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Introduction to Flutter Architecture

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Architecture of Flutter

The architecture of flutter is comprised of four components.

1. Flutter Engine

It is a runtime that is portable for high quality mobile applications. It is based on C++ programming language. The applications of flutter are developed using flutter core libraries which includes graphics and animation, network input output and file, plugin architecture, accessibility support and a dart runtime. Low level graphics can be rendered using open source Google’s graphics library called Skia.

2. Foundation Library

The building blocks for development of a flutter application makes use of packages and they are contained in the foundation library. Dart is the language used to write these libraries.

3. Widgets

The important concept of flutter framework is widget. The interface and view of the application is controlled and affected by a user interface component and that is widget. A description of immutable representation of a part of a user interface is provided by the widget which includes shapes, text, graphics, animations etc. is included in this user interface. The components of react and widgets are alike. Any application is a widget in flutter architecture consisting of many sub widgets. User interfaces that are complex can be created using this feature.

4. Design Specific Widgets

Two types of widgets are present in it that follows the rules of certain design languages. The design specific widgets are material design for android applications, Cupertino style for iPhone operating system applications.

5. Gestures 6. State Management

The state of the flutter widget is maintained by a special widget namely Stateful widget. Whenever there is an internal change, stateful widget is re-rendered automatically. The distance between the old widget user interface and new widget interface is calculated to optimize the re-rendering and the necessary things are only rendered those are changes.

7. Layers

The core concept of flutter architecture are layers which are divided into several categories based on complexity and the arrangement is made in a top down manner. The application’s user interface is the topmost layer and this layer is particular to android platforms and iPhone operating system platforms. All the flutter widgets are present in the second topmost layer. Everything is rendered to the applications through the next layer which is called rendering layer.

All these layers are followed by Gestures which are widgets in flutter architecture used for interaction as in how to respond to and how to listen to and this done by using Gesture Detector, foundation library which are the building blocks for development of a flutter application makes use of packages and they are contained in the foundation library, engine and codes that are specific to the platform.

Why do we use Flutter Architecture?

The process of developing the applications and creating animations happen at a very high speed.

The highlight of flutter architecture is user interface applications.

It is the native applications for both iPhone operating system and Android.

The reloading in flutter architecture is hot, if the save button is pressed for each time.

The performance of the applications based on flutter architecture is high.

Multiple languages can be supported on a single platform using dart.

The applications based on flutter architecture have high productivity.

Both the layout and backend are written in a single language.

The flutter architecture consists of widgets that are customizable.

Why is Flutter Architecture Unique?

ARM Binary code can be compiled using flutter architecture.

The flutter architecture does not rely on OEM widgets.

There is no necessity for bridges in flutter architecture.

There is no mark up language in flutter architecture, there is just dart.

List of Animations Supported by Flutter Architecture

It supports Tween.

It supports Hero.

It supports Silver.

It supports Transform.

It supports Fade in Widget.

It supports Animation builder.

It supports Animated opacity.

It supports animations based on physics.


User interface coding can be done rapidly by using the widgets that are ready made and can be customized.

The learning curve is mild and the community of the users using flutter architecture is growing every day.

The java programmers are targeted by using simple, yet effective language called dart.

The compilation types supported by flutter architecture are AOT and JIT.

XML files are not necessary.

JavaScript bridge is not necessary to provide a better performance.

Instantaneous updates can be provided by using hot reload function.

It provides portability, internationalization and accessibility.

It provides high performance.

The third-party libraries are not supported by flutter architecture.

The size of the files is large.

There are issues with iPhone operating system.

Dart programming language cannot be easily understood by the beginners in programming, so it becomes a difficult task to find people to perform this job.

