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Introduction to Block Cipher modes

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Block Cipher Modes of Operation

There are 5 modes of operation in the block cipher.

1. ECB mode

ECB mode stands for Electronic Code Block Mode. It is one of the simplest modes of operation. In this mode, the plain text is divided into a block where each block is 64 bits. Then each block is encrypted separately. The same key is used for the encryption of all blocks. Each block is encrypted using the key and makes the block of ciphertext.

At the receiver side, the data is divided into a block, each of 64 bits. The same key which is used for encryption is used for decryption. It takes the 64-bit ciphertext and, by using the key convert the ciphertext into plain text.

As the same key is used for all blocks’ encryption, if the block of plain text is repeated in the original message, then the ciphertext’s corresponding block will also repeat. As the same key used for tor all block, to avoid the repetition of block ECB mode is used for an only small message where the repetition of the plain text block is less.

2. CBC Mode

CBC Mode stands for Cipher block Mode at the sender side; the plain text is divided into blocks. In this mode, IV(Initialization Vector) is used, which can be a random block of text. IV is used to make the ciphertext of each block unique.

The first block of plain text and IV is combined using the XOR operation and then encrypted the resultant message using the key and form the first block of ciphertext. The first block of ciphertext is used as IV for the second block of plain text. The same procedure will be followed for all blocks of plain text.

At the receiver side, the ciphertext is divided into blocks. The first block ciphertext is decrypted using the same key, which is used for encryption. The decrypted result will be XOR with the IV and form the first block of plain text. The second block of ciphertext is also decrypted using the same key, and the result of the decryption will be XOR with the first block of ciphertext and form the second block of plain text. The same procedure is used for all the blocks.

Note that the key which is used in CBC mode is the same; only the IV is different, which is initialized at a starting point.

3. CFB Mode

CFB mode stands for Cipher Feedback Mode. In this mode, the data is encrypted in the form of units where each unit is of 8 bits.

Like cipher block chaining mode, IV is initialized. The IV is kept in the shift register. It is encrypted using the key and form the ciphertext.

Now the leftmost j bits of the encrypted IV is XOR with the plain text’s first j bits. This process will form the first part of the ciphertext, and this ciphertext will be transmitted to the receiver.

Now the bits of IV is shifted left by j bit. Therefore the rightmost j position of the shift register now has unpredictable data. These rightmost j positions are now filed with the ciphertext. The process will be repeated for all plain text units.

4. OFB mode

OFB Mode stands for output feedback Mode. OFB mode is similar to CFB mode; the only difference is in CFB, the ciphertext is used for the next stage of the encryption process, whereas in OFB, the output of the IV encryption is used for the next stage of the encryption process.

The IV is encrypted using the key and form encrypted IV. Plain text and leftmost 8 bits of encrypted IV are combined using XOR and produce the ciphertext.

For the next stage, the ciphertext, which is the form in the previous stage, is used as an IV for the next iteration. The same procedure is followed for all blocks.

5. CTR Mode

Note: the counter value will be incremented by 1.

For encryption, the first counter is encrypted using a key, and then the plain text is XOR with the encrypted result to form the ciphertext.

Recommended Articles

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Photoshop Blend Modes Tips And Tricks

Written by Steve Patterson.

In this tutorial, you’ll learn time-saving tips and tricks for working with layer blend modes in Photoshop! I’ll show you how to easily scroll through the blend modes to see how each one affects your image, how to instantly jump to the exact blend mode you need, and even how to adjust the intensity of a blend mode, all directly from your keyboard! We’ll cover every blend mode shortcut you need to know to speed up your workflow, and I’ll even include a tip to make memorizing those shortcuts a whole lot easier.

I’ll be using Photoshop CC but any recent version will work. Let’s get started!

Download this tutorial as a print-ready PDF!

What we’ll be learning

To help us learn the tips and tricks, I’ll use Photoshop to blend a texture with an image. Here’s the image I’ll be using. I downloaded this one from Adobe Stock:

The first image. Photo credit: Adobe Stock.

