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Conditional Formatting for Dates in Excel (Table of Contents)

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Conditional formatting for dates in Excel means it formats the particular data per your criteria. Here we will discuss formatting dates to highlight/format the dates we want in a particular format. The selected dates, i.e., the dates before today, dates of Sundays, weekends, and many more.

Step: 1

First of all, we need to select the data which we need to be formatted.

Step: 2

Now the options available for us are many, but here we have to use them to format the dates.

Step: 3

Here we have an option to highlight the Date from yesterday to next month, and we also have the built-in option of how we want these dates to be highlighted. Like the color of the text and the colored cell, there are some fixed options. Kindly see the following image for the reference of the options available.

How to Use Conditional Formatting for Dates in Excel?

As we have seen in the above examples, the conditional formatting for dates can be used in situations like Found duplicate dates or highlighting the required dates of the week by making formula, and we can highlight the dates which are on Monday, Sunday or any other day of the week.

Using built-in options, we can highlight the dates of Yesterday, Today Next Month, or if the built-in option is not usable for us, we can make our own rules. We can format the data as we want using formulas like a weekday, today, date, and Now.

You can download this Conditional Formatting for Dates Excel Template here – Conditional Formatting for Dates Excel Template

Example #1 – Highlight the Dates of Next Week

For this example, we will see the basic example highlighting last week’s dates.

Suppose we have data on the drug with its expiry dates as follows.

Now we will select all dates, go to the conditional formatting tool from the Home menu, and select the A Date Occurring.

As we want the next week’s dates, we have selected the “Next week” option, and for formatting, we have selected the “Light Red Fill with Dark Red text.”

As we can see from the screenshot below, two drugs have an expiry date of next week, highlighted with Light Red and filled with Dark Red text as required.

Similarly, we can do the same to highlight the dates of Yesterday to Next Month from built-in options.

Example #2 – Highlight Dates of Weekends

For this example, we must explore making new rules, as no built-in option exists to highlight the weekend dates. Suppose we have data on the drug with its expiry dates as follows.

As no built-in option is available to highlight the weekends, we need to make a rule which identifies the weekend from the given dates and then format and highlight the weekends.

So first of all, here we need the formula to identify the dates weekends from the given dates; we can use the formula =weekday.

The logic we can use with this formula is =weekday(serial_number, [return_type])

Here we have serial number C2 to C9, return value will be in column # 2,

The logic for this formula is we highlight the date for which the weekday is greater than 5.

The output is given below.

Select the option. Use a formula to determine which cell to format.

A box, “Format Cells,” will open, and we can fill any color we want.

As per the results, three expiry dates are at weekends.

Example #3 – Highlight the Dates Past Today

Suppose we have the data for this example as per the image below.

We want to highlight the dates past today (09/04/2024), so which dates before 09th April 2023 will be highlighted.

So for this operation, we do not have any built-in option available.

Here we can do this operation by using the =NOW() function

The steps will be as follows:

Select the Expiry Dates from the column.

A box will open, selecting the Rule type Format only Cells that contain.

In the rule description, select Cell Value in the first box and Less than in the second box, and type =NOW() function in the third box.

Here, for example, we have used a Green color.

As per the below image, we can see that the dates which are in the past tense are now formatted in Green color.

You might think that it is much easier to do this manually, but when we have larger data, it will be very useful, and also, we can use it on a very large scale.

Things to Remember about Conditional Formatting for Dates in Excel

To apply this conditional formatting, there are things to remember.

Before applying the formatting, we have to select the columns for which the formatting needs to be applied.

While creating a new rule, the formula should be applied before applying the formatting to verify the logic.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Conditional Formatting for Dates in Excel. Here we discussed using conditional formatting for Dates in Excel and practical examples, and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

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3 Easy Ways How To Subtract Dates In Excel

At some point, when working in Excel, you will need to find the number of days between two dates.

Fortunately, Excel offers several ways of subtracting dates to get the difference in days between them.

