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blog / Data Science and Analytics A Comprehensive Guide on How to Ace a Data Architect Interview

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Data architects are the senior visionaries in a company who align technology and enterprise framework with strategic business goals. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, data architects will witness a job growth of 9% between 2023 to 2031. Apart from this, as consumer-producer relationships become increasingly digitized, the skill sets required to ace a data architect’s portfolio have also evolved. So, what are recruiters looking for today? This blog answers all your queries about what to expect in a data architect interview.

What is the Interview Process for a Data Architect?

Data architect interview processes vary according to industry and can be quite extensive. However, most follow a specific paradigm that roughly corresponds to a company-specific hypothetical problem-solving round (technical investigation), coding skills round (technical expertise), and meeting with C-level executives who gauge the candidate’s leadership and communication skills.

How to Prepare for a Data Architect Interview?

To ace a data architect interview, it helps to have solid experience working within the data development life cycle. Policies of strict data governance, innovative ideas on data modeling, and end-to-end understanding of at least one data visualization tool are the essential competencies that you should acquire.

ALSO READ: How Lucrative are Data Architect Salary Packages in 2023

Common Data Architect Interview Questions Tell Me the Main Components of Data Architecture

The core components of most big data architectures include Data source, storage, batch processors, stream buffering, stream processing, analytical and relational data storing, multidimensional data modeling, and orchestration.

Tell Me the Difference Between a Relational Database and a NoSQL Database

A relational database uses tables, rows, and columns to store data. These databases use SQL for data management and support ACID guarantees. NoSQL databases work with non-relational data and do not use tables to store it. Instead, they use JSON documents to store unstructured and semi-structured data and favor horizontal scaling for cloud computing.

Tell Me the Challenges You Face When Developing Data Architecture

The challenges of developing data architecture typically are:

Maintaining a strong and consistent data supply chain

Integrating multi-type and multiple data sources

Creating thorough data-cleansing infrastructure

Lack of strict data governance

A steady supply of data-literate professionals

Issues of data gravity in hybrid data environments

Tell Me the Benefits of Using a NoSQL Database

A NoSQL database has several benefits.

It facilitates easy schemes and field updates.

Its scale-out architecture handles larger volumes of data.

It works well with storing structured, semi-structured, and unstructured information.

Cloud-based operations reduce downtime drastically.

These databases are more user-friendly.

Tell Me About the Challenge of Managing Data Architecture

The challenges of managing data architecture include:

Selecting the most appropriate data modeling techniques

Choosing the appropriate stream processing systems to better integrate real-time data into data architecture

Inducing data fabric architecture for a more holistic approach toward analyzed information

Aligning data architecture with long-term business goals

Tell Me the Challenges You Face when Designing a Data Architecture

The challenges of designing a data architecture primarily involve:

Creating the appropriate data flow diagrams

Documentation such as Create, Read, Update, Delete (CRUD) matrix to map data usage for different company processes

Securing the best data collection policies and standards

Creating a sophisticated blueprint comprising the entire data lifecycle and how to affirm the same in real life

What is a Data Access Layer?

The last layer of a data center’s three-tier architecture is known as the access layer. In data architecture, the access layer connects to all the actual servers and also maintains extra backup servers.

Tell Me the Most Important Skills for Data Architects

The most important skill is an extensive knowledge of systems development. Then comes innovative project management approaches, system development life cycle, data development life cycle, and data modeling that includes SQL development.

Tell Me the Challenges You Face When Working with Data Warehouses

The challenges of working with Enterprise Data Warehouses (EDW) are:

Massive time and financial investment

Requirement of extreme cross-functional efficiency

Demands a conglomeration of tools for data management, integration with modern technologies such as data virtualization, massively parallel processing, and in-memory computing

Lack of control over data quality and data sources

Tell Me the Best Ways to Ensure that Your Data is Secure

There are five major ways to futureproof your data:

Use of data discovery to identify business-critical datasets and segregate them

Strategies to prevent loss of sensitive data

Built-in data protection features in storage systems

Snapshots and other forms of backups

Firewalls and stringent systemic authorization

How to Manage your Database with External Data Sources?

Managing databases is crucial for maintaining strong connectivity between the database and external sources. The connection information comprises all details of any data change within the database and it can be stored in different formats such as a Universal Data Connection (.udcx) file or Office Data Connection (.odc) file. 

What is a Data Warehouse?

A data warehouse acts as the primary data repository which is used to analyze and glean actionable insights from different sources.