Turning on the top layer.

And here’s my texture, also from Adobe Stock:

The second image. Photo credit: Adobe Stock.

Where to find the layer blend modes

Photoshop’s blend modes are all found in the upper left of the Layers panel, and the default blend mode is Normal:

The Blend Mode option, set to Normal by default.

Photoshop’s 27 layer blend modes.

Layer blend modes vs tool blend modes in Photoshop

Before we go any further, it’s important to know the difference between a layer blend mode and a tool blend mode, and I’ll tell you why in a moment. Layer blend modes are all found in the Layers panel, and they control how a layer blends with the layers below it. But some of Photoshop’s tools also include their own blend modes. Most of the brush tools and the painting tools have their own separate blend modes that affect the tool itself and are completely separate from the layer blend modes in the Layers panel.

If I choose the Brush Tool from the Toolbar:

Selecting the Brush Tool.

We see in the Options Bar that it has its own Blend Mode option with its own modes to choose from. They may look the same as the blend modes in the Layers panel, but they’re not. These blend modes affect the appearance of your brush strokes. They have no effect on any layers:

The Brush Tool blend modes affect the Brush Tool, not your image.

And it’s not just the Brush Tool that has its own blend modes. Other brush-related tools, like the Spot Healing Brush, the Clone Stamp Tool, and the Eraser Tool, all have their own blend modes. And so does the Gradient Tool and even the Paint Bucket Tool. In fact, most of the brush and painting tools have them:

The brush and painting tools are grouped together in the Toolbar.

The reason you need to know this is that if you have one of these tools selected, you may accidentally select the tool’s blend mode when you really meant to select a layer blend mode. So to use the shortcuts we’re about to learn to switch between layer blend modes, first make sure you have a tool selected that doesn’t have its own blend modes. The Move Tool works great, and so do any of Photoshop’s selection tools. I’ll grab the Move Tool from the Toolbar, which you can also select by pressing the letter V:

The Move Tool is one of the tools without its own blend modes.

How to scroll through layer blend modes

Let’s look at how to quickly scroll through the layer blend modes to see the effect that each one has on our image.

To usual (slow) way to try blend modes in Photoshop

Opening the Blend Mode menu.

Then they choose a random blend mode from the list:

Choosing a random blend mode.

And then see what they get:

The first blend mode result.

Choosing a second blend mode.

And see if they like this result better:

The second blend mode result.

Then they do the same thing again, choosing another random blend mode from the list:

Choosing a third blend mode.

And comparing the results:

The third blend mode result.

How to scroll through layer blend modes from your keyboard

While that’s one way to work, there’s a faster way, and that’s by scrolling through the blend modes from your keyboard. I’ll set my blend mode back to Normal:

Setting the blend mode back to Normal.

Then, to scroll forward through the blend modes, press and hold the Shift key on your keyboard and tap the plus sign (+) repeatedly. Once you’ve moved through all 27 blend modes, you’ll return to the Normal blend mode. To scroll backwards through the list, keep your Shift key held down and tap the minus key (–) instead.

How to select blend modes from your keyboard

Scrolling through the blend modes is great when you’re not sure which blend mode you need and just want to experiment. But if you do know which one you need, you can jump straight to it from your keyboard. Photoshop includes keyboard shortcuts for nearly all of its blend modes.

To select a blend mode from your keyboard, press and hold your Shift key, along with your Alt (Win) / Option (Mac) key, and then press the letter that’s associated with the blend mode.

For example, the first blend mode I chose earlier was Multiply. To select the Multiply blend mode from your keyboard, hold Shift+Alt (Win) / Shift+Option (Mac) and press the letter M. The second one I chose was Screen, which you can jump to by holding Shift+Alt (Win) / Shift+Option (Mac) and pressing S. To jump to the Overlay blend mode, hold Shift+Alt (Win) / Shift+Option (Mac) and tap O.

