Trending December 2023 # Cat5E Vs Cat6 Ethernet Cables # Suggested January 2024 # Top 21 Popular

You are reading the article Cat5E Vs Cat6 Ethernet Cables updated in December 2023 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 Cat5E Vs Cat6 Ethernet Cables




Ethernet cables come in different categories and colors, according to their specifications and capabilities.

Cat5e and Cat6 cables are some of the best known, and we’ll discuss what’s the difference between them and which one is better.

For an extensive collection of articles about cables, check out our Ethernet cables section.

If you’re looking for some accessories for your computer, our Accessories & Peripherals Hub will surely be helpful.

In the article today, we will make a Cat5e vs Cat6 comparison, so that you are able to see which one fits your needs best.

A Cat5e Ethernet cable is the successor of Cat5, the latter being now rarely found on the market. While they’re physically similar, Cat5e Ethernet adheres to more stringent IEEE standards.

By comparison, Cat6 cables take things one steps further especially in terms of performance rates, which is oftentimes the main aspect that clients look for in any tech-related product.

Choosing between these two is, in the end, a matter of cost vs. performance, and we want to make things easier for you by focusing on some aspects such as speed, safety, and costs.

Cat 5e vs Cat 6 – What are the differences between them?

As mentioned, with Cat5E cables certain capabilities were enhanced, namely reducing the potential for crosstalk (interference that transfers from adjacent wires). 

Cat5E is suitable for small space installations like households, though it is still used in commercial spaces.

trueCABLE Cat5e Riser (CMR), 1000ft

24 AWG with 4 pairs (8 conductors)

Supports PoE and PoE+ (IEEE 802.3af/at) up to 30W and 300V DC

Too flexible

Check price

Cat6 cables reduce crosstalk, even more, using tighter wound wire pairs and usually also have a plastic core through the middle of the cable to better insulate the internal wires, which also makes it more resistant in time.

Otherwise, the two cables come with the same end port that plugs into any Ethernet jack on a computer, router, or another similar device. 

How much better is Cat6 than Cat 5e?

trueCABLE Cat6 Riser (CMR), 1000ft

Bandwidth up to 550 MHz

Suitable for 1 Gigabit up to 328ft or 10-Gigabit Ethernet up to 165ft

Low stock due to high demand

Check price

Naturally, the big difference between Cat5e and Cat6 cables lies in their performance or the amount of data that can be sent over through each one of them. As expected, Cat6 has a higher bandwidth compared to Cat5. 

Cat5e supports a maximum frequency of up to 100MHz and a speed of up to 1Gbps (which is why it was also known as the Gigabit Ethernet). Cat6 cables increased that bandwidth to 250 Mhz, which also boosted up the transfer speed to 10Gbps.

One drawback of Cat6 cables is that though standard Ethernet supports distances of up to 100 meters, they only support 37-55 meters (depending on crosstalk).

Should I run Cat 5e or Cat6?

There’s no correct answer to this question. Both cable types are being widely used.  Perhaps of all the current cabling options, Cat5e is the least expensive option. 

Cat5e is also the most common type of cabling for residencies, due to its profitability when balancing cost and performance. 

Just think that most on-demand video streaming services require somewhere around 14-16Mbps Internet speed (or even less) to stream 4k content, so you can imagine that with a Cat5e Ethernet cable you’d be just fine.

On the other hand, for better Internet speed and transfer speeds 10 times faster between several devices, Cat6 cables are definitely the better option.

For more comprehensive guides, check out our guide on Cat 7 vs Cat 8.

You can also find out which are the best Ethernet splitters available on Amazon right now from our dedicated article.

Lastly, if you’re interested in some USB C to Ethernet adapters, we have yet another list with expert-made reviews for you.

Still experiencing issues?

Was this page helpful?


Start a conversation

You're reading Cat5E Vs Cat6 Ethernet Cables

Do Optical Cables Go Bad?

Have you ever wondered if Optical Cables go bad over time?

I have experienced my optical cables wearing out due to specific reasons. Certain ways ensure that an optical cable’s life extends to some extent. 

Optical cables can go bad over time in rare cases. The optical Cable tends to wear out more quickly due to frequent disruptions, repeated plugging and unplugging, bending, and improper handling.

This article will provide vital information about how Optical Cables damage and how we can prevent them from wear and tear.

Moreover, we are also going to discuss the causes behind Optical Cables getting bad. 