ALSO READ: Data Warehousing: Why it is Uber Popular in the Industry in 2023 and Beyond

What are Some of the Challenges You Face When Working with NoSQL Databases?

Some challenges of working with NoSQL databases are:

Difficulties in determining the current value of a dataset object if information nodes overlap

Data recovery

A common occurrence of node failures during backups

Block-level data integration is often compromised

What is a Data Dictionary?

A data dictionary comprises the entire set of definitions and attributes of each data element in the information system. It describes the purpose of the elements to facilitate correct interpretation and representation of the same.

What Questions Should Interviewees Ask at the End of the Interview?

These quick questions at the end of a data architecture interview will help candidates get a better understanding of the company’s long-term goals and workflow processes.  

What do you want me to focus on in the first 90 days of employment?

Have you deployed the recent technology of data democratization and how do you propose we acclimatize to the AI-ready data architecture?

What kind of skills is missing from the team which you might need me to plug in?

What is the data cleaning technology used in the company?

How does the company look at the shifts in data handling from on-premise to cloud-based architectures?

ALSO READ: Top 9 Roles to Pursue a Career in Data Science in 2023

Tips for Preparing for Your Data Architect Interview

Data architect interviews can get very technical but that’s not the end game. As recruiters look for multidimensional talent to fill up their workforce, here are some tips to remember:

A thorough company and industry-specific knowledge is a must

Get an in-depth understanding of the latest data visualization technologies

Pay equal importance to mathematical brain teasers apart from questions about the market

Thoroughly articulate your technical skills and an honest learning approach toward what you don’t know

Be prepared for questions on soft skills such as leadership, collaboration, and communication qualities

The data architecture market is a booming industry. To prepare for a data architect interview, sharpen your skills, nurture your curiosity, and learn from the best global experts on data science with Emeritus’ comprehensive data science courses. 

By Bishwadeep Mitra

You're reading Best Data Architect Interview Questions To Get You Hired Now

How To Get Hired At A Top Seo Agency Part 3: Rocking The Interview

You did it! You got an interview at the SEO agency of your dreams! Since you’ve started reading this series you now know the main things they are looking for in a SEO , you’ve mastered the SEO skills that most are lacking, and now you just need to nail the interview. A big fear for most people being interviewed is getting stumped by the questions they ask.

Well fear no longer!  We asked our panel of SEO experts what questions they ask the most when interviewing people for SEO positions.

I like to ask SEO candidates to explain how search engines work and to get into as much detail as possible. How they describe servers, crawlers, bots, sites, content, links, etc. tells me a lot about their core knowledge and their perception of the industry.

Bonus follow-up question: why hasn’t anyone built that already?

People don’t have to be technical to answer this but it shows great critical thinking as well as a good knowledge of the industry as it is right now.

Define canonicalization- 90% of applicants say “Something that happens at the Vatican?” or “a meta tag?”

My favorite SEO question on an interview-probably this one: “When is last time you did something for the first time?”


I asked Rand of SEOmoz to participate in our SEO series, but he politely declined because they are a software company these days. Which means they don’t hire SEO’s much anymore, but I was not going to let that slow me down. I found this great video of Rand explaining what questions he would ask in an interview for a SEO position.

Your Thoughts?

What questions do you think are best to ask in an SEO interview?

Stay Tuned- Next time we’ll hear examples of what not to do during an interview.

Top Cybersecurity Analyst Interview Questions You Should Know

blog / Cybersecurity How to Ace Cybersecurity Analyst Interview Questions: A Helpful Guide

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With cyber crimes becoming a pressing concern, there has been a growing demand for proficient cybersecurity analysts. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts job growth of 35% for information security analysts in the next ten years, making it one of the fastest-growing occupations. If you are preparing for a lucrative career in this field, prepare to ward off the competition with this comprehensive guide to potential cybersecurity analyst interview questions.  

Entry-Level Cybersecurity Interview Questions 1. Tell Me the Purpose of a Firewall. What is the Best Way to Set it Up?

A firewall is a system that provides network security by establishing a boundary between an external network and the guarded network or system. It is primarily used to detect and protect the network from malware and other malicious activities. To set up the firewall you need to:  

Secure the firewall 

Architect firewall zones and IP address structure

Configure access control lists 

Configure other firewall services and logging

Test the firewall configuration

Manage firewall continually 

2. Define Botnet. Is it Crucial in Cybersecurity?

A botnet is a collection of connected devices infected by malware and under the remote control of cyber criminals. Botnets are a massive cybersecurity concern as they are hard to detect and can be used to launch sophisticated attacks that can cause extensive damage. 