There are three simple ways how to subtract dates in Excel, they are:

Simple subtraction

Using the DAYS() function

Using the NETWORKDAYS() function

There is one older way, the DATEDIF() function, that Microsoft no longer supports. However, the listed three methods are reliable and accurate. You will quickly find the differences between dates for tasks such as project timelines or business analyses.

By the end of this article, you’ll be able to apply each method in your own work to subtract dates to obtain the count of days with ease.

Let’s get into it.

Dates in Excel can sometimes be confusing, as they act as both numbers and text. It makes more sense when you understand that Excel stores dates as serial numbers.

Excel’s date system starts counting from January 1, 1900, which is assigned the serial number 1. Each day that follows is assigned the next number.

For example, January 2, 1900, has a serial number of 2.

You can probably see that this makes it simpler to subtract two dates and find the days between them. Let’s run through the recommended ways to do so.

I suggest you launch a new workbook. Each example I give is a quick tutorial.

My worksheet uses cell B2 and cell C2 for the sample dates. You can use the examples as templates for your work.

The first method to find the count of days between two dates in Excel is by using simple subtraction (the minus sign). This is the format:


Follow these steps:

Enter the two dates in separate cells.

In a new cell, write a formula like this: =C2-B2

Press enter.

The resulting value will be the number of whole days between the two dates.

In our example, I entered “3 March 2023” into B2 and “20 March 2023” in cell C2. The result of the calculation was 17.

Cell A2 in the illustration below is simply a description of the method used.

If you want to display your result with a custom label, use the following formula:

=C2-B2 & " days"

This formula concatenates the calculated date difference of the cell references with the text ” days”. This provides a more descriptive result.

For example, if there are 17 days between the two dates, the result will be displayed as “17 days”.

The DAYS Excel function is an inbuilt date function that calculates the days between dates. This is the format:

=DAYS(End, Start)

Follow these steps:

Enter the two dates in separate cells.

In a new cell, write a formula like this: =DAYS(C2, B2)

Press enter.

The resulting value will be the count of whole days between the two dates.

I used the same dates from the previous example to test the function. The resulting number was the same.

The result will always be a whole number. If you prefer it displayed as a decimal (with trailing zeroes), use the formatting tab to change the number format.

The NETWORKDAYS date function calculates the number of workdays between two dates. As this is working days, the calculation excludes weekends and specified holidays.

This is the format:

=NETWORKDAYS(Start, End, [Holidays])

The third parameter (Holidays) is optional. If you don’t use it, the formula will exclude weekends.

Follow these steps to use the simplest formula without specifying holidays:

Enter the two dates in separate cells.

In a new cell, type a formula like this: =NETWORKDAYS(B2, C2)

Press enter.

Taking the dates I used in the previous example (3rd January and 20th January 2023), the result from this Excel function is 14.

This is three days less than using simple subtraction. That’s because there are two weekends during that timeframe (I double-checked).

You can give the formula a list of holidays to exclude in the calculation.

You do this by entering each holiday into a range of cells and put the range into the Holiday’s parameter.

That’s easier to understand with a worked example.

The two dates are in cells B2 and C2.

The first holiday date is in cell D2 and the second is in cell E2.

In cell F2, use the formula: =NETWORKDAYS(B2, C2, D2:E2)

Press the Enter key to see the result.

In our example, the result is 12. This is two days less than the previous calculation because the formula found the list of dates in the cell range we provided.

(I’m not showing cell A1 and A2 in the picture. Cell A1 is blank and A2 holds the description.).

By the way, if you have a long list of holiday dates and you’re not sure if it includes duplicates, the video below shows you how to check the data.

It also shows you how to remove the duplicates!

Note that NETWORKDAYS uses Saturday and Sunday as the default weekend days for its calculation.

If your weekends are different, you can use the chúng tôi function to customize the weekend day.

If you want to learn more about the format, here is Microsoft’s documentation.

You won’t find the DATEDIF function in the list of in-built functions in the current version of Microsoft Excel.

However, it still is possible to use it. Microsoft doesn’t list it because the company no longer supports the function except for special cases.

The problem is that it is not always accurate. That’s why I recommend that you avoid using this function.

