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Amassing a Small Army Against a Growing Enemy CAS prof plays traffic cop on the information superhighway

Computer viruses have changed drastically in the last five years, according to Mark Crovella, with users now falling prey to unseen intruders. Photo by Vernon Doucette

One thing, however, is nearly certain. If your computer has been breached, you will likely never know it.

Computer viruses, explains Mark Crovella, a College of Arts & Sciences professor of computer science, have changed drastically in the last five years. Where once attacks were obvious to victims—computers might slow down or run unwanted programs—users now fall prey to unseen intruders. Small programs, called bots, slip unseen through weak spots in PC protection; from there, they can take up secret residence on a computer and download complex instructions from a remote controller elsewhere on the internet. Poised to do the bidding of their masters, these zombie computers become part of “botnets”—networks of thousands, or even millions, of computers that can cause all sorts of trouble by scanning the internet to look for other vulnerable computers, sending out reams of spam email to ensnare other users, revealing keystrokes or online transactions to steal passwords and credit card numbers, or launching distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks that overload and shut down other websites.

These are the types of threats that Crovella, director of lab operations in the computer science department, and his team of computer scientists and statisticians spend their days hunting down. Their goal is not to treat your ailing computer, or even to gird your existing security. Instead, they aim to identify unwanted internet traffic, allowing network providers to stop it from ever reaching your PC.

Rather than attempt to define the properties of unwanted traffic, Crovella’s strategy is to paint a picture of what “normal” internet usage looks like. Using software he and his team designed, they capture and analyze anonymous traffic information at five-minute intervals as the data flows through thousands of routers around the world.

Unusual patterns—statistical anomalies in the amount or type of data being transferred—tip off Crovella and his team to potentially malicious activity. How these programs sneak into individual computers can change daily, even hourly. But their patterns of behavior, the ways they interact on the internet, are nearly always outside the norm.

DDoS attacks, for instance, generate abnormally large amounts of traffic. Content, too, can reveal criminals at work. “If you see a large variety of internet protocol, or IP, addresses—numbers that identify individual computers—coming from one source in a short period of time, that kind of activity is statistically anomalous,” Crovella explains. And “anything outside of statistically normal traffic patterns is potentially malicious.”

Other researchers and companies have tried similar techniques, but with only one router at a time. Using the unique multivariate statistical approach developed at BU, says Crovella, “suddenly, activity outside the norm stands out in a way it never could if you were looking for it at each source.”

His technique—based on a method called principal component analysis and licensed to Guavus, Inc., a venture-backed binational company led by one of Crovella’s former PhD students, Anukool Lakhina (CAS’01, GRS’01,’07)—is now being used by GÉANT, Europe’s main multigigabit computer network, for research and academic purposes.

Crovella continues to refine the technique at BU. Executing this type of analysis requires collecting an immense amount of data, and while computers amass and evaluate it, he and his team must validate their results themselves before submitting their research for publication. This manual examination of multiple terabytes (a terabyte is one trillion bytes) requires not only a great deal of time and patience, but also expertise in both computer science and statistics. Crovella typically works with two to three students at a time and one to three other faculty investigators. It is a small army against a growing enemy: every day, according to computer protection provider Symantec MessageLabs, approximately 151 billion unsolicited messages are distributed by compromised computers.

“A year or so ago, I discovered my own PC was infected with a botnet,” Crovella says, smiling and shaking his head. “The IT folks discovered it. I never knew it was there.”

This story originally appeared in the 2010 issue of Research magazine.

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Ai As A Service (Aiaas) Market Is Growing

This blog lists the expected growth figures for the AI business, including the deployment model, end-user application, verticals, and geography. Businesses will be able:

Based on facts and figures, create strategies for specific regions and countries.

Identify the best time and place to invest.

Overperform key competitors by using data and the trends and drivers shaping the market.

Based on the most recent market research findings, understand your customers.

Strategically positioning yourself in the tech run can help you grow your business.

Companies will not be able to build their own AI solutions for these small services. They are often associated with high upfront costs and difficult management.

This is why businesses often look for AIaaS (Artificial Intelligent-as-a-Service).

