) entries = [] for model in models: model_name = model.__class__.__name__ accuracies = cross_val_score(model, features, labels, scoring='accuracy', cv=CV) for fold_idx, accuracy in enumerate(accuracies): entries.append((model_name, fold_idx, accuracy)) cv_df = pd.DataFrame(entries, columns=['model_name', 'fold_idx', 'accuracy'])

The above code will take sometime to complete its execution.

Compare Text Classification Model performance

Here, we will compare the ‘Mean Accuracy’ and ‘Standard Deviation’ for each of the four classification algorithms.

mean_accuracy = cv_df.groupby('model_name').accuracy.mean() std_accuracy = cv_df.groupby('model_name').accuracy.std() acc = pd.concat([mean_accuracy, std_accuracy], axis= 1, ignore_index=True) acc.columns = ['Mean Accuracy', 'Standard deviation'] acc

From the above table, we can clearly say that ‘Linear Support Vector Machine’ outperforms all the other classification algorithms. So, we will use LinearSVC to train model multi-class text classification tasks.

plt.figure(figsize=(8,5)) sns.boxplot(x='model_name', y='accuracy', data=cv_df, color='lightblue', showmeans=True) plt.title("MEAN ACCURACY (cv = 5)n", size=14);

Evaluation of Text Classification Model

Now, let us train our model using ‘Linear Support Vector Machine’, so that we can evaluate and check it performance on unseen data.

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test,indices_train,indices_test = train_test_split(features, labels, df2.index, test_size=0.25, random_state=1) model = LinearSVC(), y_train) y_pred = model.predict(X_test)

We will generate claasifiaction report, to get more insights on model performance.

# Classification report print('ttttCLASSIFICATIION METRICSn') print(metrics.classification_report(y_test, y_pred, target_names= df2['Product'].unique()))

From the above classification report, we can observe that the classes which have a greater number of occurrences tend to have a good f1-score compared to other classes. The categories which yield better classification results are ‘Student loan’, ‘Mortgage’ and ‘Credit reporting, repair, or other’. The classes like ‘Debt collection’ and ‘credit card or prepaid card’ can also give good results. Now let us plot the confusion matrix to check the miss classified predictions.

conf_mat = confusion_matrix(y_test, y_pred) fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8,8)) sns.heatmap(conf_mat, annot=True, cmap="Blues", fmt='d', xticklabels=category_id_df.Product.values, yticklabels=category_id_df.Product.values) plt.ylabel('Actual') plt.xlabel('Predicted') plt.title("CONFUSION MATRIX - LinearSVCn", size=16);

From the above confusion matrix, we can say that the model is doing a pretty decent job. It has classified most of the categories accurately.


Let us make some prediction on the unseen data and check the model performance.

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.25, random_state = 0) tfidf = TfidfVectorizer(sublinear_tf=True, min_df=5, ngram_range=(1, 2), stop_words='english') fitted_vectorizer = tfidf_vectorizer_vectors = fitted_vectorizer.transform(X_train) model = LinearSVC().fit(tfidf_vectorizer_vectors, y_train)

Now run the prediction.

complaint = """I have received over 27 emails from XXXX XXXX who is a representative from Midland Funding LLC. From XX/XX/XXXX I received approximately 6 emails. From XX/XX/XXXX I received approximately 6 emails. From XX/XX/XXXX I received approximately 9 emails. From XX/XX/XXXX I received approximately 6 emails. All emails came from the same individual, XXXX XXXX. It is becoming a nonstop issue of harassment.""" print(model.predict(fitted_vectorizer.transform([complaint]))) complaint = """Respected Sir/ Madam, I am exploring the possibilities for financing my daughter 's XXXX education with private loan from bank. I am in the XXXX on XXXX visa. My daughter is on XXXX dependent visa. As a result, she is considered as international student. I am waiting in the Green Card ( Permanent Residency ) line for last several years. I checked with Discover, XXXX XXXX websites. While they allow international students to apply for loan, they need cosigners who are either US citizens or Permanent Residents. I feel that this is unfair. I had been given mortgage and car loans in the past which I closed successfully. I have good financial history. print(model.predict(fitted_vectorizer.transform([complaint]))) complaint = """They make me look like if I was behind on my Mortgage on the month of XX/XX/2024 & XX/XX/XXXX when I was not and never was, when I was even giving extra money to the Principal. The Money Source Web site and the managers started a problem, when my wife was trying to increase the payment, so more money went to the Principal and two payments came out that month and because I reverse one of them thru my Bank as Fraud they took revenge and committed slander against me by reporting me late at the Credit Bureaus, for 45 and 60 days, when it was not thru. Told them to correct that and the accounting department or the company revert that letter from going to the Credit Bureaus to correct their injustice. The manager by the name XXXX requested this for the second time and nothing yet. I am a Senior of XXXX years old and a Retired XXXX Veteran and is a disgraced that Americans treat us that way and do not want to admit their injustice and lies to the Credit Bureau.""" print(model.predict(fitted_vectorizer.transform([complaint])))

The model is not perfect, yet it is performing very good.