3. Tell Me the Meaning of VPN

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) helps establish encrypted connections that protect the network from malicious activities. VPN has numerous benefits such as hiding the user’s IP address, securing data transfer, and encrypting online activities on public networks. 

4. Tell Me the Meaning of a Man-in-the-Middle Attack

A man-in-the-middle attack is a cyber attack where attackers insert themselves into a communication between two parties and intercept their data by impersonating them. This attack can steal personal information such as account details and login credentials. 

5. Define Traceroute

Traceroute is a network diagnostic tool for tracing the path an IP packet takes across one or many networks. It is a useful tool to check response delays and points of failure. 

6. Tell Me the Meaning of XSS

XSS, also known as Cross-Site Scripting, is a web security vulnerability that allows an attacker to inject malicious client-side code scripts into a website. It allows an attacker to modify Document Object Model (DOM), crash the server, and hijack sessions, among other things. 

7. Tell Me the Response Code for a Web Application

1xx: Informational 

2xx: Success

3xx: Redirection

4xx: Client Error

5xx: Server Error

Top Cybersecurity Interview Questions 1. Tell Me the Different Layers of the OSI Model

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model provides a standard for different computer systems to communicate with one another.  

Physical layer is responsible for the data transfer from sender to receiver

Data link layer is responsible for setting up links across a physical network 

Network layer manages data transmission between two networks

Transport layer coordinates data transfer across network connections

Session layer handles communication between the two devices

Presentation layer is responsible for performing syntax processing

Application layer directly interacts with data from the user. 

2. Explain the CIA Triad

CIA stands for Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. This model is the basis for the development of security systems.

3. Tell Me the Difference Between Vulnerability Assessment (VA) and Penetration Testing (PT)

Vulnerability Assessment (VA) measures vulnerabilities in IT structures and prioritizes the flaws for fixing. Penetration Testing (PT) recreates the behavior of external and internal cyber-attacks to draw insights into ways a system can be hacked. 

4. What is a Brute Force Attack? Tell Me the Best Way to Prevent it

A brute force attack is a hacking method that uses trial and error to guess login credentials and encryption keys. Some ways to prevent brute force attacks are password length, limiting login attempts, and password complexity. 

5. Tell Me the Best Way to Secure a Server

Some of the best practices for securing a server are: 

Using VPN 

Configuring file backups 

Installing SSL certificates 

Upgrading software and OS regularly 

Using firewall protection

6. What is Port Scanning?

Port scanning is a method for determining open ports and services available on a network. Some common port scanning techniques include TCP connect, ping scan, stealth scanning, and USD.

7. What is a Three-Way Handshake?

A three-way handshake is a method used in TCP/IP networks to create a connection between a host and a client. It is primarily used to create a TCP socket connection to reliably transmit data between devices.

Scenario-Based Cybersecurity Interview Questions

Here are some of the scenario-based cybersecurity analyst interview questions you should also look at: 

How should you perform an initial risk assessment? 

How would you monitor and log cybersecurity events?

How do You Prepare for a Cybersecurity Interview?

Make sure your resume is well done

Do thorough research on the company

Prepare with mock interview questions

Always ask a few questions at the end

Do not lie about possessing a skill you do not hav


Top Companies That Hire Cybersecurity Analysts

Here are some of the top companies that hire cybersecurity analysts:



PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC)



By now you must have a good understanding of cybersecurity analyst interview questions and what to expect on your interview day. To upskill and gain a competitive edge in the job interview, do explore these cybersecurity courses offered by Emeritus.

By Krati Joshi

Write to us at [email protected]

Top 10 Project Manager Interview Questions

10 General Interview Questions For The Project Manager Role

We’ve put together a list of the top 10 project manager questions that will help you ace the interview. After reading it, you’ll be well on your way to a successful career in project management!

1) Tell me about yourself

There are a few things you can say about yourself to start your answer. You can discuss where you’re from, what your favorite thing to do is, or what your favorite book or movie is.

Once you have some basics down, it’s time to get more personal. Share something that makes you unique and sets you apart from others. This could be an experience that only YOU have had, something interesting about yourself, or even a funny story!

2) What is Your Greatest Weakness?

There are a number of different ways to answer this question, depending on what you want to disclose. It can be helpful to think about your greatest weakness in terms of its impact on your personal life and work.

As a project manager, you are constantly working with your team to meet deadlines. This means that you will be responsible for the success or failure of projects.