Photoshop’s layer blend mode shortcuts – Complete list

Here’s the complete list of keyboard shortcuts for Photoshop’s layer blend modes. They all share the same two keys at the beginning, either Shift+Alt on a Windows PC or Shift+Option on a Mac. The only difference between them is the specific letter at the end. Some letters are obvious, like “N” for Normal, “M” for Multiply, and “S” for Screen, while others, like “G” for Lighten or “J” for Linear Light, you’ll just remember over time:

Blend Mode Keyboard Shortcut (Alt = Win, Option = Mac)

Normal Shift + Alt / Option + N

Dissolve Shift + Alt / Option + I

Darken Shift + Alt / Option + K

Multiply Shift + Alt / Option + M

Color Burn Shift + Alt / Option + B

Linear Burn Shift + Alt / Option + A

Lighten Shift + Alt / Option + G

Screen Shift + Alt / Option + S

Color Dodge Shift + Alt / Option + D

Linear Dodge Shift + Alt / Option + W

Overlay Shift + Alt / Option + O

Soft Light Shift + Alt / Option + F

Hard Light Shift + Alt / Option + H

Vivid Light Shift + Alt / Option + V

Linear Light Shift + Alt / Option + J

Pin Light Shift + Alt / Option + Z

Hard Mix Shift + Alt / Option + L

Difference Shift + Alt / Option + E

Exclusion Shift + Alt / Option + X

Hue Shift + Alt / Option + U

Saturation Shift + Alt / Option + T

Color Shift + Alt / Option + C

Luminosity Shift + Alt / Option + Y

The blend modes that are missing shortcuts

Out of Photoshop’s 27 blend modes, only 4 of them are missing shortcuts, and those are Darker Color, Lighter Color, Subtract, and Divide. You’ll rarely, if ever, use these ones, but if you do need them, you’ll have to select them from the Layers panel:

The four blend modes without keyboard shortcuts.

How to avoid memorizing every blend mode shortcut

Here’s a tip to make memorizing the shortcuts easier. Even though there’s 23 shortcuts in total, you really only need to memorize a few of them; one from each of the blend mode groups.

The Darken blend modes

For example, let’s say you want to use one of Photoshop’s darkening blend modes, which include Darken, Multiply, Color Burn, Linear Burn, and Darker Color. To avoid memorizing the shortcut for each one, just memorize the main one, which is Shift+Alt+M (Win) / Shift+Option+M (Mac) for Multiply. Then, use the other shortcut we learned earlier, which is to hold Shift and tap the plus or minus key, to move up or down through the others in the group:

Multiply is the main darkening blend mode.

The Lighten blend modes

The same is true for the other groups as well. To try out the different lighten modes (Lighten, Screen, Color Dodge, Linear Dodge (Add), and Lighter Color), just press Shift+Alt+S (Win) / Shift+Option+S (Mac) to jump to the Screen blend mode. Then hold Shift and use the plus or minus key to scroll through the others:

Screen is the main lightening blend mode.

The Contrast blend modes

For the contrast group (Overlay, Soft Light, Hard Light, Vivid Light, Linear Light, Pin Light, and Hard Mix), press Shift+Alt+O (Win) / Shift+Option+O (Mac) to jump to Overlay, and then scroll through the list:

Overlay is the main blend mode for boosting contrast.

The Color blend modes

And for the color blend modes (Hue, Saturation, Color, and Luminosity), press Shift+Alt+C (Win) / Shift+Option+C (Mac) to jump to the main one, Color, and then scroll to the one you need:

Color is the main blend mode for colorizing images.

To learn more about Photoshop’s five main blend modes (Multiply, Screen, Overlay, Color, and Luminosity), see my Top 5 Blend Modes You Need To Know tutorial.

How to adjust the intensity of a blend mode

Finally, if you like the overall look of a blend mode but the effect is too strong, you can adjust the intensity directly from your keyboard. For example, I’ll jump to the Linear Light blend mode by pressing Shift+Alt+J (Win) / Shift+Option+J (Mac):

Press Shift + Alt / Option + J to jump to Linear Light.