I’ll describe it in case you are using an older version of the software. You may also find it in older templates you are working with. The syntax is:

=DATEDIF(Start, End, “d”)

Using “d” in the third parameter tells the function to calculate in days. Make sure to put the “d” in double quotes.

As an alternative usage, “m” does the calculation as the number of months, while “y” gives the number of years.

Here are the steps:

Enter the two dates in adjacent cells.

In a new cell, type a formula like this: =DATEDIF(Start_Date, End_Date, "d").

Press enter.

This will return the days between the two dates.

Using the cells in our previous examples, the function is: DATEDIF(B2, C2, “d”).

Unlike the other functions, this one shows the #NUM! error if the first date is after the second one.

If you want one of the dates in the calculation to be the current date, Excel gives you the handy Today function.

You simply replace one of the cell references with TODAY(). In my worksheet, I’d only need column B to hold dates. Here is an example:


Somewhat confusingly, the equivalent function in VBA has a different name. Use the Date() function if you’re coding a macro.

If you’re looking for the date from exactly one month ago, you may be tempted to subtract 30 days from the output of the TODAY() function.

However, this will only be accurate for a subset of months so it’s not a good method.

The EDATE function is for exactly this purpose. The syntax is:

=EDATE(start, months)

For my specific example of exactly one month ago, I would use:

=EDATE(Today(), -1)

This gives me the date a full month in the past. This is the best way to subtract months.

If you need to subtract years, the YEAR function calculates years from a given date.

If the first date is greater than the second, the recommended methods won’t see that as an error. They will do the calculation and provide a negative number.

For example, if I mistakenly switched the dates in the examples, the result is -17.

It’s always a good idea to prevent ourselves from making mistakes. You can use the IF function to check for an invalid date range and display an error message instead.

Here’s an example of how to incorporate the IF function with the DAYS function:

This Excel formula checks if the first date is greater than the second. If that’s the case, the “Invalidate Dates” text is displayed.

Otherwise, it will calculate the difference in days as before.

In the example below, I switched the two dates around. The function displays the text I specified for the IF() function.

When working with dates in Excel, it’s important to ensure accuracy in your calculations.

Here are my best tips to help you use date calculations.

I recommend that you don’t use the DATEDIF() function. It is not always reliable.

Instead, choose one of the three other methods described in this article.

Make sure both the start and end date cells are formatted as dates.

To do this, follow these steps:

select “Format Cells” (or press ctrl + 1 to open the dialog box).

choose “Date” under the “Number” tab.

This will help avoid potential errors in your calculations.

Be aware that leap years can influence how many days are between two dates.

Excel automatically accounts for leap years in its date calculations, so if you follow the correct formula and formatting, you should get accurate results.

You can find a list of leap years here.

To improve the readability of your data and results, consider using some of Excel’s formatting features:

Adjust column widths to accommodate the width of the content.

Align date data in the center of each cell.

Apply styles, such as bold or italics, to make column headers more distinct.

While working with dates in Excel, you might encounter a few common errors. Here are some troubleshooting tips to help you resolve these issues:

This error occurs when the cell values are not recognized as proper dates.

To fix this issue:

Ensure both date cells are formatted as dates.

Check your locale settings to interpret dates correctly.

Different locales have different date layouts (e.g., dd/mm/yy or mm/dd/yy).

If you’re obtaining incorrect results, consider the following

Double-check how you entered your dates. Mixing up the month and day can cause calculation errors.

Use network days if you only want to count working days between two dates by utilizing the NETWORKDAYS() function.

Consistently use the same way of formatting dates throughout your worksheet to avoid confusion and errors.

Avoid manual calculations by using the methods in this article.

In this article, we have explored various methods to subtract dates in Excel and calculate the difference in days between two dates.

By now, you should be confident in using the DAYS function, the NETWORKDAYS function, and simple subtraction to achieve accurate results.

Remember to always double-check your data, as incorrect or invalid formats may lead to unexpected outcomes.

When applying any of the methods discussed, ensure both the start date and end date are in the proper format so that Excel recognizes what they are.

Now that you are equipped with this knowledge, you can effectively track project durations, analyze trends, and manage deadlines, among other tasks.