Your weakness might be being too hard on yourself when it comes time to deliver work on time. By being open and candid with potential employers, you can build trust and improve your chances of getting the job or relationship you desire.

3) Why are You Leaving Your Current Company?

If you are leaving your current company, it is important that you explain the situation and highlight the positive aspects of your current job. If there are any specific reasons for leaving, be sure to include them in your interview answers.

It’s also important to convey that this move was made by mutual agreement between yourself and management. Otherwise, it can come across as a less-than-genuine reason for leaving.

4) How Much Experience do You Have as a Project Manager?

As a project manager, it’s important to be able to articulate your skills and experience in a clear and concise way.

Here are three tips that can help −

Start by describing your current role.

Describe the scope of your experiences working with different types of clients.

Talk about any noteworthy successes or accomplishments that relate specifically to project management. This might include completing on time and under budget, navigating regulatory issues successfully, or developing innovative solutions while keeping everyone aligned.

5) What is Your Managerial Style?

There is no single right answer to this question, as each manager has their own style that works best for them. However, some tips on how to answer this question include describing your management style in terms of what you expect from your team members and how you handle difficult situations.

Describe how well you can work with others, and also what kind of leadership style you have. Do you delegate authority and trust in others, or do you lead by example and set the tone for leadership? You can tell a lot about a person by the way they manage their team.

6) Where do You See Yourself in Five Years?

This question is a great way to get to know your potential employer. It’s also a good way to find out if you have the same goals and values as them, so you can work together toward achieving your common vision of success.

It’s important that project managers are motivated by what they do, but it’s also important that they understand why they’re doing it in this particular company. If the company isn’t aligned with its personal goals or aspirations, then there might not be much room left for growth after five years!

Here are some tips on how best to prepare yourself −

Be honest about what motivates/drives you personally.

Think about how your skillsets align with those needed by this organization (and vice versa). Are there areas where both parties need improvement? How can each party contribute towards reaching the other’s goals?

Write down your goals ad the resources you want to achieve them.

7) Tell me About a Time When You Had to Delegate Tasks

There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question as well, as each person’s experience and context will differ. However, some examples of times when delegation may be necessary include −

When you are too busy or overloaded to handle a task yourself;

When you have conflicting priorities;

Or when someone else is more qualified or experienced for the task at hand.

Ultimately, the best way to determine if delegation is necessary is by assessing the situation and determining whether delegating the task would improve your overall efficiency or performance.

8) Describe Your Ideal Company, Location, And Job

When you’re asked this question, it’s important to have a good answer ready. You want to show that you are familiar with the company, its values, and its culture.

If your ideal company is a large multinational firm with headquarters in New York City, then you should talk about how much it means to be part of such an internationally successful company.

You can also mention why these locations are attractive—what makes them different from other places where people work? Do they offer more opportunities? Or are they just better at what they do?

9) How Well do You Know Our Company And Products?

When interviewing, it’s important that you have an answer that not only shows your knowledge of the company and products but also demonstrates why you would be a good fit for the position or role. By knowing this information, you can demonstrate that you are serious about joining their team and that you have what it takes to be successful with them.

You should also be able to answer questions related to the company’s history, mission, values, and goals. If possible, try to get a feel for their business model as well – who their target market is, how they plan on reaching them, and so on.

10) In What Ways do You Think You Can Make a Difference in Our Organization as a Project Manager?

In this section of the interview, you will be asked to talk about your past experience and what makes you a strong candidate for the position. You can also use this time to explain why you are qualified for this position and what makes you stand out from other applicants.

One of the most important roles a project manager can play is ensuring that projects are delivered on time and within budget. By identifying and solving problems early, you can help ensure that all parts of the project are moving smoothly together.


An interview can be a nerve-wracking experience. It’s important to have an understanding of the company and its culture before you walk into the room, but it’s equally important to know how to think on your feet during the interview itself.

Each question is designed to test your knowledge and assess your ability to handle situations in a better way. Follow them carefully, and you will sail through this section with flying colors, winning the job offer from the company as well. After all, just like any other aspect of life − preparation is key!

Top 20 Sqlite Interview Questions And Answers (2023)

Here are SQLite interview questions and answers for fresher as well experienced candidates to get their dream job.

1) Explain what is SQLite?

SQLite is a mostly ACID compliant relational database management system contained in a relatively small C programming library.

2) List out the standard SQLite commands?