The notebook is available here.


We have implemented a basic multi-class text classification model, you can play with other models like Xgboost, or you can try to compare multiple model performance on this dataset using a machine learning framework called AutoML. This is not yet, still there are complex problems associated within the multi-class text classification tasks, you can always explore more and acquire new concepts and ideas about this topic. That’s It!!

Thank you!

All images are created by the author.

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The media shown in this article is not owned by Analytics Vidhya and are used at the Author’s discretion


How To Be An Eclectic Spirit: 14 Steps (With Pictures)

Have many interests. Being an eclectic spirit means having a lot of interests, or finding beauty in items/ thoughts/ experiences that are classically not appreciated. This can run the gamut. You can branch out by studying a subject that is not widely studied amongst your friends. And of that subject, be sure to dig deeply. If you are studying poetry, for example, maybe read the works by newer, or less famous, authors, too. Or perhaps you are involved in a particular activity that sets you apart from the rest, but you have to remember that you have to love this activity yourself, and you’re not just participating in it because you want to be ‘eccentric/eclectic’.

Ask yourself what you like, why you like it, what draws you to the experience or item, for example, and how to showcase it in your life. If you love writing, think of starting your own library of small works or publications of up-and-rising authors, or starting a collection of writing instruments that you can also make use of in your daily life, that you deeply appreciate. Even if you alone appreciate the items. That is the essence of eccentricity, it seems. The eccentric will act in a genuine manner – not dismayed by the actions of those around her/him. An eclectic will typically have a multitude of interests, and will be in constant reflection on these items, experiences, features of life. An eccentric eclectic will then typically have a vast and sundry array of interests, but will not camouflage/ hide her interests. She will live authentically.


Make contacts. Study everything. Try to see the relationships between all life, and the relationship between studies or topics that superficially seem very far removed. The way that I’ve acquired new interests, often, has been in ‘linking’ a new subject with an older subject that already fascinated me.

Do not take on an affected air. Be true to your own person. You can be highly eclectic and not dramatic. You can be eccentric in how you live – by living authentically – without acting. Eccentricity is so rare, partly, because most people are hiding who they are, or acting a role. Don’t worry about appearing more or less eccentric or eclectic. Be open to new experiences (but don’t necessarily ’embrace’ everything!) Be open to the possibility of what a new experience will bring to your life, without necessarily HAVING to engage in this new way of being. For example, if a friend wants you to try yoga, try asking yourself “why? should I? I might like it” – don’t necessarily say “no” off the hop. At the same time, if – and only after you’ve given a topic some thought – do not want to do something, don’t force yourself to do it.

Keep authentic friends about you. Know the people who you associate with – or try to get to know them. And don’t model behaviour and/or try to be like someone, no matter how clever, eclectic or ‘open’ if he/ she seems cruel or cutting. There is, for example, oftentimes huge debates over the subject of art – and what should be allowed in art, be allowed by an artist. One artist was found starving dogs for performance art. Now, despite the fact that this is a very ‘different’ way of trying to be artistic, the plain fact of the matter is that if you care AT ALL about animals, this story is horrifying. So it doesn’t matter how unique, cutting edge, etc someone/ or something is… If it doesn’t sit right in your soul, AVOID going down that path.

Know thyself, as the Delphians say. It is GREAT to develop new interests and be open to new experiences, but this doesn’t mean you have to lose yourself, or that your personality has to change. If you are introverted and often a little shy, you can try to summon up a little courage and do something differently – say, go to an art gallery opening, or breach a conversation with a friendly looking peer. This does not mean that your essence is changing. If anything, by learning new stuff, reading more and LIVING more, you are simply going to learn more about yourself, too. Maybe the truest part of chúng tôi simply hidden.

Don’t worry about fashion or trends. They change so quickly, and what makes someone else’s sense of colour/ style etc. more important – more valid – than your own?? If you love something, pursue it, and create your own fashion. A great way to do this is to go to thrift stores, and also learn how to make alterations with a sewing machine. Thrift stores carry such a wide array of styles in clothing, that you experiment. And because the prices are usually far lower – a ‘mistake’ purchase at a thrift store will cost far less than one made at a high end boutique, or even the mall.

Know that you don’t have to clash either. Also, being eclectic doesn’t mean that your style has to clash. On the contrary! The basis of eclecticism is that if something is very durable, and of high quality, well proportioned lines and a beautiful form – it will go with other well designed, beautiful items. Eclecticism doesn’t mean going for odd pieces and hoping for the best. It means being appreciative of the beauty that has existed in various forms throughout history, and not ignoring or devaluing past contributions simply because they are of the past.