Table of Contents


What Causes Optical Cables To Go Bad?

1. Bending the Cable

2. Inappropriate Handling

3. Bad Manufacturing and Cheap Quality

4. Optical Cables Might Go Bad Over Time

How do I Know if my Optical Cable is Bad?

Common Optical Cord Problems

1. Loose Connection 

2. Dust Accumulation in Cable 

3. Problem in Audio

Are Optical Cables Reliable?


What Causes Optical Cables To Go Bad?

Optical Cables are generally sensitive and fragile since they contain high-grade plastic, including glass fiber. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that we handle the Cable properly. 

There are a few cases of Optical Cables going bad. However, Optical Cables tend to wear out over time for specific reasons. 

Otherwise, Optical Cables do not degrade on their own. High-quality Optical Cables can last for 20 to 30 years.

However, mishandling can usually lead to damage to the Optical Cables.

Here are a few reasons that cause Optical Cables to go wrong;

1. Bending the Cable

Bending the cable is one of the most frequent causes of Optical Cable damage. People often bundle the Optical Cable or keep them wrapped somewhere.

Therefore, Optical cables are more likely to get broken or bent. So, always prevent the Cable from getting pinched, squeezed, or crippled.

2. Inappropriate Handling

Another reason behind Optical cable ruining is due to inappropriate handling.

If you frequently disturb the Cable by plugging in and out, you may mishandle the Cable unknowingly or knowingly. 

Moreover, Cables laid across the floor are easily tripped over or snagged.

By doing this, you risk damaging both the cable and the attached device. That is why you should always keep your Optical Cables neat and organized.

3. Bad Manufacturing and Cheap Quality

The longevity of the Optical Cable also depends upon the quality of the Cable. Inexpensive Optical Cables are available with non-durable materials.

In addition, you may also find some manufacturing faults in the case of cheap Cables. 

Therefore, if you want an Optical Cable that is durable and lasts for a significant period, make sure you purchase the Cables from reputable vendors.

Also, remember to check the quality of the material too.

4. Optical Cables Might Go Bad Over Time

Optical cables can degrade with time. Exposed metal parts may rust over time, weakening connections.

Moreover, the development of moisture inside the Cable can also degrade its functionality. Once the water gets inside, it ruins the Cable’s internal components. 

Therefore make sure that you protect the Cables against moisture. At the same time, buying a good quality Optical Cable will also ensure longevity and good functionality. 

How do I Know if my Optical Cable is Bad?

Most of the time, we know about the dysfunctionality of the Optical Cables too late. Therefore, you must wonder how to understand if the Optical Cable is wrong and requires maintenance or replacement. 

To know if your Optical Cable is getting bad, you can check towards the end of your Cable. Sometimes, you can find some indications where you plug in the components. 

At the same time, rusting can cause your Optical Cable to get wrong. Since we manufacture metal, rusting can be a common and potential problem. 

If you face a signal loss problem, this could be your sign to check the Optical Cable once. Look for areas where the Cable is crippled or spliced. 

Corrosion on the two ends of an Optical Cable also invites different problems and challenges while transmitting the signal from one point to the other. 

You can also look for a missing red indicator light on the Optical Cable. It is one of the easiest ways to know you have a bad connection.

A red light means the connector is ruined and should be replaced immediately.

You can go through the given process to test the optical cable audio.

Connect one end of the Cable to the optical out on the Tv.

Connect the other end of the Cable in the home theater or stereo system.

Make sure to check for the red light on both ends.

The optical Cable will work better if a red light is on both ends.

Moreover, you won’t hear anything if your Optical Cable is broken or misconnected.

And you can also encounter signal loss, which could lead to bad audio quality.

Common Optical Cord Problems

An optical cable may experience different problems that lead to its breakage or damage.

However, people usually face some common problems while using these cables. 

1. Loose Connection 

One of the significant problems we face with Optical Cables is a loose connection. Make sure that the grip is tight.

A loose grip may fail to connect the components of the cables tightly, which in turn may impair the optical Cable’s operation. 

However, we must also remember that too much tightening of the Cable is not essential.

Since the cables are sensitive, more pressure is liable to break or damage the Cable.

2. Dust Accumulation in Cable 

The glass fibers in the Optical Cables are insulators. They are more likely to accumulate dust and debris. 

Therefore, maintaining a clean Optical Cable is paramount while performing any network installation.

Sometimes these cables might have accumulated dust particles even if it looks clean to the naked eye. Even a dust particle as small as one micrometer can affect the connection. 