The standard SQLite commands interact with relational databases are similar to SQL. They are







Based on their operational nature these commands can be classified.

👉 Free PDF Download: SQLite Interview Questions & Answers

3) Explain what is SQLite transactions?

The transaction is referred as a unit of work that is performed against a database. It is the propagation of one or more changes to the database. Properties of transactions are determined by ACID.

Atomicity: It ensures that all work unit are successfully completed

Consistency: It ensures that the database changes states upon a successfully committed transaction

Isolation: It enables transactions to operate independently of and transparent to each other

Durability: It ensures that the result or effect of a committed transaction persists in case of a system failure

4) List out the areas where SQLite works well?

SQLite works well with

Embedded devices and the internet of things

Application file format

Data Analysis


Cache for enterprise data

Server side database

File archives

Internal or temporary databases

Replacement for ad hoc disk files

Experimental SQL language extensions

Stand-in for an enterprise database during demos or testing

5) What is the difference between SQL and SQLite?


SQL is a Structured Query Language SQLite is a powerful, embedded relational database management system mostly used in mobile devices for data storage

SQL support stored procedures SQLite does not support stored procedures

SQL is server based SQLite is file based

It does not require separate server processor system to operate

No setup or administration required SQlite comes with zero-configuration

An SQLite database can be stored in a single cross-platform disk file

SQLite is very compact less than 400 KiB

SQLite is self-contained, which means no external dependencies

It supports almost all types of O.S

It is written in ANSI-C and provides easy to use API

7) Mention what are the SQLite storage classes?

SQLite storage classes include

Null: The value is a NULL value

Integer: The value is a signed integer (1,2,3, etc.)

Real: The value is a floating point value, stored as an 8 byte IEEE floating point number

Text: The value is a text string, stored using the database encoding ( UTF-8, UTF-16BE)

BLOB (Binary Large Object): The value is a blob of data, exactly stored as it was input

8) Explain how Boolean values in SQLite are stored?

Boolean values in SQLite are stored as integers 0 (false) and 1 (true). SQLite does not have a separate Boolean storage class.

9) Explain what is the use of SQLITE group by clause?

The SQLITE group by clause is used in collaboration with the SELECT statement to arrange identical data into groups.

10) Mention what is the command used to create a database in SQLite?

11) Mention what is .dump command is used for?

The .dump command is used to make an SQLite database dump, remember once you use the dump command all your data will be dumped forever and cannot be retrieved.

12) Explain how can you delete or add columns from an existing table in SQLite?

There is a very limited support for alter ( add or delete ) table. In case if you want to delete or add columns from an existing table in SQLite you have to first save the existing data to a temporary table, drop the old table or column, create the new table and then copy the data back in from the temporary table.

13) Mention what is the maximum size of a VARCHAR in SQLite?

SQLite does not have any specific length for VARCHAR. For instance, you can declare a VARCHAR (10) and SQLite will store a 500 million character string there. It will keep all 500 characters intact.

14) Mention when to use SQLite and when not to use SQLite?

SQLite can be used in following conditions

Embedded applications: Does not require expansion like mobile applications or games

Disk assess replacement: Application that require to write or read files to disk directly

Testing: When testing business application logic

When not to use SQLite

Multi-user applications: Where multiple client needs to access and use same database

Applications requiring high write volumes: It enables you to use only one single write operation to take place at any given time

15) Explain how to recover deleted data from my SQLite database?

To recover the information you can use your backup copy of your database file, but if you do not have a backup copy, then recovery is impossible. SQLite uses SQLITE SECURE DELETE option which overwrites all deleted content with zeroes.

16) When can you get an SQLITE_SCHEMA error?

17) Mention what is the Export Control Classification Number (EECN) for SQLite?

The core public domain SQLite source code is not described by any ECCN. Hence, the ECCN should be reported as EAR99. But if you are adding new code or linking SQLite with the application, then it might change the EECN number.

18) Explain what is view in SQLite?

In SQLite, a view is actually a composition of a table in the form of pre-defined SQLite Query. A view can consist of all rows of a table or selected rows from one or more tables.

19) Explain what are SQLite Indexes?

SQLite indexes are special lookup tables that the database search engine use to speed up data retrieval. In simple words, it is a pointer to data in a table.

20) When Indexes should be avoided?

Indexes should be avoided when

Tables are small

Tables that changes frequently

Columns that are frequently manipulated or having a high number of NULL values

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

Data Science Interview Series: Part

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


Data science interviews consist of questions from statistics and probability, Linear Algebra, Vector, Calculus, Machine Learning/Deep learning mathematics, Python, OOPs concepts, and Numpy/Tensor operations. Apart from these, an interviewer asks you about your projects and their objective. In short, interviewers focus on basic concepts and projects.