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Complete Guide To Docker Toolbox

Introduction to Docker Toolbox

Docker Toolbox is the Docker solution for the older version of Windows or Mac OS. We can install Docker Toolbox on older Windows or Mac operating systems that do not meet the system requirements of ‘Docker Desktop for Windows’ and ‘Docker Desktop for Mac’. Docker Toolbox includes Docker tools and those are Docker Machine for running ‘docker-machine’ commands, Docker Engine for running the ‘docker’ commands, Docker Compose for running the ‘docker-compose’ commands, Kitematic, the Docker GUI, a shell preconfigured for a Docker command-line environment and Oracle VirtualBox. Docker Toolbox also has some system requirements to install such as the host must have 64-bit OS running Windows 7 or higher and virtualization must be enabled on the system.

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How to Install Docker Toolbox?

Given below are the steps to install Docker Toolbox on Windows operating system and it pretty easy:

Step 6: It will start the installation and we get progress bar as below:

Step 8: Then, it will install VirtualBox and that’s it. Docker Toolbox is installed on our machine. Here is the final window of the installation as below:

How does Docker Toolbox work?

We cannot run Docker Engine natively on Windows because the Docker Engine daemon uses Linux-specific kernel features to run. So, we need to create and attach a small Linux VM on our host using the Docker Machine command. This VM is going to use to host Docker Engine on our Windows system. It uses Oracle VirtualBox which is included in the package to run that Linux VM in a virtual environment. If VirtualBox is already installed on our computer, we must uncheck the checkbox of VirtualBox while running the Docker Toolbox setup and VirtualBox must be closed before the installation. However, in the newer ‘Docker Desktop for Windows’ desktop solution removed this requirement as it uses native virtualization instead of VirtualBox to run Docker.

Also, Docker Toolbox has only access to the ‘c:users’ directory by default, and it is mounted into VM at ‘/c/Users’ and it is case sensitive. If we want to allow access to other folders, for example, our project files might be somewhere else so we need to configure ‘Shared Folders’ in the VirtualBox.

Docker Toolbox Overview:

Let’s start the Docker and test it to confirm that the installation is successful and Docker is working as expected.

Step 1: Search for the ‘Docker QuickStart Terminal’ icon on the Desktop.

Here, we can see that pre-create checks are complete and it is downloading ‘Boot2Docker’ ISO image to create VM as it was not found locally.

Step 3: If encountered any problem, just restart the terminal and see if the issue is resolved or getting the same issue continuously:

Step 5: We can now test the installation by running any container on it. We can run the ‘docker run hello-world’ command to run ‘hello-world’ container and if everything is good, we get below output after running the above command:

Step 6: We can run other Docker commands as well now. Let’s start by checking images and creating volumes etc. by using below commands:

$docker ps -a



In the above snapshot, we can see that we are able to list Docker images, volumes, networks, and containers without any errors.

Step 7: Let’s run an nginx container and access the default web page from our browser.

So, here is the command to test it:


$docker run -d -p 80:80 nginx:alpine


Now, to access the default web page from the browser, check the IP address of the VM that is populated when started the VM as bash command will not work here and put the IP address in the browser as shown below:


Docker Toolbox is an official tool from Docker to run Docker on a different operating system other than Linux if we have old Windows or Mac OS. This tool is very easy to install and use. We can create multiple machines using the ‘docker-machine’ command. We can uninstall the Docker Toolbox from the control panel as we uninstall other applications, however, it does not uninstall VirtualBox, it needs to be uninstalled separately.

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Complete Guide To Cissp Certification

Introduction to CISSP Certification

The following article provides an outline for CISSP Certification. Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) is issued by the (ISC)² International Information System Security Certification Consortium and is an independent information security certification. 131,180 (ISC)² members were possessing the CISSP certification globally, around 171 countries, with the United States of America having the maximum number of members at 84,557 members. The CISSP designation was accredited to the ANSI ISO/IEC Standard 17024:2003 as per June 2004.

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A first of its kind, the committee to establish a Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) was established in 1990. CBK, in its first version, was finalized by 1992, and the CISSP certification was official by 1994.