Today we will be discussing AI as a Service (AIaaS). What is the market’s growth rate and CAGR? What are the business models of the market’s major players? Why is this market growing? We will also answer other similar questions.

What is AIaaS?

AIaaS stands for Artificial Intelligence-as-a-Service. This refers to off-the-shelf Artificial Intelligence tools that allow companies to scale production and implement AI techniques within their model at a fraction of the cost of in-house AI.

We can gather the details from our discussions and AI is considered a large sector that includes multiple technologies such as NLP (Natural Language Processing), robots, machine learning, and computer vision.

Growth in AI As a Service:

The global AI-as a Service market was valued at USD 1.35 Bn in 2024 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 46.9% by 2028. The study’s base year is 2023. The forecast period is between 2023-and 2028.

The forecasted compound annual growth rate (CAGR), for the various categories of the AI market, is:

AI Services – 22%

AI Hardware- 20.5%

Artificial Intelligence platforms – 34.6%

Software for AI System Infrastructure – 14.1%

AI Lifecycle Software – 38.9%

AI Business Services – 21.9%

Based on the deployment model, the market was split into two distinct segments: cloud-based and on-premises deployment models.

The US is the dominant revenue source in the global AI service market and will continue to be so in the future. The US is a majorly developed economy which makes it an attractive market for AI service providers.

Market Statistics:

The market for AIaaS has seen a rise in awareness about cloud-based solutions as well as the need for affordable artificial intelligence specialists. Let’s look at the market growth in AIaaS based on competitive analysis and segmentation.


The market for Artificial Intelligence as a service is segmented according to organization size, technology, regions, and industry verticals. Further, the technology segment can be divided into machine learning, NLP, computer vision, and other areas. Machine Learning dominated the market in 2023 with a larger market share and increased revenue. It is expected that this market share will continue to grow over the next few years.

Based on the size of the Business the AIaaS Market can be divided into two segments, small and medium enterprises, and large enterprises. In 2023, large enterprises had already secured their market share for AI, which has increased pressure on other companies and increased demand for AI in other industries.

The market’s growth can be identified from the Industry Vertical aspect. It is split into the following: retail, telecom, healthcare IT, public sector, manufacturing, and energy sectors, as well as the utility sector. The AIaaS market has been dominated by the IT and telecom sectors. They have integrated chatbots into their business models for greater customer satisfaction and increased revenue.

Analysis of Competition:

Through acquisitions, product launches, and collaborations, some of the biggest AIaaS market leaders like Apple Inc. and Intel Inc. have adopted AI services into their models. These big players also focus on creating new AI platforms and services to help them meet their higher goals.

Amazon Web Service, for example, has launched Amazon Transcribe according to its model. This automatic speech recognition service offers speech-to-text conversion and helps distinguish between leading speakers.


AIaaS is a service that makes AI technology available to all businesses. It is also affordable, quick, and easy to use with minimal effort.

Many companies don’t choose to develop their AI software in-house. AIaaS can increase your company’s ability to scale, while also paying for the necessary tools and giving you the option to upgrade to higher plans as needed.

To tackle all your non-expertise tasks, find the right AIaaS Partner to help your business. There is no additional cost and you will reap the benefits. Algoscale, an Artificial Intelligence Solutions Provider, implements innovative and effective artificial intelligence solutions that assist businesses in becoming smarter and more flexible.

Our AI solutions combine business, development, as well as operations data to provide actionable insights that give our clients a holistic view of changing business environments. This allows them to benefit from the automation, resulting in improved business results over time.

We hope that you find this information useful. Algoscale strives to provide wisdom on a broad range of subjects. Keep reading to learn new things.

How To Become A Video Game Designer: Is It A Growing Industry?

blog / Technology How to Become a Video Game Designer: Is it a Growing Industry?

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Video game designers build games that run on computers and gaming consoles. They create flowcharts and storyboards, write code, and troubleshoot bugs. Careers in video game creation appeal to computing experts with a passion for software development. In addition, because game designing is frequently a community-based endeavor, the profession is well-suited for collaborative workers. Let’s take a closer look at this profession and understand how to become a video game designer. 