Therefore, if you want to ensure that no oil or dirt stains are sticking to your cord, gently wash the ends of your Optical Cables using a 91% isopropyl alcohol swab.

3. Problem in Audio

The audio problem in Optical Cables usually arises from breakage, bending, twisting, and standing on it. The damage can also be irreparable some of the time. 

The audio source could be labeled “optical input” or “digital input.” Therefore, you cannot source audio until the appropriate input is chosen.

Therefore, it is essential to ensure the Cable is not bent or twisted while storing it.

Watch the video to learn more about Optical Cables’ common problems,

Are Optical Cables Reliable?

Fiber optic cables usually have a good performance, better quality, and reliability.

Advanced Optical Cables have light signals instead of electrical impulses, which help deliver the information. 

As a result of this unique feature, fiber Optical Cables are much more reliable than copper cables.

Moreover, fiber Optic Cables also have higher bandwidth and data transfer rates. This also makes the use of fiber Cables safer. 

Multi-channel and high-quality audio transmission make Optical Cables perform better than analog audio connectors.

At the same time, such cables also support new, high-resolution audio standards. 

Read more: Can you plug power strip into surge protector?


If handled with proper care, Optical Cables last for a long time. Therefore, if you want to increase the longevity of an Optical Cable, make sure to handle it with utmost care. 

When Optical Cables get bad, you may not be able to view the damage in the initial stage.

Since most of the damage happens in the inner components, it will already be late once you know about the issue. 

You can take precautionary measures to protect your Optical Cable from ruining.

Purchase the Cable of good quality and try to avoid moisture on the Cable as much as you can. 

You can also use electrical tape to manage your cables.

Ethernet Connection Not Working In Windows 11/10

Ethernet connection or wired connection is better as compared to WiFi, in my opinion, but then like everything else, an Ethernet connection can stop working. If you do not have an alternate way to connect, the only way out is to fix the Ethernet connection. In this post, we will show what you can do when your Ethernet doesn’t connect to the Internet in Windows 11/10.

How to fix Ethernet connection in Windows 11/10

Ethernet connection not working in Windows 11/10

There can be several reasons for the Ethernet connection to break. It can be a rogue driver, Windows Update causing problems, or it can be the problem with the Internet itself. Let’s take a look at multiple scenarios to fix Network and Internet Settings.

Check Ethernet cable connection

Enable Ethernet in Windows

Ensure the Internet is working

Update Ethernet Drivers after Windows update

Disable and Review Firewall and VPN configuration

Use Windows Troubleshooter

Other Scenarios

How to fix Unidentified Network in Windows

DHCP is not Enabled? How to enable DHCP in Windows

Windows could not automatically detect this network’s proxy settings

Ethernet or WiFi doesn’t have a valid IP configuration in Windows

Your connection was interrupted, A network change was detected.

1] Check Ethernet cable connection

It is one of the basic steps we ask when you cannot connect to the internet or when the Ethernet is showing you limited connectivity. Earlier Windows used to replace the connectivity icon in the system tray with a clear message that the ethernet cable is not connected. The same applied to Wifi.  Now all you get to see a globe icon which says “Not connected – No connections are available“.

It’s confusing, so check if the Ethernet cable is connected correctly. If it’s connected to the router, make sure the router is turned on. An alternate way is to go to Control PanelAll Control Panel ItemsNetwork Connections and check if any of the Ethernet statuses says — Network cable unplugged.

If that’s connected, follow the next step.

2] Enable Ethernet in Windows to fix the problem

The same globe icon is displayed when the Ethernet connection is disabled in Windows 111/0. When I say disable, I mean that the device is disabled on the software level. Here is how to enable it

Open Settings (Win + I) and navigate to Network and Internet

It will reveal the list of Ethernet connections available on the computer

Check if any of the Ethernet is greyed out. If yes it is disabled.

It will restore the working status. If it’s enabled, and Ethernet is still not working and displays the Globe icon, we need to check if the Internet is working.

Related: An error occurred while renewing interface Ethernet.

3] Ensure the Internet is working

Since neither the Ethernet adapter is disabled or network cable is unplugged, it brings to final basic testing—Is the Internet connection working fine. You will get the same globe icon when the internet is not working.

If it’s a modem, check if the supposed lights are turned on or if you have connected it to the router, check if you can access any website via your mobile device when connected over wifi.