Certification Subject Matter

The CISSP deals with numerous security management topics. The CISSP examination is conducted on the basis of the definition of the CBK by the (ISC)². As per (ISC)², “The CISSP CBK is a taxonomy – a collection of topics relevant to information security professionals around the world. The CISSP CBK helps set a fixed structure of information and security management that ensures professionals in the IT sector globally to solve matters related to this field with a cohesive comprehension.”

The CISSP covers the following topics as of 15 April 2023:

Security and Risk Management

Asset Security

Security Architecture and Engineering

Communication and Network Security

Identity and Access Management (IAM)

Security Assessment and Testing

Security Operations

Software Development Security


Should have complete security-related work experience of at least five years in minimum two of the (ISC)² security management. A year of course time can be deducted if an individual has either a four-year degree from a recognized college, a master’s degree in security management, or has done numerous other certifications, particularly security management related. A candidate who does not possess the requisite experience may qualify for the Associate of (ISC)² position by qualifying for the necessary examination; validity is a maximum of six years. In these six years, the associate will have to undergo the required and relevant experience and provide the authorities with the requisite form for CISSP certification.

Should get the certificates of their claims regarding work experience attested and strictly adhere to the ethical structure of CISSP.

Should get criminal history and background verified.

Should score a minimum of 700 out of 1000 in order to qualify.

They should get themselves endorsed by another fellow certificate holder.

CISSP Members

Country (Top 12) Count

United States 84,557

United Kingdom 6,885

Canada 5,443

South Korea 2,699

Netherlands 2,489

Australia 2,426

India 2,251

China 2,227

Japan 2,197

Germany 2,147

Singapore 1,965

Hong Kong 1,698

Concentration of CISSP Certification

Professionals with CISSP certification can also pursue additional certifications in areas related to security management.

There are three possibilities:

Initial Fees and Ongoing Certification Value of CISSP Certification

35,167 IT professionals in 170 countries were surveyed by Certification Magazine in 2005 on the basis of compensation and concluded that CISSP certification topped their list of certificates arranged in a chronological manner on the basis of salary. Certification Magazine salary survey of 2006 also placed the CISSP credential at the top order and ranked IT professionals with CISSP associated certifications as the top best-paid credentials.

As per a survey of 2008, the corporate world concluded that professionals in the IT sector with CISSP concentrated certifications and work experience of 5 years at the minimum generally have salaries around 26% higher than other IT professionals with similar experience credentials without any certificates across the USA. But the actual cause and effect of the relationship between the certificate and salaries remain unproven.

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A Complete Guide To Cubase Shortcuts

Introduction to Cubase Shortcuts

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Shortcut of Tools of Tool Panel of Cubase

Given below are the shortcut of tools of tool panel of cubase:

Drumstick Tool (0): For making drumstick tool active we should press zero numeric key of keyboard.

Select Tool (1): By pressing 1 numeric key of keyboard we can have select tool active.

Range Tool (2): For accessing range tool quickly you have to press 2 numeric key of keyboard.

Split Tool (3): Press 3 numeric key of keyboard for having split tool.

Glue Tool (4): By pressing 4 numeric key of keyboard you can access Glue tool.

Erase Tool (5): Press 5 numeric key of keyboard as shortcut key of Erase tool.

Zoom Tool (6): 6 numeric key of keyboard can use as shortcut key of Zoom tool.

Mute Tool (7): By pressing 7 numeric key of keyboard we can have Mute tool active.

Draw Tool (8): Shortcut key of draw tool is 8 numeric key of keyboard.

Play Tool (9): 9 numeric key of keyboard can use as shortcut command of Play tool.

Previous Tool/Next Tool (10): 10 numeric key of keyboard can use as shortcut command for previous tool or for next tool selection.

Shortcut Keys for Audio Settings

Adjust Fades to Range (A): For adjusting fades on selected range we can press A key of keyboard.

Crossfade/Fade (X): By pressing X key of keyboard we can have Crossfade for editing propose.