I like the colors, but the overall effect is a bit too much:

The Linear Light blend mode effect at full strength.

Lowering the layer opacity from your keyboard

To reduce the intensity of a blend mode, all we need to do is lower the opacity of the layer itself. You can do that from the Opacity option in the Layers panel, but you can also adjust it directly from your keyboard.

Just press a number from 1 to 9 to jump the opacity value between 10% and 90%. For example, I can lower the opacity to 50% by pressing 5 on my keyboard. Or, for a more specific value, like 55%, press the two numbers quickly:

Adjusting the layer opacity from the keyboard.

And here’s the result with the opacity lowered:

The same Linear Light blend mode but with a lower opacity.

I’ll switch to a different blend mode, like Screen, by pressing Shift+Alt+S (Win) / Shift+Option+S (Mac). And then, to restore the opacity back to 100%, press 0 on your keyboard:

Press 0 to reset the strength of the blending effect back to 100%.

And there we have it! That’s some time-saving tips you can use with layer blend modes in Photoshop! For more about blend modes, learn how to blend images like a movie poster, how to blend text into backgrounds, or even how to merge blend modes in Photoshop! Or visit our Photoshop Basics section for more tutorials!

Windows Backup Error 0X800700E1, Operation Did Not Complete Successfully

Windows Backup is a built-in application that lets users create a backup of their essential data on the computer hard drive in a pretty easy way. However, some Windows users have encountered error 0x800700E1 while trying to back up their important files or data to an external drive. This error code prevents users to backup. With this error code, the full error message that prompts on the computer screen is:

Error 0x800700E1: Operation did not complete successfully because the file contains a virus or potentially unwanted software.

If you are also troubled by this issue then read this post. In this guide, we have included some effective methods that may help you to fix this issue.

Windows Backup error 0x800700E1, Operation did not complete successfully

If you’re not able to complete the Windows Backup process, here are some things you may try to fix this issue:

Run Antivirus scan

Disable antivirus software and try again

Perform the backup in Clean Boot State.

Let’s see now see each method in detail:

1] Run an antivirus scan

This error possibly may cause due to the virus attack on the hard drive that ends up preventing the backup process. So as a first workaround, you need to perform an antivirus scan.

To do so, open Windows Settings using Win+I keyboard shortcut.

On the antivirus page, you will see a Quick scan button under Current threats.

This will take a little time to finish the scanning process but you can continue using your device during this.

Once it completes, it will get you notified and show the result of the scan.

If it displays as no current threats but you’re still facing the problem, then you should run a Full scan of your device.

This process may take a longer time (up to one hour) to scan all files and running programs available on your hard drive.

If you are using 3rd-party security software, use it to scan your PC.

If you wish you may also scan your PC using a standalone on-demand malware scanner.

When it is finished, check if it helped you to solve the problem. If not, then go to the next potential workaround below.

2] Disable antivirus software and try again

In spite of running the full scan of your PC, if you’re still encountering the Windows Backup error 0x800700E1 on your device, then turn off your antivirus program and check if it helps.

On the corresponding page, switch the Real-time protection toggle button Off.

If you are using 3rd-party security software, disable it temporarily.

After following the procedure, reboot your device and check if the problem still exists.

3] Perform the backup in Clean Boot State

In case, the Windows backup error is still persisting then as a last resort you need to perform the backup in Clean Boot State.

To do so, you first need to open the Taskbar search using Win+S keyboard shortcut.

Type System Configuration in the search field and then select it from the result list.

Clear the Load Startup Items checkbox, and ensure that Load System Services and Use Original boot configuration are checked.

This will put Windows into a Clean Boot State.

Once here, run the backup and see if it works.

Remember to exit the Clean Boot State, once your job is done.

Related read: Windows Backup or System Restore failed, Errors 0x80070001, 0x81000037, 0x80070003.

How to fix 0x800700E1, Operation did not complete successfully because the file contains a virus?

