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You may be interested in learning more about Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) in Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). One of the crucial elements in understanding WAP in GSM is knowing the bearer types used in this context.

A bearer type is a means of carrying data between two points. In the case of WAP in GSM, there are two bearer types used, circuit-switched (CS) and packet-switched (PS).

CS bearer types are established when a phone call is initiated, and data is transferred through the same channel as the voice call. This method is relatively slower, but it is more reliable and can be used even in areas with limited data coverage.

On the other hand, PS bearer types are established when a data connection is initiated. This method is faster but may be less reliable in areas with limited data coverage.

To further complicate things, there are two types of PS bearers used in WAP in GSM. These are General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE). GPRS is the older and slower of the two, while EDGE is an updated version that provides faster data transfer rates.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a standardized protocol that enables mobile devices to access web content and services. It was designed to allow mobile devices to browse web pages and access online services in a way that is optimized for the limited processing power, memory, and bandwidth of mobile devices.

In GSM networks, WAP traffic is carried over a variety of bearer types, which are the physical channels used to transport data between the mobile device and the network. There are several types of bearer channels used for WAP in GSM, including Circuit Switched Data (CSD), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), and High-Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD).

Circuit Switched Data (CSD) is a technology that uses a dedicated circuit to establish a connection between the mobile device and the network. This connection is maintained for the duration of the data transfer, and the channel is reserved exclusively for the use of the mobile device. CSD is a slow and expensive option for WAP, but it is still used in some areas where GPRS or HSCSD are not available.

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet-switched technology that enables data to be transmitted over the same channels as voice traffic. With GPRS, data is transmitted in small packets, allowing the network to make more efficient use of available bandwidth. GPRS is a cost-effective and efficient option for WAP, and it is widely used in GSM networks.

High-Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) is a technology that provides higher data rates than CSD by using multiple channels simultaneously. HSCSD offers speeds of up to 57.6 kbps, making it a faster option for WAP than CSD. However, it is less efficient than GPRS, and it requires a dedicated channel for the duration of the data transfer.

In addition to these bearer types, WAP can also be carried over the Short Message Service (SMS) channel. SMS is a text-based messaging service that is used to send short messages between mobile devices. With WAP over SMS, users can receive links to WAP pages and services via SMS messages. This option is less popular than other bearer types, as it is limited to text-based content and has a low data transfer rate.

So, the choice of bearer type for WAP in GSM networks depends on various factors such as network availability, cost, and data transfer rates. Developers need to carefully evaluate the available options to ensure that the WAP services they develop are optimized for the network environment and provide the best possible user experience. By balancing perplexity and burstiness, content creators can effectively communicate the technical information related to bearer types for WAP in GSM to a wide audience.

The bearer types used in Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) face a number of challenges and have various use cases. These include optimizing network bandwidth and capacity to meet application requirements, taking network availability into account, selecting an energy-efficient bearer type to preserve device battery life, and ensuring secure communication to protect user privacy and confidentiality.

Use cases for bearer types in WAP include high-speed transmission for multimedia applications like video streaming and gaming, support for small data packets for messaging and email applications, fast data transmission for location-based services, and secure communication for mobile banking applications.

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Gsm Vs Cdma Vs Lte

Difference Between GSM vs CDMA vs LTE

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Head to Head Comparisons Between GSM vs CDMA vs LTE (Infographics)

Below are the top comparisons between GSM and CDMA and LTE:

Key Differences Between GSM vs CDMA vs LTE 1. Transmission of Wireless Techniques

The GSM technique operates in principle FDMA and TDMA. The time slots are divided into eight and have unique carrier frequency, which is established over a GSM connection. The users of GSM has given a single carrier channel with time slots to share the data. CDMA works on segregated 64 channels, which follow spread spectrum technology, frequency hopping, and mixed CDMA techniques. LTE works on SC-FDMA and OFDM, which has related access theories and signal holders.