Direct Offline Processing (F7): Press F7 functional key of keyboard for direct processing of your editing in offline mode.

Shortcut Keys for Automation

Given below are the shortcut keys for automation:

Toggle Read Automation for all Tracks on/off (Alt + R): By pressing Alt + R keys of keyboard you can make on or off all tracks for toggle reading automation purpose.

Toggle Write Automation for all Tracks on/off (Alt + W): By pressing Alt + W keys of keyboard you can make on or off all tracks for toggle writing automation purpose.

Automation Panel (F6): Press F6 functional key of keyboard for enabling automation panel for different purposes.

Shortcut Keys for Chords

Given below are the shortcut keys for chords:

Shortcut Keys for Device

Given below are the shortcut keys for device:

MixConsole Lower Zone (Alt + F3): For lower zone of mixconsole we can press Alt + F3 functional key of keyboard.

Mixer (F3): By pressing F3 functional key of keyboard we can have Mixer device active.

Virtual Keyboard (Alt +K): For having Virtual keyboard we can press Alt + K keys of keyboard.

VST Connections (F4): We can press F4 functional key of keyboard for having VST Connections device active.

VST Instruments (F11): Same as VST connections we have shortcut command for VST Instruments that is F11 functional key of keyboard.

VST Performance (F12): F12 functional key of keyboard will make VST Performance device active.

Shortcut Keys for Cut, Copy, Paste, Undo and Redo

Cut (Ctrl + X): By pressing Ctrl + X key of keyboard we can cut our selected element for audio editing process.

Copy (Ctrl + C): Same as cut command we can copy our desired element by pressing Ctrl + C key of keyboard.

Cut (Ctrl + V): For pasting any copied or cut element we can press Ctrl + V button of keyboard.

Shortcut Keys for Edit Command

Given below are the shortcut keys for edit command:

Activate or Deactivate Focused Object (Alt + A): For activating or deactivating focused object of editing process we can press Alt + A key of keyboard that means first time when we press these keys it will make this command active and when we again press these keys it will deactivate this command.

Auto-Scroll On/Off (F): Press F key of keyboard and it will enable or disable auto scroll feature of this software.

Delete (Delete): If you want to delete your selected element then you can simply press Delete key of keyboard.

Duplicate (Ctrl + D): If you want to make duplicate copy of your desired element during editing process then you just have to select that element and press Ctrl + d key of keyboard.

Expand/Reduce (Alt + E): For expending or reduce layer length you can press Alt + E button of keyboard.

Insert Silence (Ctrl + Shift + E): Press Ctrl + Shift + E keys of keyboard and it will insert Silence at your selected area.

Invert (Alt + F): Press Alt + F key of keyboard for invert command.

Left Selection Side to Cursor (E): Press E button of keyboard for making selection at the left side of the cursor.

Write Selection side to Cursor (D): Press D button of keyboard for making selection at the right side of the cursor.

Mute (M): Press M key of keyboard for mute the audio during working with it.

Mute/Unmute Objects ( Alt + M): Same as Mute we have command for making objects mute or unmute and you can do this by pressing Alt + M keys of keyboard.

Conclusion – Cubase Shortcuts

These were some of the important shortcut keys of tools as well command of this software and you can start using them during working on any project in this software. These shortcuts will help you in enhancing your working skill and also provide you efficient working ability.

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The Complete Guide To Venue Selection

Selecting a venue for an event is essential to its success. The wrong venue can negatively impact everything from attendance to the atmosphere of your event. This guide will discuss the importance of selecting the right venue and offer tips on picking the ideal location for your next bash.

What is the Role of A Venue Provider?

A venue provider is responsible for creating an environment where an event can occur. This could include anything from a conference centre to a park or restaurant.

services such as catering, equipment rental, and decorating.

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The Importance of Picking the Right Venue for Your Event

When selecting a venue for your event, you will want to make sure it attracts guests and produces an environment where they feel comfortable.