Skills You Need to be a Video Game Designer

Let’s look at how to become a video game designer and the skills required.

Workplace Skills

Penchant for gaming

Communication skills




Willingness to collaborate as part of a team

Technical Skills

Knowledge of computer graphics

Animation abilities

Adobe Photoshop expertise

Knowledge of design theory

Understanding of software and hardware development

Jobs and Specializations for Video Game Designers

You might find out how to become a video game designer and prepare yourself accordingly, but you should also know what kind of job roles you can aim for. Here’s a list of career options you can pursue once you’ve developed your skill set.

Computer Programmer

Computer programmers produce code for software and apps in collaboration with software developers and engineers. Therefore, they must be fluent in programming languages such as C++ and Java.

Web-based Games Developer

Web-based game developers are in charge of website design and maintenance. They design game websites based on the requirements of the customer or company.

Video Game Producer

Producers of video games manage projects and hold meetings across many departments. In addition, they keep product development on track, do market research, and assist with marketing initiatives.

Technical Project Manager

Technical project managers frequently divide tasks into sections, defining milestones and goals. They address issues, prioritize activities, and help their team build projects.

Now let’s look at the qualifications needed and the potential salary each of these positions can get you.

Career Minimum Education Experience Average Salary

Computer Programmer

Bachelor’s Degree 

Freshers can apply


Web Developer

Bachelor’s Degree 

Freshers can apply


Video Game Producer

Bachelor’s Degree

Three-plus years of experience in the relevant field


Technical Project Manager

Bachelor’s Degree

Three-plus years of experience in the relevant field


ALSO READ: How to Become a Game Developer and Create Great Games

How to Become a Video Game Designer Earn a Degree

A Bachelor’s Degree in Multimedia Design or a closely related discipline is required to become a video game designer.

Enroll in Boot Camps

Consider attending a boot camp to improve your CV and gather more portfolio material and knowledge in a shorter time frame.

Enroll in Executive Programs

Video games are a primary developing creative form, and game design schools are becoming increasingly common. Enrolling in an executive program for video game design can help you gain better knowledge. 

Technical Skills

Technical skills are the core foundation of video game design. 

Complete an Internship

An internship can act as a stepping stone to your game designing career. 

Build a Portfolio

It is critical to developing a portfolio that is easy to access and explore for a hiring manager to see the work you have done. 

Learn New Skills

Learning new skills like an additional coding language, staying on top of technology, etc. is always beneficial as it adds another feather to your cap of existing skills. 

Workplace Skills

Workplace skills refer to the technical and hard skills at the core of video game design. 

Actively Participate in the Field

Develop your interest in this profession by attending networking events. Networking can be a great source of support throughout your video game designing journey. 

Create Your Own Games

Creating your games is a quick way to learn and get hands-on experience in video game design. 

Enlist in Online Courses

Enlisting in online courses is the best way to learn about video game design. They offer you the flexibility of time and pace at which you want to study since video game design can be a complex course to learn. Having that flexibility will help you tremendously cope with new learnings.

ALSO READ: Game Design: Step Into a Fun, Exciting Career for the Future

Career Path Overview Salary and Career Prospects of a Video Game Designer 

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, video game creators are classified as software developers, and employment for software engineers will grow 25% between 2023 and 2031. As of March 2023, video game designers earned an average yearly income of $67,300, according to Payscale. Having said that, though, education, geography, industry, and experience are all factors that determine pay potential.

How to Find an Internship?

The best way to practically apply your learnings of how to become a video game designer is through an internship. Use the following steps to find the one best suited to you:

Find Companies Where You Want to Work

Check out the websites of the game studios you wish to work for while looking for a video game internship. When you’ve decided where to apply, find out what you can about the company. It is always beneficial to do so before your interview.

Participate in Networking Events

Check to see if your community has career fairs or networking events where you can meet representatives from various game studios. This is your time to create a solid first impression and connect with someone in person. 

Send Well-Written Applications

When writing your CV and cover letter for an internship, customize it for the job you seek. First, read the internship description carefully and pay attention to any abilities the company desires. Then, consider how you can include these abilities in your CV and cover letter. 