2. Frequency Channel of Wireless Technologies

GSM has the system frequency of dual bands such as 1800 MHz and 900 MHz and called GSM-900 and DCS-1800. The FDMA segregates 25 MHz into a carrier frequency of 124 slots. The channel width is calibrated as 200 MHz, and the TDMA process does the segregation of carrier frequency into eight slots. The frequency of824 MHz to 894 MHz is provided by CDMA, which is flexible and called 3G GSM. It is also known as wideband CDMA. As the name express, it has maximum data capacity. It requires wide channels and is called universal mobile telephone systems. The several frequencies of LTE in every country are allotted with set limits. 1 to 25 frequency bands are assigned in the frequency division duplex, whereas the LTE ranges from 33 to 43 on time division duplex.

3. The Topology of Wireless Technologies

The GSM has the topology of the base station subsystem, user equipment, and core networks. The interaction layer is placed between system requirements and cooperation rules. The architecture of CDMA is made with code division layers and has maximum powers on bit processing. LTE is developed from the previous generation of UMTS. It composed of generated core packets and has eight core components of E-UTRAN, node – B, mobile management, entitled user plan, and access gateway.

Comparison Table of GSM vs CDMA vs LTE

Behavioral and Physical Attributes GSM CDMA LTE

Description The GSM is expanded as a Global System for Mobile communication. It is a famous wireless communication to define cellular networks’ protocol and is integrated with mobiles that can be used by three-forth of the global market. CDMA is used as a spread spectrum for mobile networks that allows multiple wireless users to transfer or spread the airwaves with alternate methods. LTE can be expanded as Long term evolution. It is a wireless broadband technique that is implemented for rapid speed communication. The transfer of data can be made within cell phones.

The bandwidth of every channel The frequency band is segregated across the world in four categories. They are GSM 900, DCS 1800, PCS 1900, and GSM 850. The bandwidth channel of CDMA is used for separation like 50 MHz along with 20 MHz The support of LTE extended to frequency channels from 1 to 25 and 33 to 43.

Frequency Bandwidth GSM supports a frequency of 200KHz CDMA has a frequency channel of 1.25 MHz, and it is segregated into code channels of 64. It works from  824 MHz- 894 MHz LTE supports a frequency of eight bandwidths such as 3MHz, 5MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz, and 20MHz.

Working principles The working principle of GSM follows FDMA or TDMA It follows DS-CDMA that is a direct sequence spread spectrum modulation. Frequency hopping and detection of mixed CDMA. It is developed over a wide bandwidth. The uplink in SC-FDMA and downlink of OFDMA is followed by LTE

Architecture The GSM has a physical layer that is made of multiple modules such as forward error, interleaving methods, multiplexing, differential encoding methods, modulation, and ciphering of GMSK. This technique is composed of a base station, and subscriber ends. The complete architecture is dependent on frequency division duplex and divided into logical and physical channels. It follows 3G radio communication methods. It provides maximum spectrum efficiency. The LTE has its complete topology on frequency division duplex and time division duplex. It acts differently for e-node and UE, where the UE is based on SC-FDMA to interact and e-node works on e-node B. It is separated into three channels like transport, logical and physical channels

MIMO methods  2*2 MIMO is followed by GSM It is based on rapidness to fading of multiple paths obtained by orthogonal frequency on division multiplexing. The standard of LTE follows 8*8, 4*4 MIMO and also supports co-operative MIMO and multi-user MIMO

Modulation techniques It works on Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying.

The modulation methods have more power on fine code divisions, and every code is encoded with a distinct key. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, 64 QAM and 16 QAM, is followed by LTE in the modulation.

Use cases . The CDMA methods enable multiple users to work on the same frequency and time allocation is the allotted space band. The Verizon wireless mobile on CDMA has its own sim card. It does not operate on GSM networks like AT & T.


Some mobile technology applications are navigation, space exploration, broadcast, military applications, and personalized according to the individual requirement. But the integrated principles and truth behind all the mobile applications remain constant. Mobile communications, irrespective of many revolutions, has several limitations that can be overcome in upcoming software updates.