The following are some questions you may ask yourself when choosing the right location:

What type of event am I hosting?

Who is my target audience?

What size space do I need?

Do I require additional amenities (e.g., parking, access to transportation)?

Can I afford this venue?

Is there adequate security available in case issues arise?

You can use the following guide to help you decide which type of venue is right for your event:

If you are hosting a corporate event, you will want to select a professional and polished venue. Conference centres or hotels are typically good options for this type of event.

If you are hosting a social event, such as a wedding or birthday party, you will want to choose a venue that is festive and inviting. This could be a banquet hall, park, or restaurant.

If you are hosting a large event, such as a concert or festival, you will need to find a venue to accommodate many people. This may require looking into stadiums or other large open spaces.

If you are hosting a smaller event, such as a board meeting or seminar, you will want to find a cosy and intimate venue. Meeting rooms or lecture halls may be good options for this event.

If your guests need to rely on public transportation, you will want to pick a venue that is accessible. For example, if your guests live in the suburbs, it may make more sense to drive than if they were going from the city where there would be better subway access.

If parking is a concern, make sure there is adequate parking available at the venue and ensure it comes with a staff member who can help direct traffic.

Finally, consider whether or not you want to have exclusive use of the venue for the duration of your event. This will typically incur an additional cost, but it may be worth it if you want to ensure that your guests have a positive experience.

Tips on Picking the Ideal Venue for Your Event

6. If you are having trouble deciding between two venues, ask yourself the following questions:

Which venue is more accessible?

Which venue has better parking?

Is one of the venues larger than the other?

Do any of my guests have special requirements (e.g., wheelchair access)?

7. Always read the contract carefully before signing anything! This will help avoid any surprises down the road.

How To Evaluate the Location & Layout of the Venue You are Considering?

The location and layout of a venue can make or break your event. Start by looking at the following:

Physical Location: The physical location of space is a significant factor in determining if it will work for your event. For instance, you would want to avoid hosting an outdoor wedding on a concrete slab during a thunderstorm! However, some events such as conferences may not be as affected by conditions such as weather.

The layout of the Venue: Look at the venue’s layout and consider how you would like your seating arrangements to be set up. Is there enough room for all of your guests? What about vendors/exhibitors?

Light and Sound Quality: Evaluate lighting and sound quality. Poor lighting or sound can ruin an event.

Amenities: Check the availability of necessary amenities, such as Wi-Fi, electrical outlets, and restrooms.

What Type of Clientele Do You Want at Your Event?

One of the most important factors to consider when choosing a venue is the type of clientele you want your event to attract. For example, if you are hosting a corporate event, you will look for a professional and polished venue. Conference centres or hotels are typically good options for this type of event.

If you are hosting a social event, such as a wedding or birthday party, you will want to think about where your guests would be able to mingle. For example, if you are hosting a wedding reception, it may make more sense to book an event space where one large room can accommodate the entire guest list.


Choosing a venue can be a daunting task, but if you take the time to consider all of the factors involved, you are sure to find the perfect space for your event. By evaluating the location and layout of the venues you are considering, you can narrow down your choices and start touring spaces that fit both your needs and budget.

And finally, by thinking about what type of clientele you want at your event, you can easily rule out venues that don’t fit your desired demographic. Finding the perfect venue for your event will be a breeze with these tips in mind.

Corry Wells

My name is Corry Wells and I’m a professional IT and business blogger. I’ve been blogging for some years already. By this time I’ve written more than 500 articles on different topics. Sometimes I also edit written articles for giant business and IT websites.

Complete Guide To Postgresql Blob With Examples

Introduction to PostgreSQL blob

PostgreSQL blob data type is defined as binary large object, basically blob data type is not available in PostgreSQL instead of blob we have using bytea data type. Blob data type in PostgreSQL is basically used to store the binary data such as content of file in PostgreSQL. The storage size of blob data type in PostgreSQL is 1 to 4 bytes plus the string of actual binary, input format of blob data type is different in PostgreSQL.