Embrace your inner child. The heart of an eccentric person is childlike. Not childish. An eccentric personality will be attracted to the natural splendor, just as is a small person, a child, before he or she becomes aware that others are watching, and tries to act differently. At the heart of an eccentric being is an egoless being. This is not the same thing as having no personality. chúng tôi being egoistic – not being so full of yourself, as most adults are, that every word you speak is measured, and compared to the words of others. Or every purchase you make is with another person in mind, rather than yourself. If you are buying yourself an item of clothing – go with what you love, not what others TELL you THEY love. If someone else loves your style – terrific! That’s great. Flattering, yes? But don’t change your style to accommodate a parent, sibling, uber-controlling boyfriend etc.

If there is a character that you love, whose fashion style you love etc. – look to her as a model for ideas. This is not stealing. Very often you will find that you do not like a style of dress on your own being as much as you like it on the character. You may be totally infatuated, even, with a character and may aim to ‘change’ yourself to be more like the character. To a point, this isn’t really harmful, because if there behavior is in sync with what you love and how you’d like to be (say, more confident, or more outspoken, or more carefree etc.) then it possibly is a positive change. But remember – you don’t have to change every aspect of your behavior to have improvement. If you have traits that are holding you back, then work on those, but don’t idolize another for being ‘better’ than you. A more confident person is not better than you, simply because she or he is more confident. Everyone has problems, or areas of their life on which they need to work. No one is perfect.

Ask yourself – everyday – how something can be made better. Made truer to your own person. Take personality quizzes on-line, such as the Kiersey or the Myers Briggs Personality Inventory or the Enneagram to learn more about your personality (but remember – you are much more than a ‘type’). Look at ordinary objects in a new light. When is an old, mucky rain boot from your childhood NOT an object for the trash bin? When it can be made into a potter for vine plants! (Eccentric people were probably the first recyclers – they valued what others saw, often, as ‘junk’ and breathed new life into that which as often rejected).

Since children are often the most eccentric, and eclectic – spend extra time with your younger siblings, younger cousins etc. Read them stories, and ask them questions. Ask them all sorts of questions, and listen to their different replies. They will often provide as the muse for change in your life. If you have no young siblings, no younger cousins etc., but are a young adult – think of becoming a mentor or helping out. If you are a teen, and too young to mentor – think of volunteering at a pound or local animal shelter. Animals are very authentic beings – they do what they want, according to their personality and take on things, and can be quite healing.

Write. Write anything you want! The more you write, the more you will crave to write. Free association writing is a neat exercise you can try as well.

Make a list of simple pleasures, and try to surround yourself with ‘free beauty. A trip to the library. Changing how you take your coffee – adding brown sugar instead of Splenda, getting up early enough to see the sun rise, developing your own morning prayer or meditation ritual that only YOU know about, going to various churches or synagogues – even if you are an atheist – for a new, fresh take on being alive, watching clouds. In essence – being random!. Remember, what makes you different makes you beautiful.


Laptop Turns On And Off Repeatedly: How To Fix It In 8 Steps

Laptop Turns On And Off Repeatedly: How to Fix It in 8 Steps Overheating could be the reason for the laptop shutting down




The laptop turns off repeatedly due to a faulty charger or damaged RAM.

This guide will discuss all the available fixes to resolve the issue.



To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

It can be frustrating if your laptop suddenly turns on and off repeatedly. There could be various reasons behind it, including overheating, damaged hardware, or malware infection. 

In this guide, we will discuss the step-by-step instructions to fix the issue right after talking about the reasons for the problem.

What causes the laptop to turn on and off repeatedly? 

There could be various reasons for the laptop to behave in such a manner; some of the common ones are:

Hardware issues – Check for faulty RAM, hard drive, or other hardware components, as any of these could cause your laptop to turn on and off by itself. 

Power issues – A faulty battery, charger, or power supply outlet could cause your laptop to turn on or off immediately. 

Overheating – Check your laptop for overheating, as high temperatures could cause various problems, including this error.

Software interference – If there is an incompatible or damaged app, it could cause the laptop to malfunction, hence the issue. 

Virus infection – If your computer is infected with a virus or malware, it could cause your laptop to turn on and off. You need to run a deep scan using security software to remove malware. 

BIOS or firmware issue – Check the BIOS or firmware settings to ensure all the settings are correct. If not, reset the settings to default to fix the problem. 

What can I do if the laptop turns on and off repeatedly? 1. Inspect the battery 

Turn off your laptop completely and shut down the flap.

Go to your laptop’s back panel and slide the latch to the unlock position.

Remove the battery from the laptop. 