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This is a guide to GSM vs CDMA vs LTE. Here we discuss the GSM vs CDMA vs LTE key differences with infographics and a comparison table. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –

Types Of Error In Php

Introduction to Error in PHP

The event of the occurrence of deviation of the result from the accurate result is termed as an Error. In PHP, error can be generated because of the usage of an incorrect format of coding or implementation of non-feasible functionality. Based on the root cause and level of severity, errors in PHP are categorized in 4 types, such as:

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Syntax error (Parse error)

Warning Error

Notice error

Fatal error

Types of Errors in PHP

Lets discuss the Types of Error in PHP.

1. Syntax Error (Parse Error)

In PHP, the scripting needs to follow standard grammar to develop an executable code. When the written code syntax gets deviated from the standard, syntax error takes place. It is also called as parse error. This error gets checked in the compilation stage itself and execution of the code gets stopped. It does not allow the execution unless the error is not fixed and compilation is completed without any syntax flaw. The error constant that is used to represent compile time parse (syntax) error: E_PARSE


The below code snippet is developed to assign values to PHP variables and display the stores values on the output window.

<?php $Correct_Var = "Writing a code to demonstrate Syntax(Parse Error)"; Incorrect_Var = "The '$' symbol is missing for variable y!!!"; echo $Correct_Var; echo Incorrect_Var;


PHP compiler understand existence of any variable when a string is associated with $ symbol. In the above code, definition of variable Incorrect_Var does not satisfy the grammar, hence the compiler throws syntax error for the code and execution is interrupted.

2. Warning Error

This error arises when the PHP script is trying to process any invalid information such as trying to perform a file operation on a file which does not exist or try to call a function with number of input values i.e. different from number of arguments present in the calling function definition. These are serious errors but does not stop the execution of the program and ends in exhibiting unexpected result. The error constant that is used to represent run time warning without terminating script execution: E_WARNING


The below code snippet is written to call another script file within the current programming.

<?php echo "Beginning of program execution"; $Correct_Var = "Writing a code to demonstrate Warning Error"; echo $Correct_Var; include ("MissingScript.php"); echo "Ending of program execution";


According to the programming, compiler successfully compiled to code and starts execution. The execution continues sequentially. For the command include (“MissingScript.php”), it is looking for the script in the default path …/usr/share/php and does not found any script with the given name. Thus it ends in resulting the warning message for that specific command and execution the rest of the code as designed.

3. Notice Error


<?php echo "Beginning of program execution"; $Correct_Var = "Writing a code to demonstrate Notice Error"; echo $InCorrect_Var; echo "Ending of program execution";


The compiler does not recognize the variable $InCorrect_Var as it is not defined in the code. Hence it throws the Notice error.

4. Fatal Error

A compile time error that is encountered due to any invalid command such as missing of function definition for a calling function, is coined as fatal error. Severity level of this type of error is critical and hence it does not let the execution to be proceed and throw fatal error message as output. The error constant that is used to represent the fatal error which triggers script termination: E_ERROR


The below code snippet is designed to call demonstrate application of function in PHP scripting.

<?php echo "Beginning of program execution"; $Correct_Var = "Writing a code to demonstrate Fatal Error"; echo $Correct_Var; UndefinedFunction();//Calling a function which is not defined in the script echo "Ending of program execution";


Additional Note

1. Error handling is easy in PHP. If any developer does not have access to the complete code for any application, it is recommended to use error handling functions in possible scenarios.

2. In order to avoid new error in the PHP programming, developer is expected to follow proper coding guidelines and stays alert towards probabilities of various types of errors, warnings and notices.

3. It is recommended not to allow any error or warning or notice to be displayed to the user. Hence the best practice for any safe PHP programming to ensure the required configuration to be available in chúng tôi file.