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Below is the syntax :

Create table name_of_table (name_of_column1 data_type, name_of_column2 data_type, name_of_column3 data_type, …, name_of_columnN bytea); Name_of_variable or name_of_column bytea; Alter table name_of_tableadd columnname_of_column bytea;

Below is the parameter description syntax of blob/bytea data type in PostgreSQL:

Create table:  We create a table in PostgreSQL by using the “CREATE TABLE” statement and define the column with the data type “BYTEA”. We can create any table and defining data type as bytea to the column.

Name of table:  When creating a table in PostgreSQL, we define the name of the table and assign the “BYTEA” data type to the column. We can define bytea data type to the column at the time of table creation. Also, we are defining the data type as bytea after table creation using alter command.

Name of column 1 to name of column N: This is defined as create a column on the table and defined bytea data type for the same.

Data type: When creating a table in PostgreSQL, we assign the data type to the table column. We can define data type as per which data we are storing into the table.

blob/bytea: The data type “BLOB”/”BYTEA” is specified when creating the column in the table. We store the binary data or file into the table using the blob data type.

Name of variable: This is nothing but the column name which we used at the time of table creation.

Alter table: We use the ALTER TABLE command in PostgreSQL to modify a table. With the ALTER command, we can change the data type of a column from one type to another.

Add column: We use the ADD COLUMN command in PostgreSQL to add a new column to a table. In this case, we are adding a new column and defining its data type as BLOB/BYTEA.

How blob Data Type works in PostgreSQL?

From PostgreSQL 7.2 version, we can store binary type of data into a table by using the bytea data type.

The blob data type’s storage size is 1 to 4 bytes, but it depends on the string used at the time of insertion.

For inserting data into the blob column, we need to create a function first. After creating the function, we call the same and restore data into the table.

PostgreSQL supports the binary data type, but we need to be careful while using the same.

At the time of insertion SQL statement in the blob data type column, we need to have a binary string with the values. Also, we have to escape some characters from the binary string as per the rules provided in PostgreSQL.

In PostgreSQL, binary strings can be divided into character strings in two ways. PostgreSQL bytea supports two external format for output and input.

Output format of bytea data type depends on the configuration parameter, the default value of bytea data type parameter is hex in PostgreSQL.

There is no specific data type of blob available in PostgreSQL; instead of a blob, we are using a bytea data type.


Below example shows that we are using bytea data type instead of blob data type in PostgreSQL.


create table test_blob (text_blob blob, id int, address varchar, phone int); create table test_blob (text_blob bytea, id int, address varchar, phone int); d+ test_blob;


In the above example, we have used the blob data type at the time of table creation, but it will issue an error that the blob data type does not exist.

In the second example, instead of a blob, we have used bytea data type, using bytea data type, we have created a table. Using bytea data type, we can restore binary type data in PostgreSQL.


Given below are the examples mentioned :

Example #1

Create a table by using blob/bytea data type.

Below example shows that create a table using blob/bytea data type.

We have defined bytea data type to blob_test column.


create table test_blob1 (blob_test bytea, id int, address varchar, phone int, name varchar); d+ test_blob1


Example #2

Create a table by defining blob/bytea data type on multiple column.

Below example shows that create a table by using blob/bytea data type on multiple column.

We have defined bytea data type to blob_test, blob_test1, and blob_test2 column.


create table test_blob2 (blob_test bytea, blob_test1 bytea, blob_test2 bytea,id int, address varchar, phone int, name varchar); d+ test_blob2

Example #3

Add a new column and define the data type as blob/bytea.

Below example shows that add a new column and define the data type as blob/bytea.

In the below example, we are adding the column name as blob_test1 and defining the data type as blob/bytea for the same.


Alter table test_blob1 ADD COLUMN blob_test1 bytea; d+ test_blob1;


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