Connect the charger to the power outlet and laptop to check for an issue. If the computer works fine, then you need to change the battery to fix the problem once and for all.

2. Check for overheating 

Expert tip:

First, turn off your laptop and unplug the charger. 

Now turn your laptop over and locate the air vents. 

Next, use a soft brush to remove the dust or debris that could clog the air vents. 

3. Check the RAM and hard drive 

Turn off your laptop and unscrew the laptop’s back cover. 

Locate the RAM module and remove it by releasing the tabs. 

Clean the slot and reinsert the RAM module into place. 

Next, locate the hard drive, remove it, and clean the slot.

 Reinsert the hard drive and make sure it fits into the slot. 

Now put the back cover and screws back in, then restart your computer.

4. Check the power supply outlet and charger

Remove the charger from your laptop and power source.

Inspect the power cable for any visible damage or cuts. 

If the charger is damaged or faulty, replace it with a new one. 

5. Perform a hard reset 

Shut down your laptop completely. 

Unplug the charger from the laptop and power source. 

Remove the battery and hold down the power button for 15-20 seconds. 

Reinsert the battery and plug in the charger.

Now turn on your laptop and check if the issue is fixed. 

6. Run a malware scan 

You can as well consider using proficient antivirus software that comes with new virus detection algorithms and secures your PC from complex malware. ESET Internet Security is a no-brainer option to protect and fix such laptop issues caused by viruses.

8. Reset the BIOS settings 

So, these are the steps you must follow to fix the laptop turning on or off repeatedly. If the issue persists, it is recommended to seek professional help. 

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8 Best Ecommerce Platforms To Create An Online Store In 2023

You know, once upon a time, we’d stroll down to the local market, engage in pleasant banter with shopkeepers, and pick up our favorite things. Those were simpler times, but the tide of digitalization has changed our shopping habits for good. Welcome to the world of online shopping – the digital marketplace that never sleeps.

If you’re here, it’s likely because you’ve caught the eCommerce bug, haven’t you? Don’t worry, it’s a good one to catch. You’re eager to set up your own digital storefront, and I can’t help but grin ear-to-ear, because I’ve been right where you are, and let me tell you, it’s an exciting journey ahead.

I’ve battled through the challenges, navigated the twists and turns of the digital landscape, and learned what it takes to succeed in the world of online selling. I’m here to spill the beans, share the insights from my journey, and guide you through the wilderness of eCommerce platforms.

In the article that follows, I’ll introduce you to the best eCommerce platforms to create an online store – each one tried, tested, and given my personal thumbs up. From the biggest players in the game to some hidden gems, we’ll explore them all to help you find the one that fits your vision like a glove.

So grab a cup of your favorite brew, make yourself comfortable, and let’s navigate the exciting world of eCommerce together. It’s time to open your online store, and boy, am I thrilled to help you get there!


Are you looking to create your own online store? Look no further than Shopify! With its user-friendly interface and powerful features, Shopify is one of the top eCommerce platforms available today. Whether you’re a small business owner or an aspiring entrepreneur, Shopify has got you covered.

The key features of Shopify

Easy setup and customization: Getting started with Shopify is a breeze. You can choose from a wide range of professionally designed templates and customize them to match your brand. No coding skills required!

Secure and reliable: When it comes to running an online store, security is paramount. With Shopify, you can rest easy knowing that your customers’ data is protected by industry-leading security measures. Plus, they have a 99.98% uptime guarantee, ensuring that your store stays online and accessible at all times.

Payment options: Shopify offers seamless integration with over 100 payment gateways, including popular ones like PayPal, Stripe, and Apple Pay. This means that you can accept payments from customers all around the world without any hassle.

Flexible shipping options: From setting up shipping rates based on weight or location to offering free shipping promotions, Shopify provides a range of tools to help you streamline your shipping process and keep your customers happy.

App store: Need additional functionality for your store? Look no further than the Shopify App Store! With thousands of apps available, you can easily add features like email marketing, inventory management, live chat support, and much more.

So why did we pick Shopify as one of the best eCommerce platforms?

It’s simple: it combines ease of use with powerful features to provide an all-in-one solution for creating and managing an online store. Whether you’re just starting out or looking to scale your business, Shopify has the tools you need to succeed.


Are you looking for an eCommerce platform that offers flexibility, ease of use, and powerful features? Look no further than WooCommerce. As one of the most popular eCommerce platforms available today, WooCommerce is a robust solution for creating and managing your online store.

Key Features of WooCommerce

Customizability: With WooCommerce, you have complete control over the look and feel of your online store. You can choose from a wide range of themes and customize them to match your brand identity. Additionally, you can extend the functionality of your store by adding plugins and extensions from the vast WooCommerce marketplace.