The desired value for the below variables are:

error_reporting as ' E_ALL' display_errors as 'Off' log_errors as 'On'

The below code can be included in any PHP script to configure the desired values in the chúng tôi file:

error_reporting(E_ALL); ini_set('display_errors','0'); ini_set('log_errors','1');

This function needs to be designed with some specific guidelines as follows:

Function should be capable of handling minimum of two input parameters: error message and error level and maximum of 5 input parameters by including the optional parameters such as line number, file and error context.

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Which Is Used More For Devops: Ruby Or Python?

Here, we’ll look at the choice, popularity, and utilization cases of Ruby and Python within the setting of chúng tôi are going to investigate their one-of-a-kind highlights, qualities, and shortcomings to assist you to choose which language best suits your DevOps requirements.

Section 1: A Brief Overview of Ruby and Python

Ruby: Made in 1995 by Yukihiro Matsumoto, Ruby is an energetic, object-oriented language with a focus on straightforwardness and efficiency. Ruby picked up popularity with the approach of Ruby on Rails, an effective web application system that emphasizes tradition over setup. The language is known for its elegant syntax and the ease with which it can be picked up by beginners.

Python: Made in 1989 by Guido van Rossum, Python may be an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. Python emphasizes seriousness and effortlessness, making it a well-known choice for a wide run of applications, checking web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence, and more. Python includes a broad, energetic community, and its ecosystem joins different libraries and frameworks that improve complex assignments.

Section 2: Adoption and Popularity of Ruby and Python in DevOps

The Stack Overflow Developer Survey and the GitHub Octoverse provide valuable insights into the popularity and adoption of programming languages. According to the 2023 Stack Overflow Developer Survey, Python ranked as the 2nd most popular language, while Ruby was in the 12th position. The GitHub Octoverse report for the same year showed a similar trend, with Python being the 2nd most popular language and Ruby at the 10th spot.

In spite of the fact that popularity alone does not decide the esteem of a language for DevOps, it does affect the accessibility of assets, community support, and the development of modern tools and libraries.

Section 3: Ruby and Python in the DevOps Toolchain

Infrastructure Automation: Both Ruby and Python have strong support for infrastructure automation, a crucial component of the DevOps process. Ruby has long been associated with the automation tool Puppet, while Python has close ties with Ansible. Both languages have numerous libraries and modules that simplify the automation process, though Python has a slight edge due to its extensive ecosystem.

Containerization: Docker, the driving containerization stage, has official SDKs for both Ruby and Python. In spite of the fact that both languages can successfully manage Docker containers, Python’s more extensive selection and support from other containerization instruments, such as Kubernetes, make it a more prevalent choice in this space.

Section 4: Strengths and Weaknesses of Ruby and Python for DevOps

Ruby Strengths

Rich syntax and simple to memorize, making it an amazing choice for beginners.

Ruby on Rails framework simplifies web development and deployment.

Strong community support and a rich ecosystem of libraries and tools.

Ruby Weaknesses

Lower popularity compared to Python, resulting in fewer resources and a smaller community.

Execution can be an issue in a few cases, as Ruby isn’t as quick as Python.

Limited flexibility compared to Python, which is reasonable for a broader run of applications.

Python Strengths

Exceedingly readable and straightforward syntax, making it simple to memorize and use.

The extensive environment of libraries and systems for different applications, including web development, data analysis, and AI.

Large, active community that provides support, resources, and continuous development of new tools.

Better performance compared to Ruby, which can be crucial in time-sensitive DevOps processes.

Python Weaknesses

A few developers might discover Python’s strict formatting rules to be prohibitive, because it upholds the utilization of whitespace for code indentation.

The move from Python 2 to Python 3 caused some confusion and fracture within the community, in spite of the fact that this issue has reduced over time.

Section 5: Making the Choice: Ruby or Python for DevOps?

The choice between Ruby and Python for DevOps eventually depends on your particular necessities, existing foundation, and group mastery. Both languages have their qualities and shortcomings, and the finest alternative for your organization may well be impacted by factors such as −

Familiarity − In case your group is as of now capable in one of these languages, it may be more effective to use their existing skill instead of contributing time and assets to learning a modern dialect.