If you see Error 0x800700E1, Operation did not complete successfully because the file contains a virus or potentially unwanted software, then run a second-opinion anti-malware scanner or Add an exclusion. This error can occur during a Copy or a Move operation.

What does error code 0x800700e1 mean?

Error code 0x800700e1 appears when Windows Defender stops an operation because it suspects that one of the files involved is a virus or PUP. It can appear during a Backup operation, Copy or Move operation and so on.

Block Canvas Fingerprinting In Chrome With Canvas Defender

While Cookies and other means have been used to track online users for quite a time now. A new tracking mechanism was developed recently in 2014. This mechanism uses the HTML 5 Canvas Element to track visitors, and it is called Canvas Fingerprinting. But since privacy is the most important security aspect these days, you need to make sure that your browser is canvas fingerprinting proof.

We’ve already talked about how to block canvas Fingerprinting in Firefox. In this post, we’ve discussed Canvas Fingerprinting in detail and covered a free Chrome extension, ‘Canvas Defender’, that lets you protect your device’s fingerprint.

What is Canvas Fingerprinting

While you visit a website with canvas fingerprinting enabled, your browser is instructed to draw hidden graphics. Now, these rendered graphics can contain information about the type of your system, OS, GPU, and Graphics Driver. All these details combined with some other information generate your unique fingerprint. Although the uniqueness is not so good when combined with other fingerprint methods the desired amount of entropy and uniqueness can be achieved.

Read Browser Fingerprinting and Online Privacy.

Prevent Canvas Fingerprinting on Google Chrome

Using an extension called Canvas Defender, one can prevent Canvas Fingerprinting on your browser. The thing that is special about this extension is that instead of completely blocking Canvas Fingerprinting, it hides your original fingerprint and replaces it with spoof data.

To see this tool in action, you can go to chúng tôi and check your browser’s current uniqueness and signature. The browser will automatically generate the noise and the browser will report a fake value every time it detects canvas fingerprinting on a website.

It is recommended to generate a new fingerprint from time to time always to protect your identity. Also, the extension can notify you whenever a web page tries to get your identity from the Canvas. These notifications can get annoying soon, and there is no option to disable them for now.

Moreover, the tool can work both in normal and incognito mode and completely guard against fingerprinting. You can even maintain a whitelist for websites that you want to work generally with your original fingerprint. Also, you can set up a time interval after which the fingerprint will automatically be changed. It has a wide variety of options starting from 5 minutes to a week.

Canvas Defender is a must-have Chrome extension. It can silently protect you from Canvas Fingerprinting by generating a false signature. Unlike other fingerprint blocking applications, this extension will not completely block fingerprints on your browser. Blocking fingerprints is another identifier for websites, and you’ve installed some blocking software. So instead of blocking, this extension can hide your identity in a completely safe manner.

Does a VPN prevent fingerprinting?

No, a VPN will not prevent browser fingerprinting on its own. A VPN will conceal the true IP address that your ISP and location assign. However, it will not guard you against browser fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is based on unique variables that are not within your browser or operating system.

What is device spoofing?

Device spoofing occurs when a user attempts to access a website using a fake or altered device identifier. A user can do it for various reasons, including bypassing security features or hiding one’s identity. Canvas fingerprinting is a type of device spoofing that uses the HTML5 canvas element to gather information about a user’s device and create a “fingerprint” that can be used to track them across the web.

How To Block Websites On Any Android Phone

The reasons you may want to block a site on your Android device can vary. For one, you may share your device with your kids and don’t want them to have access to any inappropriate content.

Whatever the reason may be, you may be happy to know that blocking any website on your Android device is an easy task. You can do it without rooting your phone. You don’t have to be a tech genius to get rid of those sites finally.

How to Block Any Site on Any Android Device with Firefox

To block any site on your Android device, you’ll need to install Firefox. Launch the browser and tap on the three vertical dots at the top-right. Tap on the “Browse all Firefox Add-ons” option, and in the search bar at the top left type “BlockSite.”