Get in touch with your Internet provider to resolve the problem. The IP configuration or the username and password used to connect may have changed. If that’s the case, you need to update accordingly.

Related: Ethernet keeps disconnecting.

4] Update Ethernet Drivers after Windows update

Many a time the problem of ethernet connection occurs after a Windows update. It can be a feature update or a regular update. It usually happens when Windows wants network drivers to be updated so it can communicate properly. So if that’s the case, you need to update the network drives.

Open the Device manager by using Win + X + M

Expand the Network adapters section, and locate your network hardware.

Since you cannot connect to the internet from here, use another computer to visit the OEM website and download the driver.

Copy the driver into a USB, and then copy it to the computer where the connection is not working correctly.

Any driver issue will be resolved by updating the driver, and it should fix the Ethernet connection in Windows.

5] Disable and Review Firewall and VPN configuration

The Ethernet problem could be restricted to some applications or websites. It can happen because the Firewall blocks them. Follow our detailed guide on how to manage a Firewall, and allow applications to access the internet. You should also learn about Network Protection in Windows.

Most of the VPNs offer a disconnected mode which disrupts the connection on the device to make sure privacy remains intact. If you have selected the option, make sure that the VPN is working.

In the end, you need to make sure that the Firewall or the VPN does not block a particular application or the website is turned on.

6] Use Network Troubleshooter

The Network troubleshooter is an inbuilt solution that can fix small and medium issues on its own.

Windows 11

Windows 10

If the problem is basic, it should be able to fix it.

7] Other scenarios to fix the Ethernet connection in Windows

Here is the list of some of the top network issues related to Ethernet we have covered. If any of these relates to your problem, learn to fix it.

We hope the tips were helpful to fix the Ethernet connection in Windows 11/10.

Ethernet Port Not Working On Motherboard? Here’s How To Fix It

It’s a known fact that an ethernet connection is faster and more stable than a wireless one. However, an ethernet connection is also more prone to technical and hardware-related issues than your Wifi. And usually, these issues emerge from the ethernet port of your motherboard. 

Unless the only fix for you is to buy a USB ethernet adapter, this guide shall take you through all the alternative methods you can seek to fix your port issues from the comfort of your home.

Continue following the guide till the end to fully understand the problem and potentially fix your issue. So, let’s being!

Your ethernet port is probably electrostatic-sensitive. That means, there is always a possibility of your port failing to function due to the built-up static charges within it.

Driver issues

Stress on the port

Misconfigured network details

Interference from antivirus or firewall

Interference from Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE)

Ethernet disabled on the BIOS

Faulty network card

Invalid network cache

The unfavorable power output of the network adapter

There are a ton of methods to fix your ethernet connection and its port in the motherboard. The definitive fix for your issue could differ from other users.

First things first, you have to ensure that your ethernet port is not bad or broken. Usually, when you insert the LAN cable with a certain amount of force, the port is affected by a certain amount of stress, corresponding to the force applied.

This may cause the port to break down, leaving you in a frustrating and confusing situation. So, plug in your ethernet cable and check if the port is lighting up or not. If it is, then it generally signifies a fully functioning port. 

Additionally, you have to ensure your cable is not damaged or broken. So, turn on a different computer and try to connect to the internet using the same cable. If it fails to connect, your cable may be damaged and you would have to purchase a new one. 

The network card must work properly in order for you to connect to the internet. It acts as a mediator between your computer and the internet. Any request you make for surfing the web is first transferred to your network card, which in turn converts this request into electric impulses. 

So, a damaged NIC (network interface card) prevents you from accessing the internet. Hence, you have to ensure your network card is working properly by pinging the loopback address. Here are the steps to do so:

This step might feel too simple to be true, but a disabled ethernet connection often causes confusion during stressful scenarios. So, it’s better to check the status of your ethernet connection before diving into any technical stuff. 

In scenarios where your system fails to recognize the ethernet connection, the network details are often found to be misconfigured. So, a wrong configuration of your network settings can also make your port seem nonfunctional.

Hence, we have to be sure that your system can extract the network information automatically. And the steps to do so are as follows:

The network troubleshooter on Windows can automatically scan for, detect and fix certain issues regarding your internet connection and the network adapter. Hence, you can let Windows figure out and solve the issue itself. For this:

Diagnosing your ethernet adapter can bring light to the hidden issues within this adapter. You can easily diagnose your network adapter through the control panel and this provides an alternative way of troubleshooting your problem.