Ease of Use: Setting up an online store can be daunting, especially if you don’t have technical expertise. But with WooCommerce, you don’t need to worry. It seamlessly integrates with WordPress, making it incredibly user-friendly. The intuitive interface allows you to manage products, inventory, orders, and payments with ease.

Scalability: Whether you’re just starting out or have an established business, scalability is crucial for future growth. With WooCommerce’s modular architecture, you can easily scale your online store as your business expands. You can add new features and functionalities as needed without any hassle.

Payment Gateways: Accepting payments securely is vital for any eCommerce business. Fortunately, WooCommerce supports a wide range of payment gateways including PayPal, Stripe, chúng tôi and many more. This ensures that your customers have multiple options to complete their transactions conveniently.

SEO-friendly: In today’s competitive digital landscape, search engine optimization (SEO) plays a crucial role in driving organic traffic to your website. Thankfully, WooCommerce is designed with SEO best practices in mind. It provides customizable URLs, meta tags, and other SEO settings, giving you the tools to optimize your store for higher search engine rankings.

Why Choose WooCommerce?

WooCommerce offers a compelling solution for creating and managing your online store. Its extensive features, user-friendly interface, and scalability make it an ideal choice for businesses of all sizes. Whether you’re a small startup or an established brand, WooCommerce provides the flexibility and power you need to succeed in the eCommerce space.

Who is WooCommerce For? Pricing

WooCommerce itself is free and open-source, which means there are no upfront costs to use the platform. However, keep in mind that you will still need to invest in web hosting and potentially some premium themes or plugins to enhance your store’s functionality. The overall cost will depend on your specific requirements and the additional tools you choose to use.


Are you looking for an eCommerce platform that can help you build and grow your online store with ease? Look no further than BigCommerce. With its comprehensive set of features and user-friendly interface, BigCommerce is a top choice for businesses of all sizes.

Key Features of BigCommerce

Flexible Customization Options: BigCommerce offers a wide range of customizable templates and themes, allowing you to create a unique and professional-looking online store that reflects your brand. You can easily customize the design, layout, colors, fonts, and more without any coding knowledge.

Scalability: Whether you are just starting out or already have an established business, BigCommerce can scale with your needs. It can handle high traffic volumes and large product catalogs without compromising on performance or user experience.

Mobile-Optimized Experience: With the increasing use of mobile devices for online shopping, it is crucial to have a responsive website that works seamlessly across different screen sizes. BigCommerce ensures that your store looks great on any device, providing a seamless shopping experience for your customers.

Integrations and Apps: BigCommerce offers a wide range of integrations with popular third-party apps and services such as payment gateways, shipping providers, marketing tools, and more. This allows you to extend the functionality of your online store and integrate it with other essential tools in your business workflow.

Marketing Tools: In order to drive traffic to your online store and increase sales, marketing plays a crucial role. BigCommerce provides built-in SEO features to optimize your store for search engines, as well as tools for email marketing campaigns, social media integration, abandoned cart recovery, and more.

Why Choose BigCommerce?

BigCommerce is an excellent choice for businesses that want a powerful and scalable eCommerce platform with a user-friendly interface. Here are a few reasons why you should consider BigCommerce for your online store:

Ease of Use: BigCommerce offers an intuitive and easy-to-use interface, making it accessible to both beginners and experienced users. You don’t need any technical skills to get started and can quickly set up your store.

Robust Features: BigCommerce provides a comprehensive set of features to help you manage every aspect of your online store, from inventory management to order processing and customer support.

Reliable Support: BigCommerce offers 24/7 customer support via phone, chat, and email. Their knowledgeable support team is always ready to assist you with any questions or issues you may encounter.

Security and Reliability: With BigCommerce, you don’t have to worry about the security and reliability of your online store. They provide secure hosting, regular backups, and PCI compliance to protect your customers’ sensitive information.

Who is it For? Pricing

BigCommerce offers different pricing plans based on the size and needs of your business. The plans start at $29.95 per month for small businesses and go up to custom Enterprise plans for larger organizations. They also offer a 15-day free trial so you can test out the platform before making a commitment.


If you’re looking for a robust and feature-rich eCommerce platform to create and manage your online store, Magento is the perfect choice. With its extensive set of tools and capabilities, Magento empowers businesses of all sizes to build, customize, and scale their online presence.

Key Features of Magento

Flexible and Scalable: One of the standout features of Magento is its flexibility and scalability. Whether you’re a small business just starting out or a large enterprise with complex needs, Magento can adapt to your requirements. It offers a wide range of customization options, allowing you to create a unique storefront tailored to your brand.

Advanced Product Management: Managing your products is made easy with Magento’s comprehensive product management features. You can create catalogs with multiple variations, set pricing rules, manage inventory levels, and even integrate with third-party fulfillment services.