Add it to your Add-ons and then tap on the three vertical dots again and select Add-ons. BlockSite should be at the top of the list, choose it. Go to Options, and at the top you should see where you can add the URL of the site you want to block.

As an example, CNN was blocked. You’ll need to type out the full address and tap the orange button that says “Add Page.” The process doesn’t end there since you have to add the time you want the site blocked.

Tap on the clock icon, and check the boxes the days you want the site blocked. To the right of those boxes, you’ll see the time option. Tap on the drop-down menu, and decide the period. When you’re done, select the green Set box.

Try to access the site you just blocked, and you should see a message saying that the add-on you installed has blocked it.

How to Block Any Site Using Samsung Internet Browser

If your preferred browser is Samsung’s integrated browser, then Trend Micro Mobile Security app is a great choice. Once you’ve installed the app, swipe down until you see the “Network Protection” option. Make sure it’s toggled on at the top, and then swipe down to the “Blocked list” option.

Tap on it and on the plus icon to add the site you want to block. After entering the name and URL address, select Save, and the site will be automatically placed on the blocked list. You can also set the protection level to either high, average, or low as well.

To test it, open Samsung’s Internet browser, and go to the site you blocked. You should now see a message from the security app telling you that this site is blocked. Unfortunately, the app does not work on browsers such as Firefox and Chrome (at least during my testing).

Block Sites Not Intended for Children on Chrome

Kaspersky Parental Control is a great app to keep your kids away from sites they’re too young to visit. When you first launch the app, you’ll need to specify who will be using that phone and fill in the name and age of the child.

Once you’ve filled in that information, you’ll get a message that everything was set up correctly. Safe Search will be automatically enabled for browsers, and the app will block any site that is not appropriate for a child in the age range you added earlier.

You’ll also need to have the app installed on the device you’re going to use to be able to block sites on Chrome. Once it’s installed, open the app and tap on the cog wheel in the Internet option.

Swipe all the way down until you see the Exclusions option, and tap on websites. Select the green plus sign at the top-right, and add the site you either want to allow or block.

Block Any Site on Chrome and Firefox with Blocksite

An app that will block any site you list whether you’re using Chrome or Firefox is Blocksite – Block apps to Increase Productivity. You can block a site for a certain amount of time, or you can block it altogether. When you first open the app, tap on the green button at the bottom right.

Enter the address of the site you want to block. At the bottom you’ll see an option that will allow you to have the app ignore a schedule you can set up to only block sites between a specific time frame. If you want the app to always block the site, select this option, but if you want the site blocked for the time you set up, leave the option alone.

If you want to block sites during work hours, the app also has a work mode. This option will block any site you wish between the time frame you set up. To set this up, tap on the suitcase icon in the middle, and tap on the green button. Type the address of the site followed by the green checkmark at the top-right. Select the timer tab to set up the time frame.


It’s a lot easier to block sites if you have a rooted Android device, but not everyone likes the idea of having to root their phones. It’s a risky process that has some severe consequences.

Fabio Buckell

Just a simple guy that can’t enough of Technology in general and is always surrounded by at least one Android and iOS device. I’m a Pizza addict as well.

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What Happens When You Block A Number On Iphone

There’s someone bugging you with incessant phone calls and unsolicited messages. Blocking the person seems like the right thing to do but you’re not sure if that will stop the person from reaching you.

In this post, we’ll explain what happens when you block a number on iPhone and other Apple devices.

Table of Contents

But before that, let’s walk through the process of blocking a contact or phone number on your iPhone.

How To Block Phone Numbers on iPhone

There are about five different ways to block someone on an iPhone. You can block contacts from the Phone/Dialer app, the Messages app, FaceTime, and the Mail app. It’s also possible to block someone via the Contacts app.

Block Phone Numbers in the Phone app

Do you get annoying telemarketing calls or robocalls on your iPhone? Head to your device’s call log and contact list and block the number/person behind the calls.