Here are the steps to do so:

Not all antivirus software is compatible with your broadband connection and can hence, block the information flow to and fro between your system and the network. This can cause certain glitches within your system and can make it seem like there is no internet connection at all. So, when your computer is not accepting the network signal, the ethernet port may seem dysfunctional as well.

The ethernet port on your motherboard cannot recognize your network adapter if the network driver is outdated. So, it’s important to update this driver to the latest built. A fresh update can incorporate newer system patches on your device, and your port could be up and running in no time. 

This step is vital if your ethernet port works on an older system but not on a newer motherboard, especially on the one you built yourself. So, the steps below show how you can update your network driver:

Resetting your network settings is known to fix certain connection issues regarding both the ethernet and Wifi. So, it’s as straightforward as it sounds. A network reset will erase all the network and internet-related data stored on your computer.

Hence, the corrupted network cache and configurations will be fixed, which can in turn fix your ethernet port issues. So,

The network stack is a set of network protocols that transfers data to and fro between two devices.

So, resetting a network stack resets the IP subnet mask, DNS server, and other IP protocol settings. It clears the network cache and is known to fix configuration errors as well. To reset the network stack, follow these steps below:

Once the process completes, restart your computer to incorporate your changes. 

At times, the Windows power management tool feels tricky. On the one hand, it conserves your battery life and on the other, it sometimes disables certain system features and applications from operating at full power.

So, for now, it’s wise to turn off this setting and find out whether it fixes your issue or not. Here’s how to do so:

The EEE (Energy Efficient Ethernet) is a networking standard designed to reduce the total power consumption of the physical layer ethernet devices (e.g. a modem) by 50% or more.

This enables the ethernet to use power only while transmitting data. So, disabling the EEE could help fix your ethernet connection and the ethernet port issues as well. The steps to disable EEE are:

Let’s say you tested your ethernet cable on a different system, and it turns out to work just fine. But, the ethernet port on your motherboard doesn’t seem to function or “wake up” no matter which aforementioned steps you followed. 

In such a case, your first instinct should be to ensure that the port is lint and dust-free. However, ethernet ports are often prone to damage and degradation. The connectors on your motherboard are prone to breakage and a faulty port often returns a Network cable unplugged error on your screen.

So, this section mainly focuses on the fixes and workarounds you can apply when your ethernet works but the port doesn’t.

You can completely delete the ethernet adapter from your system and reinstall a fresh copy of it.

This is useful because reinstalling your network driver discards the bugs and glitches that came along with the previous build. The installer’s temporary, probably buggy, files from your system are also discarded and this frees up a significant amount of storage as well.

So, reinstalling the network driver can bring your port back to life. This can also help with the port not lighting up the issue. The steps below show how to do it: 

If your ethernet port started to show signs of problems after installing a new driver update, then rolling it back to the previous one could fix your issue. This could light the ethernet port back up and see you surfing the web in no time.

So, here’s how you can rollback your network driver:

Unloading power completely from a computer seems to fix some minor hardware issues on your system. The main goal is to dissipate all the electricity from your computer and restart it in hopes of fixing your problem. This too can help with the issue of your ethernet port failing to light up. So,

Turn off your computer.

Unplug the power cord from your system. 

Remove the battery for laptops if possible.

Hold the power button for about 45-60 seconds to dissipate all the electricity. 

Reattach your battery.

Plug the computer back in. 

Turn on your computer.

The BIOS is a sensitive place to play around in. A slight change in the BIOS can see your computer’s function in a totally different manner.

The ethernet connection might be disabled on the BIOS, either by you (knowing or unknowingly) or by default by your motherboard manufacturer. So, you can (re)enable the ethernet adapter on the BIOS to allow your port to light up and function properly.

Here’s how to do so:

If nothing works, the only thing you can possibly do is to invest in a USB to ethernet adapter. It is a device that’s capable of connecting the ethernet cable to a USB port.

It returns a plug-n-play feature, which means, you can just plug the USB into your computer, plug the ethernet cable into the adapter and directly connect to the internet. 