Multi-Store Capabilities: If you have multiple brands or want to target different markets with distinct storefronts, Magento enables you to manage multiple stores from a single backend. This makes it convenient to oversee various aspects such as inventory, customer data, promotions, and more without the need for separate installations.

SEO-friendly: In today’s competitive online landscape, search engine optimization (SEO) is crucial for driving organic traffic to your store. With Magento’s built-in SEO tools and capabilities, you can optimize your product pages, meta tags, URLs, and other elements that impact your search rankings.

Robust Integration Options: To enhance the functionality of your online store, Magento offers seamless integration with various third-party applications and services. From payment gateways and shipping providers to marketing automation tools and customer relationship management (CRM) systems – you can easily extend the capabilities of your store through integrations.

Why Choose Magento? Who Is Magento For?

Magento is suitable for businesses of all sizes and industries. Small businesses can benefit from its out-of-the-box functionality and user-friendly interface, while larger enterprises can leverage its extensive customization options and scalability. Whether you’re selling physical products, digital goods, or subscription-based services, Magento offers the flexibility to meet your specific requirements.


Magento offers both free and paid versions. The open-source version, known as Magento Open Source (formerly Magento Community Edition), is free to download and use. However, it requires technical expertise for installation, customization, and maintenance.


If you are looking to set up an online store, you want a platform that is reliable, user-friendly, and offers a wide range of features to help you run your business smoothly. One such platform that ticks all these boxes is Volusion. In this in-depth exploration of Volusion, we will delve into its key features, discuss why it is a top choice for eCommerce businesses, identify who would benefit from using it, and provide pricing information.

Key Features of Volusion

Easy-to-Use Interface: Volusion provides a user-friendly interface that allows even beginners to set up and manage their online stores without any technical expertise. Its intuitive design makes it easy to navigate through the various features and functionalities.

Secure Payment Options: Volusion integrates with popular payment gateways like PayPal and Stripe, ensuring secure transactions for your customers. It also supports multiple currencies, making it easier for businesses to cater to an international customer base.

Product Management Tools: Managing your inventory becomes effortless with Volusion’s robust product management tools. You can easily add products, update inventory levels, set pricing options, and manage product variants all from one centralized dashboard.

Marketing and SEO Features: Volusion provides built-in marketing tools such as SEO optimization features, social media integration, email marketing campaigns, discount codes, and abandoned cart recovery options. These features help drive traffic to your store and increase conversions.

Why Choose Volusion?

Furthermore, Volusion’s focus on security and payment options ensures a safe shopping experience for your customers. The platform’s extensive range of marketing and SEO features empowers you to optimize your store for search engines and effectively promote your products.

Who is Volusion For?

Volusion is an ideal choice for small to medium-sized businesses that are looking for an easy-to-use platform with powerful customization capabilities. Whether you are just starting out or already have an established online presence, Volusion provides the tools and flexibility needed to create a professional online store.

Pricing Squarespace

Are you looking for an eCommerce platform that combines stunning design, ease of use, and powerful functionality? Look no further than Squarespace. With its user-friendly interface and robust features, Squarespace is a top choice for entrepreneurs and small businesses alike.

Key Features of Squarespace

Drag-and-Drop Website Builder: Building your online store with Squarespace is a breeze thanks to its intuitive drag-and-drop website builder. You don’t need any coding skills to create a professional-looking website – simply choose elements you want to include on your site and customize them with ease.

Mobile Optimized: With mobile commerce on the rise, it’s essential to have an online store that looks great on all devices. Squarespace ensures your store is fully optimized for mobile browsing, providing a seamless shopping experience for your customers.

Built-in SEO Tools: Getting found in search engine results is crucial for the success of your online store. With Squarespace’s built-in SEO tools, you can easily optimize your product pages and content for better visibility in search engines like Google. From customizable meta tags to automatic sitemap generation, Squarespace helps improve your store’s search engine ranking.

Why Choose Squarespace?

Squarespace is an excellent choice for entrepreneurs and small businesses who want a visually stunning online store without the hassle of coding. With its user-friendly interface, beautiful templates, and powerful features, Squarespace empowers you to create a professional eCommerce site that stands out from the competition.

Who is Squarespace For?

Squarespace caters to a wide range of users, from individuals looking to sell handmade products to established businesses seeking an all-in-one platform for their online presence. Whether you’re starting a new venture or looking to revamp your existing online store, Squarespace offers the tools and flexibility to meet your needs.


Squarespace offers different pricing plans tailored to different business needs. The plans include:

Personal: $16 per month when billed annually.

Business: $26 per month when billed annually.

Basic Commerce: $30 per month when billed annually.

Advanced Commerce: $46 per month when billed annually.