Get Ready for Your Interview

When you receive an interview invitation, be prompt with your response. Just before your interview, brush up on the information you have about the firm and read over the job description. You can even conduct a practice interview with a friend to rehearse your answers. Here are some anticipated questions:

What is your motivation for working in the video game industry?

What contribution can you make to our team?

What are your thoughts about our studio?

What are your strongest and weakest points?

What are you hoping to gain from this internship?

Expect Knowledge and Competence Tests

Employers can use specific exams to determine if you have the necessary knowledge and abilities for this position. Therefore, before your interview, refresh your math, coding, and reasoning abilities. By anticipating a test, you can be ready when your employer starts the timer.

How Hard is it to Become a Game Designer?

While it may be fun and exciting, a career in video gaming isn’t easy. There will be multiple challenges along the way, like:

Long working hours

Stressful situations

Competitiveness in the field

If you enjoy narrative and incorporating characters and themes into interactive gaming, video game design can be the profession for you. You can use your imagination to create new video games for consumers and educators. You can discover technology courses on Emeritus to help you design your own games and take your first steps into the profession.

By Siddhesh Shinde

Write to us at [email protected]

Is Your Business Really A Small Business?

The SBA defines which companies are officially designated as small businesses.

Your industry determines whether your business’s designation depends on its number of employees or its annual revenue.

You can find your industry code in the U.S. Census Bureau’s NAICS publication.

This article is for business owners who are trying to determine whether their organization is technically considered a small business.

You can call your company a small business, but if you don’t meet the SBA’s definition you could lose out on some opportunities. The SBA’s standards for small businesses are based on three factors: your company type, your average annual revenues and your number of employees. Is your business truly small? Read on to find out.

How to tell if you own a small business

To qualify as a small business, a company must fall within the size standard, or the largest size a business may be to remain classified as small, within its industry. 

The U.S. Census Bureau provides a list of industry codes to help businesses determine their size designation, and the SBA maintains an extensive list of small business size standards with the maximum requirements to remain classified as a small business in each sector and subsector.

“The definition of ‘small business’ is dependent on which industry code a company is in,” said Molly Gimmel, CEO of Design to Delivery. “My company’s primary code is 541611. In that industry, a small business is defined as one with average revenues, based on the past three completed fiscal years, that are less than $16.5 million.”

Though size standards vary by industry, they are usually measured by the number of employees or average annual receipts. The current SBA business size standards include the following.

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting: Between $2 million and $30 million in average annual receipts, depending on your subsector.

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction: No more than 250 to 1,500 employees, depending on your subsector. There are four sectors with annual revenue rather than employee limits, ranging from $18 million to $41.5 million.

Utilities: No more than 250 to 1,000 employees, depending on your sector. There are three sectors with annual revenue limits instead, ranging from $26.5 million to $36 million.

Construction: Between $16.5 and $39.5 million in average annual receipts.

Manufacturing: No more than 500 to 1,500 employees, depending on your subsector.

Wholesale trade: No more than 100 to 250 employees, depending on your subsector.

Retail trade: No more than $8 to $41.5 million in average annual receipts, depending on your subsector. Other subsectors have defined employee maximums from 100 to 200.

Transportation and warehousing: No more than 500 to 1,500 employees, depending on your subsector. Some subsectors have maximum average annual receipt limits ranging from $8 million to $41.5 million.

Information: No more than 250 to 1,500 employees, depending on your subsector. The maximum average annual receipts ranges from $9.5 million to $41.5 million.

Finance and insurance: No more than 1,500 employees for direct property and casualty insurance carriers, and a maximum of $13 million to $41.5 million in average annual receipts. Certain financial institutions instead qualify as small businesses if they have no more than $750 million in assets.

Real estate, rental and leasing: No more than $8 million to $41.5 million in average annual receipts.

Professional, scientific and technical services: No more than $8 million to $41.5 million in average annual receipts, or no more than 150 to 1,500 employees, depending on your subsector.

Management of companies and enterprises: No more than $34 million in average annual receipts for offices of bank holding companies. Offices of other holding companies must earn no more than $40 million in average annual receipts.