Gsm Vs Cdma Vs Lte

Difference Between GSM vs CDMA vs LTE

Start Your Free Software Development Course

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Head to Head Comparisons Between GSM vs CDMA vs LTE (Infographics)

Below are the top comparisons between GSM and CDMA and LTE:

Key Differences Between GSM vs CDMA vs LTE 1. Transmission of Wireless Techniques

The GSM technique operates in principle FDMA and TDMA. The time slots are divided into eight and have unique carrier frequency, which is established over a GSM connection. The users of GSM has given a single carrier channel with time slots to share the data. CDMA works on segregated 64 channels, which follow spread spectrum technology, frequency hopping, and mixed CDMA techniques. LTE works on SC-FDMA and OFDM, which has related access theories and signal holders.

2. Frequency Channel of Wireless Technologies

GSM has the system frequency of dual bands such as 1800 MHz and 900 MHz and called GSM-900 and DCS-1800. The FDMA segregates 25 MHz into a carrier frequency of 124 slots. The channel width is calibrated as 200 MHz, and the TDMA process does the segregation of carrier frequency into eight slots. The frequency of824 MHz to 894 MHz is provided by CDMA, which is flexible and called 3G GSM. It is also known as wideband CDMA. As the name express, it has maximum data capacity. It requires wide channels and is called universal mobile telephone systems. The several frequencies of LTE in every country are allotted with set limits. 1 to 25 frequency bands are assigned in the frequency division duplex, whereas the LTE ranges from 33 to 43 on time division duplex.

3. The Topology of Wireless Technologies

The GSM has the topology of the base station subsystem, user equipment, and core networks. The interaction layer is placed between system requirements and cooperation rules. The architecture of CDMA is made with code division layers and has maximum powers on bit processing. LTE is developed from the previous generation of UMTS. It composed of generated core packets and has eight core components of E-UTRAN, node – B, mobile management, entitled user plan, and access gateway.

Comparison Table of GSM vs CDMA vs LTE

Behavioral and Physical Attributes GSM CDMA LTE

Description The GSM is expanded as a Global System for Mobile communication. It is a famous wireless communication to define cellular networks’ protocol and is integrated with mobiles that can be used by three-forth of the global market. CDMA is used as a spread spectrum for mobile networks that allows multiple wireless users to transfer or spread the airwaves with alternate methods. LTE can be expanded as Long term evolution. It is a wireless broadband technique that is implemented for rapid speed communication. The transfer of data can be made within cell phones.

The bandwidth of every channel The frequency band is segregated across the world in four categories. They are GSM 900, DCS 1800, PCS 1900, and GSM 850. The bandwidth channel of CDMA is used for separation like 50 MHz along with 20 MHz The support of LTE extended to frequency channels from 1 to 25 and 33 to 43.

Frequency Bandwidth GSM supports a frequency of 200KHz CDMA has a frequency channel of 1.25 MHz, and it is segregated into code channels of 64. It works from  824 MHz- 894 MHz LTE supports a frequency of eight bandwidths such as 3MHz, 5MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz, and 20MHz.

Working principles The working principle of GSM follows FDMA or TDMA It follows DS-CDMA that is a direct sequence spread spectrum modulation. Frequency hopping and detection of mixed CDMA. It is developed over a wide bandwidth. The uplink in SC-FDMA and downlink of OFDMA is followed by LTE

Architecture The GSM has a physical layer that is made of multiple modules such as forward error, interleaving methods, multiplexing, differential encoding methods, modulation, and ciphering of GMSK. This technique is composed of a base station, and subscriber ends. The complete architecture is dependent on frequency division duplex and divided into logical and physical channels. It follows 3G radio communication methods. It provides maximum spectrum efficiency. The LTE has its complete topology on frequency division duplex and time division duplex. It acts differently for e-node and UE, where the UE is based on SC-FDMA to interact and e-node works on e-node B. It is separated into three channels like transport, logical and physical channels

MIMO methods  2*2 MIMO is followed by GSM It is based on rapidness to fading of multiple paths obtained by orthogonal frequency on division multiplexing. The standard of LTE follows 8*8, 4*4 MIMO and also supports co-operative MIMO and multi-user MIMO

Modulation techniques It works on Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying.

The modulation methods have more power on fine code divisions, and every code is encoded with a distinct key. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, 64 QAM and 16 QAM, is followed by LTE in the modulation.

Use cases . The CDMA methods enable multiple users to work on the same frequency and time allocation is the allotted space band. The Verizon wireless mobile on CDMA has its own sim card. It does not operate on GSM networks like AT & T.