Each plan comes with various features and benefits. You can choose the plan that best suits your eCommerce requirements and scale up as your business grows.


Are you looking for an eCommerce platform that offers a comprehensive set of features to help you create and manage your online store? Look no further than 3dcart. With its user-friendly interface, extensive customization options, and robust functionality, 3dcart is a powerful solution for businesses of all sizes.

The key features of 3dcart

Flexible Design Templates: With 3dcart, you have access to a wide range of professionally designed templates that can be easily customized to match your brand identity. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced web designer, the intuitive drag-and-drop editor allows you to create a visually appealing and unique online store without any coding knowledge.

Advanced Product Management: Managing your product catalog has never been easier with 3dcart’s comprehensive product management tools. You can easily add, edit, and organize your products with detailed attributes such as SKU, pricing options, inventory tracking, and more. Additionally, the platform supports unlimited product variations and options, making it ideal for businesses with complex product offerings.

Built-in SEO Tools: Optimizing your online store for search engines is crucial for driving organic traffic and increasing visibility. 3dcart understands this importance and provides built-in SEO tools that allow you to optimize your store’s meta tags, URLs, headings, image alt text, and more. This ensures that your products are easily discoverable by search engines like Google.

Secure Payment Gateways: Trust is essential in the world of eCommerce. With 3dcart’s integration with over 160 payment gateways including PayPal, Stripe, chúng tôi and more, you can offer your customers a secure and seamless checkout experience. The platform also supports multiple currencies and languages to cater to an international customer base.

Robust Marketing Features: 3dcart offers a wide array of marketing features to help you promote your online store and boost sales. From email marketing campaigns and social media integrations to abandoned cart recovery and discount coupons, you can implement various marketing strategies to engage with your customers and increase conversions.

Why choose 3dcart?

3dcart is an excellent choice for businesses that are looking for an all-in-one eCommerce platform that combines user-friendly design tools, powerful functionality, and reliable customer support. Whether you’re just starting out or already have an established online store, 3dcart offers scalability to grow with your business.

Who is it for? Pricing

3dcart offers different pricing plans based on the size and needs of your business. The plans start at $19 per month for the “Startup” plan and go up to $229 per month for the “Pro” plan. There is also an enterprise-level solution available for larger businesses with custom pricing.


Are you looking for a versatile and user-friendly platform to create your online store? Look no further than OpenCart. With its extensive range of features and easy-to-use interface, OpenCart is a popular choice among businesses of all sizes. In this article, we will delve into the key features of OpenCart and why it stands out among the competition.

Key Features of OpenCart

Easy Setup and Customization: OpenCart offers a hassle-free installation process that allows you to get your online store up and running quickly. Its intuitive admin panel makes it easy to customize the appearance and functionality of your store, without requiring extensive technical knowledge.

Multiple Payment Gateways: With OpenCart, you have access to multiple payment gateways, ensuring that your customers can make secure transactions using their preferred method. Whether it’s PayPal, Stripe, or other popular options, integrating payment gateways into your online store is seamless with OpenCart.

Flexible Product Management: Managing your product inventory has never been easier with OpenCart’s flexible product management system. You can easily add new products, update prices and descriptions, create categories, and track stock levels all from within the user-friendly admin panel.

SEO-Friendly Architecture: OpenCart is designed with search engine optimization (SEO) in mind. Its clean code structure and customizable URLs ensure that your online store ranks well in search engine results pages (SERPs), driving organic traffic and increasing visibility for your business.

Why Choose OpenCart?

OpenCart offers a range of benefits that make it a standout choice for creating your online store. Here are a few reasons why you should consider using OpenCart:

User-Friendly Interface: OpenCart’s intuitive interface makes it easy for users of all skill levels to navigate and manage their online stores effectively.

Cost-Effective Solution: OpenCart is an open-source platform, which means it is free to download and use. This makes it a cost-effective option for businesses looking to establish an online presence without breaking the bank.

Scalability: Whether you’re just starting or have a well-established business, OpenCart can scale with your needs. Its modular architecture allows you to add features and functionalities as your business grows.

Who Is OpenCart For?

OpenCart caters to a wide range of businesses, from small startups to large enterprises. It provides the flexibility and scalability needed for businesses in various industries, including retail, fashion, electronics, and more. Whether you’re a solo entrepreneur or managing a team, OpenCart offers the tools and features necessary to create and manage a successful online store.


OpenCart is an open-source platform that is available for free download. However, keep in mind that you may incur additional costs if you choose to purchase premium themes or extensions from the OpenCart marketplace.


An eCommerce platform is a software application that allows businesses to manage their online sales operations. It provides essential features such as product listing, shopping cart, payment processing, and order management. Using an eCommerce platform makes it easier to sell products online, manage inventory, track orders, and offer a seamless shopping experience to customers.