Compatibility − Consider the compatibility of the language with your existing tools, frameworks, and infrastructure. This may influence which language is easier and more efficient to integrate into your DevOps processes.

Community and Ecosystem − A bigger community and a wealthier ecosystem of libraries and tools can make it less demanding to discover arrangements for common issues, execute modern features, and remain up-to-date with the most recent industry trends.


How Is Python Used In Our Daily Lives?

In this article, we will learn the use of Python language in daily life.

Python is popular among developers because of its clear syntax and simple code, even for newcomers.

We live in a digital world that is entirely controlled by lines of code. Every business, healthcare, military, GUI development, web design, system administration, complex financial transactions or calculations, data science, visualization, and finance to research, rely on software to perform properly. We have a long list of programming languages that help in software development that includes Python as well. It has emerged as the most profitable and fascinating programming language. The primary reason for this is its enormous libraries and frameworks.

Uses of Python in Daily Life

The following are the various uses of python in our daily life −


Python, the programming language, provides you with personalized songs to brighten your day. It is used by Spotify to support back-end web development and data science. Have you ever wondered how Spotify understands what to include in your customized playlists? Python’s data analysis capabilities can be praised. 80% of Spotify’s back-end web development and data analysis activities use Python coding.

Spotify is also an active and passionate member of the Python community, funding huge conferences like PyCon as well as local clubs like NYC PyLadies. A thriving corporation like Spotify does not eagerly associate its name with a language until it works spectacularly. Spotify is constantly looking for Python engineers. If you’ve always imagined yourself working with music while utilizing your preferred programming language, this is one of the opportunities you have been waiting for.

Health care

If you want to use your future programming skills to help save lives, Python could be the language for you. Python enables healthcare workers to execute their jobs by managing and organizing massive amounts of patient data. These data scientists rely on Python for image-based diagnostics and predictive analysis to provide them with the information they need to make the best treatment plan decisions possible.

Python and its external modules are also open-source and freely available, which is extremely beneficial to hospitals with limited resources. The vast Python module library also ensures that the collected sensitive and confidential data is kept secure. If Python is used for life-saving projects, then it can certainly handle any work you can throw at it.

Space and Astronomy

Do you find yourself looking at the stars? Python is a vital contributor to astronomers’ and astronauts’ ability to solve problems. Python’s astronomical jobs include automating telescope systems, generating visualized maps of meteor showers, and even gathering and processing Hubble Space Telescope data.

Data sets containing observations from space are noisy and complex. Data scientists may extract insights from a sea of information using Python’s data science capabilities, such as data scripting, Big Data, data visualization, and web scraping. Astronomers rely on Python to run complicated machines, collect essential data, and automate critical operations, demonstrating that it is much more than just a programming language, allowing them to fulfil their tasks fast and accurately.


Coding is also used in the Entertainment industry, so Python makes frequent appearances in the entertainment media business. For decades, Industrial Light and Magic, the visual effects company behind blockbusters like Star Wars and Jurassic Park, has used Python to power its CGI operating systems and lighting automation. And, with each passing year, Netflix becomes more Python-centric. Python is used by the company to run its Cassandra database. Cassandra clusters and modules are utilized for automation (including the muchloved recommendations page), data analytics, and error monitoring.

Metaflow, a Python web framework, is in charge of machine learning projects at Netflix, from prototype to production. The framework manages and organizes millions of data points across thousands of CPUs. YouTube was likewise constructed primarily in Python and continues to do so today, among other languages. Python’s machine-learning capabilities are widely utilized in our modern entertainment scene and are not limited to Netflix.

Game Development

Python has shown to be an excellent choice for game development in the fast-developing gaming sector. Python programming is used in popular games such as Pirates of the Caribbean, Bridge Commander, and Battlefield 2 for a variety of functions and add-ons.

The inclusion of popular 2D and 3D gaming libraries like pygame, panda3D, and Cocos2D makes game production easy.