Some mobile technology applications are navigation, space exploration, broadcast, military applications, and personalized according to the individual requirement. But the integrated principles and truth behind all the mobile applications remain constant. Mobile communications, irrespective of many revolutions, has several limitations that can be overcome in upcoming software updates.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to GSM vs CDMA vs LTE. Here we discuss the GSM vs CDMA vs LTE key differences with infographics and a comparison table. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –

Microsoft Vs. Apple Vs. Google: Differing Visions

At the Wall Street Journal’s “D: All Things Digital Conference” Steve Jobs and Bill Gates will be on stage for what may be the last time.Increasingly both are being upstaged by a couple of kids out of Stanford who, much like their predecessors did a couple of decades ago, had a vision and executed on it sharply, and appear to be increasingly more relevant to us on a day-to-day basis as a result.Surrounding Google is Open Source, a movement that Microsoft is attempting to embrace, Apple is running away from, and Google is using very profitably.

Let’s take a look at the three companies and weave in the Open Source movement this week.

Apple: It’s all about Jobs

This bleeds through several of the unauthorized Jobs’ biographies that Apple’s successes, and to some extent its failures, are all about Jobs.Steve, with all of his faults, can grasp quickly the core aspects of a successful product and communicate them very chúng tôi addition he has a passion for excellence in his staff and has demonstrated a capability to drive them to do things that should have been chúng tôi at the core of all of this, is that Apple is a product company and lives, or dies, on the success of its lead offering.

Currently the lead offering is not a PC but the iPod, and Apple has even removed the “Computer” part of its name to reflect this chúng tôi a product like an iPod has a limited run, something Sony (Walkman) and Palm can attest to.Eventually the market grows tired of it and moves on to the next big thing and, it is generally another company that provides it.

AppleTV has not been a hit (to be fair nothing else in that category including Microsoft’s offerings have either) and Apple is now betting on the iPhone.

With Leopard, slated to be Apple’s run at the Enterprise, we may see this same problem in spades. The Enterprise market is very mature and Apple is no longer considered an Enterprise class chúng tôi make a similar move a few decades earlier Microsoft partnered with IBM, and a decade ago Palm did as well, even more recently RIM partnered with a number of enterprise firms (these partnerships did not go well) to help them penetrate this space.

IT doesn’t want vendors who learn on IT’s nickel, but Apple’s partnership history is horrid and they are unlikely to even try to partner to penetrate the chúng tôi addition IT wants roadmaps, and a partner in future versions of offerings with vendors they work with. But Apple, as a product company, is scared to death of leaks, for fear someone else will get to their goal first. And so the company won’t work with IT, or anyone else, in this way. Therefore it simply may not matter what Leopard is, without the critical surrounding Enterprise Partners and disclosures it will not meet IT’s need.

Apple’s strength, a sharp focus on product, is also its weakness because it prevents the kind of collaboration needed to grow outside of its niche and rise to what otherwise would be its potential.

Microsoft: Strong Vision, Bad Focus

Microsoft is in many ways the nearly polar opposite of Apple. Early on Bill Gates drove the company to be a part of as many things as possible. The company became what it is, for good and ill, largely as a result of an IBM partnership which both got them into the enterprise and infected them with practices that had crippled their predecessor.

This showcases one of the problems with learning from someone chúng tôi don’t often know which part of the lesson should be retained and which part discarded so that you avoid the mistakes the teacher is currently chúng tôi Microsoft’s case it was the IBM practice of avoiding accountability and institutionalizing management that turned out to be the communicable disease that should have been, but was not avoided.

Still, while this has certainly hurt the firm and its image over time, its financial performance remains very strong and, still, in most parts of the world most people are touched by the company’s offerings.

Microsoft is clearly an enterprise vendor but, like IBM before them, the question is “are they looking ahead to even more influence or back at greatness that will never again be achieved?”In many ways Microsoft is at a turning point, trying to remain relevant and even important in a world that increasingly seems focused on something other than software.

Microsoft has tried to emulate to some degree companies like Sony with the Xbox and Apple with the Zune. But they learned that other more focused companies like Nintendo with the Wii and SanDisk with the Sensa did it better with vastly less resources.

While Microsoft fully understands what it takes to move in areas where Apple cannot, in many ways it is still tied to the problems that resulted from its first deep contact with IBM. And unless it can cure itself of this IBM-sourced illness Microsoft’s long-term future won’t look anything like its astounding past.