When choosing an eCommerce platform, consider the following features:

Ease of Use: The platform should be user-friendly, especially if you’re not technically savvy.

Payment Options: Look for a platform that supports a wide variety of payment methods.

Scalability: The platform should be able to accommodate your business as it grows.

Integration: Check if the platform integrates with other tools and services you use, like email marketing software, social media platforms, and analytics tools.

Security: Ensure the platform offers robust security features to protect your store and customers’ information.

Customer Support: Good customer service is crucial, especially if you’re new to eCommerce.

Yes, it’s possible to switch to a different eCommerce platform if your current one no longer meets your needs. However, migrating your store can be a complex process that might involve moving product listings, customer data, and order history. Some platforms offer migration tools or services to help with this process. Before switching, ensure that you have a complete backup of your store’s data.

Yes, most eCommerce platforms offer features to help with SEO (Search Engine Optimization) and marketing. These might include SEO-friendly URLs, meta tags, and image alt tags for better search engine indexing. They might also offer integrations with social media platforms for easy sharing and promotion, email marketing tools for sending newsletters and promotions, and analytics to track your store’s performance and customer behavior.

7 Easy Ways To Improve School

Like businesses and relationships, schools live and die (or pass and fail) by communication. So what can they do to make it better? The following are just a few things our school did to improve communication.

An endless barrage of emails, texts, handouts, and announcements can lead to a communication overdose. The message, scattered about, gets lost when there are too many outlets. The easiest remedy is to consolidate these communications in a single, consistent package. We called ours the Monday Memo. It contained operational nuts and bolts, calendar events and deadlines, observations and insights from the school leader and others, weekly goals (which were shared with students as well), and at least one professional article aligned with the school’s mission and vision. The Monday Memo was like a Napoleonic bulletin—it kept the troops well-informed and on the path to victory.

Note: Whenever possible, add a little levity. A cartoon or humorous story usually does the trick. A Monday morning smile can often carry a teacher all the way over to hump day.

2. The Huddle

At big schools with lots of grades, teachers often work themselves into silos. Freeing them from these silos is a scheduling challenge, but one well worth taking up. A teacher of ours came up with a simple solution: The Huddle. (We actually called ours “The Herd” because our mascot was a yak.) Once a week for just 15 minutes, we would all gather (with refreshments, of course) to share team plans and to look for opportunities for collaboration across grade levels.

And just like a football huddle, we would break with a unified clap.

Note: This can be accomplished electronically, but being eyeball to eyeball makes a world of difference.

3. Tea With Teachers

Once a month, I would meet with parents in the morning to discuss anything and everything having to do with the school. I called it Donuts With Dunbar. (We served lots and lots of coffee as well.) One day a teacher came up to me and asked, “Why don’t you ever have donuts with us?”

“Y’all are always too busy in the morning,” I said.

“Then let’s do refreshments in the afternoon,” she said. And thus Tea With Teachers, or TWT, was born. Unlike most faculty meetings, TWT was voluntary and the agenda was set by the participants. There were no time limits nor goals—only open, honest, real discussion.

4. Shout-Outs

There are a number of ways to acknowledge and celebrate best practices and excellence in schools. One of the best and easiest is the humble shout-out. Throughout the week, faculty and staff would submit nominations for academic, artistic, and cultural achievement. Every Friday, we would recognize those students, teachers, and community members who had gone above and beyond the call of duty. We would also note progress toward weekly and annual goals. It was a way of keeping all eyes firmly on the prize.

5. Art Jams

During the school day, it’s almost impossible to think creatively. Grading papers and juggling deadlines doesn’t exactly foster creative thinking. Yet such thinking is more important today than ever. So how and when do you generate new, innovative ideas? For us, it took place after school and off campus, surrounded by art and with plenty of adult beverages. Being an arts-integrated school, we called it an Art Jam. It was a time to brainstorm crazy ideas—ideas that might just lead to improved teaching and learning.

6. Social Media

A board member once asked me why I managed the school’s Facebook page. “Don’t you have more important things to do?” she asked.

“Believe it or not,” I said, “Facebook is one of the most important things I do.”

The principal is the vision keeper for a school. That vision has to be shared with all stakeholders. Social media—Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, etc.—is one of the best ways to accomplish this. Use it to promote instructional best practices, to celebrate excellence, and to recognize all of the things that make your school unique.

7. Professional Culture Surveys

So with all of this improved communication, how do you know if it’s working? As with student achievement, there has to be an end goal or measure for success. At our school, we developed a professional culture survey and gave it out three times a year. It was anonymous, and the perception data was shared with the entire faculty and staff. We used the results to, among other things, further improve communication.

When it comes to communication in schools, less is not more, and more is not necessarily better. It needs to be systematic, intentional, and transparent.

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