Administrative and support, waste management, and remediation services: No more than $7.5 million to $41.5 million in average annual receipts, depending on your subsector.

Educational services: No more than $8 million to $41.5 million in average annual receipts, depending on your subsector.

Healthcare and social assistance: No more than $7.5 million to $38.5 million in average annual receipts, depending on your subsector.

Arts, entertainment and recreation: No more than $8 million to $41.5 million in average annual receipts, depending on your subsector.

Accommodation and food services: No more than $8 million to $41.5 million in average annual receipts, depending on your subsector.

Other services: No more than $7 million to $41.5 million in average annual receipts depending on your subsector.

Benefits of being classified as a small business

Business size classification isn’t frivolous. Being classified as a small business comes with certain benefits, so it’s important to know if your business qualifies. Here are some of the benefits small businesses can enjoy.

Loans: Rather than lending money directly to businesses, the SBA works with lenders and essentially acts as a co-signer for small businesses seeking loans. This provides lenders a stronger guarantee that they’ll be paid back, which gives small businesses access to better rates than they might receive on their own.


If you need to obtain funding for your small business, visit our page on the best business loans.

How To Choose A Small Business Loan

Small business loans are an essential tool for buying and growing a business or for staying afloat when times are tough, but it can be challenging to navigate the many small business funding options and to decide what type of financing is right for you. Before settling on a lender for your business, you should understand all of your choices, as well as your business’s needs. 

Editor’s note: Need a loan for your business? Fill out the below questionnaire to have our vendor partners contact you about your needs.

Types of small business loans

There are many top loan options for small businesses, such as traditional loans, equipment loans and working capital loans. Lenders include the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), conventional banks and alternative lenders. Each has its own set of positives and negatives. 

“While there are numerous options from which to choose, not all deliver the same benefits,” said Tom Coletta, senior vice president of corporate banking at City National Bank of Florida. 

First, let’s look at some common forms of small business funding. 

Traditional bank business loans

Traditional bank loans typically feature low interest rates, a detailed payment schedule and the ability to retain total ownership of the business. 

The types of loans offered by banks include term loans, which are geared more toward expanding a business than starting a new one. They can be paid back over one to five years at lower monthly rates. However, they are better suited for more established businesses than for startups. Other funding options from banks include lines of credit, real estate financing, working capital loans and equipment loans. 

According to Jay DesMarteau, head of commercial banking at LendingClub, one of the chief concerns for borrowers is how long they need the loan. 

 “A line of credit would most often be used for short-term funding needs, while a term loan or commercial real estate mortgage offers multi-year financing for expansions or to purchase property,” DesMarteau said. 

SBA loans

Loans backed by the SBA are prized by business owners for their low interest rates and extended repayment terms. You will need to go through an extensive application process, so this isn’t the best choice for businesses that need emergency funding. That said, SBA loans are safe and attainable for businesses that might have been turned away by other lenders

“SBA loans allow approvals in some cases, such as when the down payment or a business’s cash flow is too low, because of the government guarantee,” DesMarteau said. “There is a misconception that SBA loans are a startup loan and that the government gives them away, but it is true that they have different credit underwriting standards, terms and other factors than a traditional small business loan.”

Did You Know?

Many SBA loans can be repaid over 10 years or more, which is a significantly longer term than other funding sources offer.

Alternative loans

Although traditional banks offer some of the best terms for financing, they usually maintain stricter requirements for applicants. You will need a solid credit score and proof of at least several years of profitability. Business owners with lower credit or little time in operation will likely have to pursue other sources of funding, such as financing from an alternative lender.

Alternative lenders offer many of the same types of funding as traditional banks, including term loans, lines of credit and working capital loans. The upside of alternative lenders is that you can often get approved quickly and easily, and some lenders even offer same-day funding into your business bank account. But while alternative funding features a short application process, downfalls of using alternative lenders include much higher interest rates, a shorter payback time and less control over the business.


Applying for an alternative loan differs from applying for an SBA loan. It is important to know what is required for each application.