It is attempting to do just that with its own movement to Open Source and major restructuring in a number of divisions.Recently I saw a product that gave me hope that Microsoft was, in fact, getting better.Unlike so many offerings from Microsoft of late it felt complete, well designed, solidly executed.I can’t talk about the product yet, because it is unannounced, but if it is an indicator of things to come (and not just an isolated case) the company may be getting chúng tôi their sake I hope so because they don’t have a lot of time, and their partners are still dependent to some degree on Microsoft.

Google: The New Superstar

It must be difficult for both Apple and Microsoft’s CEO to look at Google and remember what it was like when they were the stars of chúng tôi like an aging award-winning actress who now plays only supporting roles, both Apple and Microsoft’s stars have paled under the brilliance of young Google’s rising star.

Google, so far, has avoided both the problems associated with Apple’s and Microsoft’s models. By initially not focusing on large business they didn’t have to form a deep partnership nor emulate a predecessor and have created a work environment envied by Apple and Microsoft employees chúng tôi addition, they quickly realized (and maybe always did) that, to make a difference, it wasn’t about a single product but about control of the revenue stream.

This was more of a blend of Microsoft’s wanting to be in everything and Apple’s “do a few things well” product strategy.Google has a limited offering but it touches the majority of people who search on the web and increasingly Google gets a piece of the related action.

Google has also resisted the temptation to focus on Microsoft. This kind of focus nearly killed Sun and was core to Netscape, Google’s direct predecessor, making a series of terminal mistakes.Instead Google focused like a laser on customers and in locking down their revenue stream with a strategy that could, if they aren’t blocked by anti-trust government response, lead them to the kind of dominance historically enjoyed by IBM, and currently still enjoyed by Microsoft.

While they have yet to make much of a mark with their secondary software products, like Google Apps, it is their nearly complete rejection of the current technology market and its offerings and their ability to milk the Open Source eco system that may go down in history as a best practice.

However, they have yet to really face a trial by fire. And while they have, so far, succeeded at being unconventional there are indications that they may be too attached to doing everything different than is chúng tôi the excessive wealth that their founders have gained over a very short period of time may, itself, be becoming a distraction and creating internal strife in the company.

That’s only a possible future and there is nothing to say this future has been set. Still it would be wise to look for the symptoms: increasing employee turnover, severe product failures, employee lawsuits, any signs of employee violence, or any sudden pull back in entitlements or employee benefits – all would be likely early indicators of problems. Until then, Google (despite some doubts) actually appears to be in good shape.

Comparing the Visions: New vs. Old

Apple is nearly the opposite, in that you buy a product and with it you get low cost or free features and services.iTunes is one of the services and iLife is one of the chúng tôi mirrors in many ways how we buy most things except razors and cell phones.Apple’s future is one based on having at least one successful flagship offering or line, like the iPod, but the iPhone’s future is uncertain while the eventual drop of the iPod from star status is not. Also uncertain is Apple’s ability to sell into the enterprise, because with that class of buyer, it isn’t the product but the relationship that counts. Apple is historically really bad at relationships.Apple is showing signs of being on a bubble and bubbles have a tendency to pop; on the other hand, Apple is really good at this bubble thing – and the iPod has already been a success longer than most have thought any product in this class could be.

Microsoft is a company in transition.Microsoft is an eco system company and one that sells to both consumer and enterprise customers today.Highly diverse and with an increasing history of execution issues on point products, but successes in establishing (and owning) standards, the company is struggling to adjust to a changed world and the changes being made to address it.

It stopped chasing IBM some time ago yet is still burdened with IBM-like practices and an internal environment which may be out of date when compared to chúng tôi too often seems to be trying to chase product companies and forgetting that licensing and partners are what made it great. Still, it is trying to adopt but the one guy who has previously spearheaded its adaptation, Bill Gates, is leaving. In short, unlike its predecessors, it is trying to evolve and is finding evolution to be a very painful process, but likely preferable to the alternative of obsolescence.

Overall Google’s issues are in front of them and they don’t need the enterprise to be successful; they are growing incredibly fast. This, in and of itself, is a big risk but the company appears to be in the best shape today even though they aren’t a viable enterprise choice. That actually may not matter, and recall that Netscape largely died because they focused on the Enterprise rather than their existing customers and market.

Apple seems to focus excessively on Microsoft, and Microsoft on Google and Apple. It is interesting to note that the seeming most successful of the three is only focused on its customers and market expansion. That’s actually old school Microsoft, and to use a Star Wars phrase, maybe the student has now become the master.

Update the detailed information about Cat5E Vs Cat6 Ethernet Cables on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!