Business Applications

Business Apps differ from our standard applications in that they span domains such as ecommerce, ERP, and many more. They require scalable, extendable, and easily readable apps, and Python provides all of these functions.

To create such commercial apps, platforms such as Tryton are available.


Python is widely regarded as the best language for training new developers. Python’s clear and simple syntax makes it easy for people to understand what commands will produce, regardless of where they are in the world. This organization is due to Python’s indentation, which places each instruction in its line of code. This “to-do list” format makes it simple to see why each line of code is in the location it is. Other languages like Java, JavaScript, and organize instructions using highly confusing curly brackets and semicolons interspersed throughout the code.

Python’s readability is enhanced by the fact that it is the programming language most closely related to written text. Python is the language to learn whether you’re searching for a simple first language or a way to teach the next generation of developers. For example, look at how the phrase “Hello World” is written in Python versus Java. Python is cleanly kept on one line, whereas in Java it does not appear to be as easy.


Python is a powerful and simple programming language that is rapidly gaining popularity. It has been the centre of some of the most incredible technology, such as AI, automation, and machine learning. It is also utilized to facilitate hot topics such as data analysis and data visualization. We tried to provide you with a basic understanding of the top ten 7 Python uses in the real world in this article.

Explain Various Techniques Used In Financial Statement Analysis.

Financial statement analysis is interpreted mainly to determine the financial operational performances of the business concern. Following are the common techniques that are widely used −

Comparative statement analysis − These statements help to understand the comparative position of financial and operational period at different period of time. It is again classified into 2 types −

Comparative balance sheet analysis − As the name suggests, it only concentrates on balance sheet at different period of time. This type of analysis helps to understand the real financial position over the years and how well the organisation utilises its assets, liabilities and capitals during a particular period.

Comparative profit and loss account analysis − Under this, only profit and loss accounts are compared with previous years or compared within the statement. This analysis helps to understand the operational performances of the business concern in a given period. It can be analysed in both vertical and horizontal basis.

Trend analysis − It helps to understand the trends of various items, which appear in the financial statements. It can be analysed by computing trends of series of information.

Common size analysis − In this balance sheet, the total assets figures is assumed to be 100 and all figures are expressed as a percentage of this total.

Fund flow statement −These kind of statements tell about financial position between beginning and ending of financial statement dates. It is also called as statement of source and use of funds. The main use of these statements are to indicate the requirement of funds and how they are proposed to be raised and the utilisation and application of the same.

Cash flow statement − These statements will show inflow and outflow of cash in a particular period of time by providing a summary of operating, investment and financing cash flows and reconciles them with a change in its cash and its equivalents. Institute of chartered accountants of India issued the AS-3 (Accounting standards) to prepare cash flow statements in 1988.

Ratio analysis − Ratio analysis shows relationship between two numbers. Ratio analysis can be classified as following

Liquidity Ratio − It explains the relationship between current assets to current liability. It is also called short-term ratio. Following are major liquidity ratios −

Formulas −

Current Ratio = current assets/current liability.

Quick Ratio = quick asset/quick (or) current liability.

Activity Ratio − It measures the efficiency of current assets and liabilities during a particular period. Following are some of Activity Ratios −

Formulas −

Stock turnover Ratio = cost of sales / average inventory

Debtors turnover ratio = credit sales/average debtors

Creditors turnover ratio = credit purchase/average credit

Working capital turnover ratio = sales/net working capital

Solvency Ratio − This Ratio helps to understand, how long term funds are used in an organisation. It is also called leverage ratios.

Formulas −

Debt-Equity Ratio − external equity/internal equity

Proprietary ratio − shareholders fund/total assets

Interest coverage Ratio − Earnings before interest and Taxes (EBIT)/fixed interest charges

Profitability Ratio − As name suggest it tells about profitability position of an organisation.

Gross profit Ratio − (Gross profit/net sales)*100

Net profit Ratio = (Net profit after tax/net sales)*100

Operating profit Ratio = (operating net profit/sales)*100

Return in investment = (Net profit after tax/shareholder fund)*100

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