Secured/unsecured loans

The difference between an unsecured loan and a secured loan is that a secured loan is backed by collateral. This means that if the borrower cannot repay the loan, the lender can take possession of the collateral to recoup their losses. Secured loans typically have lower interest rates because the lender has less risk.

An unsecured loan is not backed by collateral. This means that there is no property or asset the lender can take possession of if the borrower cannot repay the loan.

Secured loans are easier to acquire than unsecured loans because of the collateral required. This type of loan is often suited for new businesses with startup costs and funding needs of over $50,000. If you have good credit, you can expect to obtain an unsecured loan of up to $50,000. However, startups with business owners who have poor credit are often turned away. [Learn more about loan options for those with poor credit.]

How to choose a small business loan

Before you decide on a small business loan, it is essential to take several preliminary steps. First, make sure you assess your business’s funding needs, as well as cash flow and expenses. Thoroughly researching lenders and carefully weighing funding offers will ensure you don’t overpay for financing. 

Outline your business’s funding needs.

Before choosing a loan, business owners should write a business plan and outline their objectives for the company, Coletta said. This will give you and your lender a better idea of the best funding solution for your situation.

“Prior to meeting with a banker or lender, it is important to have a business plan in place, preferably one that has been reviewed by your certified public accountant,” Coletta said. “The plan should include articulated short- and long-term financial goals.”

Ask yourself what you need to reach your goals. From there, find a banker who can help you project the growth of your business and craft a lending solution, Coletta added.


Knowing how to use SMART planning can help you set goals for your business. 

Comment: Apple’s Small Business Program Is A Huge (And Extremely Clever) U

Apple’s new Small Business Program represents a massive U-turn by the company, disguised as something far smaller.

The company has been coming under antitrust fire around the world, with most of the attention focused on the 30% commission it charges to developers. Apple has previously dismissed any suggestion that it should reduce this rate …

Apple’s commission rates are firmly in the mainstream of those charged by other app stores and gaming marketplaces. Competition drives innovation, and innovation has always defined us at Apple. We work tirelessly to deliver the best products to our customers, with safety and privacy at their core, and we will continue to do so.

But the company has now literally halved it.

Of course, Apple’s angle is that it has now halved it for ‘small businesses.’

Apple today announced an industry-leading new developer program to accelerate innovation and help small businesses and independent developers propel their businesses forward with the next generation of groundbreaking apps on the App Store. The new App Store Small Business Program will benefit the vast majority of developers who sell digital goods and services on the store, providing them with a reduced commission on paid apps and in-app purchases. Developers can qualify for the program and a reduced, 15 percent commission if they earned up to $1 million in proceeds during the previous calendar year.

The reality is that the cap of a million dollars a year means that the commission has been halved for, at a conservative estimate, 99% of iOS developers. It would be more accurate to say that the App Store now has a standard commission rate of 15%, doubled to 30% for a small number of very large developers.

But doing it this way is a clever approach, for three reasons.

First, because it means that most developers are now very happy – while Apple still protects its take from the most popular apps which generate most of its commissions. It’s like a very extreme version of the 80/20 rule, where 80% of Apple’s revenue comes from 20% of its developers – but I bet the reality is more like 99/1. Update: It’s 98/2.

Second, Apple has removed a potent weapon used by big players like Epic Games and Spotify. These companies love to pretend they are speaking up for small developers, rather than protecting their own interests. When Apple charges the same commission to a one-person business as it does to a tech giant, that’s a persuasive angle to take. Apple has now robbed them of this PR weapon.

Third, Apple leaves its 15% commission on recurring subscriptions untouched. With an ever-growing number of developers heading down the subscription route in an attempt to generate recurring revenue from their apps, Apple is ensuring that it protects its take here.

With one stroke of Tim Cook’s pen, he has defused one of the biggest antitrust threats to the company, and done so in a way that has a dramatically smaller impact on the company’s bottom-line than reducing the commission rate for everyone.

Some claim Apple can’t innovate any more, but that is a truly innovative solution to a large and growing threat to the company’s business model.

A low-key press release with a 3 am embargo time, released at a time when all the focus is on the company’s new Macs, is actually one of the most important decisions the company has made for years. Well played, Apple.

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