Open the Phone app, go to the Contacts tab, and select the person or contact you want to block.

Scroll to the bottom of the screen and tap Block this Caller.

Tap Block Contact on the confirmation prompt to proceed.

If the number is unsaved, head to the Recent tab, tap the info icon next to the number, and select Block this Caller.

Block Phone Numbers in the Messages app

If an unknown number or saved contact keeps spamming you with unsolicited texts, block the person directly within the Messages app.

Launch the Messages app and open the conversation or text from the number. Afterward, tap the person’s name or number, tap Info on the next page, select Block this Caller, and tap Block Contact.

Blocking a contact will equally block all numbers associated with the contact. If a contact card has more than one phone number, the person won’t be able to reach you from all phone numbers after blocking the contact.

You can block unknown numbers and unwanted callers using third-party caller ID apps. Proceed to the next section to learn how the native iOS “Block” feature prevents unwanted calls, texts, and emails.

Now that you know how to block a number on an iPhone, let’s examine what happens when you do so.

Text Messages and iMessage

Blocked numbers cannot reach you via SMS or iMessage. Whatever messages a blocked contact sends to your phone number will not be delivered to your iPhone.

The blocked individual may get charged for the message(s) by their mobile carrier. The text message or iMessage may even appear as “Delivered” on the blocked person’s device, but you won’t receive the text(s).

We should mention that text you send to blocked contacts (via iMessage) won’t get delivered. But you can send SMS and MMS messages to a blocked number/contact.

Phone Calls

Like text messages, you also won’t receive phone calls from blocked contacts. Your iPhone won’t ring when they call you, and neither will the call attempt appear in your device’s call log. You also won’t get a missed call notification.

When someone you blocked calls you, the caller is automatically diverted to your voicemail. You won’t get a notification for the voicemail. Plus, the voicemail won’t appear at the top of the Voicemail tab in the Phone app. You’ll have to scroll to the “Blocked Messages” section of your iPhone’s voicemail inbox—located at the bottom of the voicemail tab.

A blocked caller might also get a service response that your number is busy or unreachable—depending on your cellular carrier.

FaceTime Audio and Video Calls

If the person you blocked uses FaceTime, they won’t be able to reach you via FaceTime audio and video calls. When they place a FaceTime call to your number, the call rings on their device but you won’t get a notification on your iPhone.

Interestingly, you can still reach blocked numbers via FaceTime audio and video calls.

Mail and iCloud

What happens when you block a number on your iPhone? iOS blocks all phone numbers and email addresses associated with the contact. Therefore, the person won’t be able to send you emails from the blocked address in the Apple Mail app.

If you don’t want emails from blocked contacts delivered to your inbox, head to the Mail settings menu and modify the “Blocked Sender Options.”

That’ll automatically file emails from blocked contacts to the Trash folder in the Mail app.

Mind you, blocked email addresses can still send you emails via third-party email apps like Gmail, Outlook, etc. Don’t want to receive emails from blocked addresses in third-party apps? Head to the apps’ settings menu and block the address/contact.

Manage Blocked Contacts

iOS maintains a list of blocked contacts in your iPhone’s Settings menu. There are several ways to view a full list of blocked contacts on your iPhone.

To delete a phone number or email address from the list, select Edit, tap the red minus button next to the number and select Unblock. Afterward, tap Done to save the changes.

Say Bye to Unwanted Calls and Messages

Blocking a contact or phone number is the best way to avoid unwanted spam calls and messages. The block feature in iOS prevents incoming calls, SMS, MMS, iMessage, FaceTime, and emails.

While email blocking works across all Apple devices linked to your iCloud email, other forms of blocking are device-specific. A blocked number can reach you via phone calls or SMS if you change your phone or insert your SIM in a new iPhone or Android device.

Additionally, a blocked contact may still be able to reach you via calls and texts on third-party apps like WhatsApp, Telegram, etc. If you don’t want to receive messages from the contact on these apps, block the person’s number in that app’s settings menu.

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