This article is part 1 of the data science interview series and will cover some basic data science interview questions. We will discuss the interview questions with their answers:

What is OLS? Why, and Where do we use it?

OLS (or Ordinary Least Square) is a linear regression technique that helps estimate the unknown parameters that can influence the output. This method relies on minimizing the loss function. The loss function is the sum of squares of residuals between the actual and predicted values. The residual is the difference between the target values and forecasted values. The error or residual is:

Minimize ∑(yi – ŷi)^2

Where ŷi is the predicted value, and yi is the actual value.

We use OLS when we have more than one input. This approach treats the data as a matrix and estimates the optimal coefficients using linear algebra operations.

What is Regularization? Where do we use it?

Regularization is a technique that reduces the overfitting of the trained model. This technique gets used where the model is overfitting the data.

Overfitting occurs when the model performs well with the training set but not with the test set. The model gives minimal error with the training set, but the error is high with the test set.

Hence, the regularization technique penalizes the loss function to acquire the perfect fit model.

What is the Difference between L1 AND L2 Regularization?

L1 Regularization is also known as Lasso(Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) Regression. This method penalizes the loss function by adding the absolute value of coefficient magnitude as a penalty term.

Lasso works well when we have a lot of features. This technique works well for model selection since it reduces the features by shrinking the coefficients to zero for less significant variables.

Thus it removes some features that have less importance and selects some significant features.

L2 Regularization( or Ridge Regression) penalizes the model as the complexity of the model increases. The regularization parameter (lambda) penalizes all the parameters except intercept so that the model generalizes the data and does not overfit.

Ridge regression adds the squared magnitude of the coefficient as a penalty term to the loss function. When the lambda value is zero, it becomes analogous to OLS. While lambda is very large, the penalty will be too much and lead to under-fitting.

Moreover, Ridge regression pushes the coefficients towards smaller values while maintaining non-zero weights and a non-sparse solution. Since the square term in the loss function blows up the outliers residues that make the L2 sensitive to outliers, the penalty term endeavors to rectify it by penalizing the weights.

Ridge regression performs better when all the input features influence the output with weights roughly equal in size. Besides, Ridge regression can also learn complex data patterns.

What is R Square?

R Square is a statistical measure that shows the closeness of the data points to the fitted regression line. It calculates the percentage of the predicted variable variation calculated by a linear model.

The value of R-Square lies between 0% and 100%, where 0 means the model can not explain the variation of the predicted values around its mean. Besides, 100% indicates that the model can explain the whole variability of the output data around its mean.

In short, the higher the R-Square value, the better the model fits the data.

Adjusted R-Squared

The R-square measure has some drawbacks that we will address here too.

The problem is if we add junk independent variables or significant independent variables, or impactful independent variables to our model, the R-Squared value will always increase. It will never decrease with a newly independent variable addition, whether it could be an impactful, non-impactful, or insignificant variable. Hence we need another way to measure equivalent RSquare, which penalizes our model with any junk independent variable.

So, we calculate the Adjusted R-Square with a better adjustment in the formula of generic R-square.

What is Mean Square Error?

Mean square error tells us the closeness of the regression line to a set of data points. It calculates the distances from data points to the regression line and squares those distances. These distances are the errors of the model for predicted and actual values.

The line equation is given as y = MX+C

M is the slope, and C is the intercept coefficient. The objective is to find the values for M and C to best fit the data and minimize the error.

Why Support Vector Regression? Difference between SVR and a simple regression model?

The objective of the simple regression model is to minimize the error rate while SVR tries to fit the error into a certain threshold.

Main Concepts:



Support Vector


The best fit line is the line that has a maximum number of points on it. The SVR attempts to calculate a decision boundary at the distance of ‘e’ from the base hyper-plane such that data points are nearest to that hyper-plane and support vectors are within that boundary line.


The ordinary least squares technique estimates the unknown coefficients and relies on minimizing the residue.

L1 and L2 Regularization penalizes the loss function with absolute value and square of the value of the coefficient, respectively.

The R-square value indicates the variation of response around its mean.

R-square has some drawbacks, and to overcome these drawbacks, we use adjusted R-Square.

Mean square error calculates the distance between points on the regression line to the data points.

SVR fits the error within a certain threshold instead of minimizing it.

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