Keep practicing and experimenting with different date formats and functions to harness the full potential of Excel’s date capabilities. Happy calculating!

Ready to take your Excel skills to the next level? Check out our Free Training!

Formatting Containers Using Format() In Python

When using Python, container style can be a useful means of enhancing the readability and maintainability of code. You can style lists, tuples, dictionaries, sets, and even classes quickly and simply using this method. You can adjust how your data is presented by aligning columns, adding padding, and setting accuracy by using the built-in format() method. In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into container formatting using format() in Python, including various types of containers and how to use them with the format() function.

Container Formatting with format()

Assuming we have a list of numbers that we want to organize by separating each number with a comma and a space.


my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] formatted_list = ', '.join(['{}'.format(x) for x in my_list]) print(formatted_list) Output 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

The collection of formatted numbers with a comma and space separator is joined using the join() method in this case. Each integer value in the enumeration will substitute the ” placeholder inside the format() method.

Although immutable, tuples are comparable to lists in that their contents cannot be altered once they have been formed. In this case, we joined the formatted tuple components with a comma and space using the join() method once more

Example my_tuple = ('apple', 'banana', 'orange') formatted_tuple = ', '.join(['{}'.format(x) for x in my_tuple]) print(formatted_tuple) Output apple, banana, orange

By combining dictionary values and the format() method, dictionaries can be formatted.

Example my_dict = {'name': 'ABCJohn', 'age': 33, 'city': 'Los Angeles'} formatted_dict = 'Name: {name}, Age: {age}, City: {city}'.format(**my_dict) print(formatted_dict) Output Name: ABCJohn, Age: 33, City: Los Angeles

In this case, we used format() method placeholders that matched the values in our dictionary. The dictionary is unpacked using the **my dict syntax, and its contents are then passed as keyword parameters to the format() method. Similarly, sets can be written inside of a set comprehension by using the join() and format() functions.

Example my_set = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} formatted_set = ', '.join(['{}'.format(x) for x in my_set]) print(formatted_set) Output 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Same can be done for Classes

Example class Person: def __init__(self, name, age): chúng tôi = name chúng tôi = age my_person = Person('John', 30) formatted_person = 'Name: {}, Age: {p.age}'.format(p=my_person) print(formatted_person) Output Name: John, Age: 30

Passing an instance of our class as a keyword argument to the format() function is a viable solution

Customization Options

In addition to formatting containers, the format() function also provides options to customize how the data is displayed. Some common options include padding, alignment, and precision.

my_list = ['apple', 'banana', 'orange']

We can format this list so that each string is right-aligned in a field of width 10 using the following code −

Example my_list = ['apple', 'banana', 'orange'] for fruit in my_list: Output apple banana orange

The < option and the ^ option can be used to centre and left-align the lines within the box, respectively. The precision selection, which enables us to choose how many numbers are presented after the decimal point, is another helpful choice. Consider a collection of floating-point values as an illustration −

my_floats = [1.23456, 2.34567, 3.45678]

We can format these numbers to display only two digits after the decimal point using the following code −

Example my_floats = [1.23456, 2.34567, 3.45678] for num in my_floats: print('{:.2f}'.format(num)) Output 1.23 2.35 3.46

Additionally, we can use f-strings and other text editing methods in conjunction with format(). This enables us to design output lines that are more intricate and flexible. Let’s look at a full code block that exemplifies container formatting in Python now that we know how to style containers with format().


my_dict = {'apple': 1.23, 'banana': 2.34, 'orange': 3.45} for key, value in my_dict.items(): print('{:<10}{:.2f}'.format(key, value)) Output apple 1.23 banana 2.34 orange 3.45

By using this code block, a dictionary is created that links the titles of three fruits to their corresponding values. The for loop loops through the dictionary’s entries iteratively, formatting each key-value combination so that the value is shown with two digits after the decimal point and the key is left-aligned in a field with a width of 10. Container editing with format() has many applications in real-world settings. For instance, we might employ it to style tables or diagrams during data analysis. It may be used in web programming to present material in a user-friendly manner. We might use it in automation to produce records or files.


In summation, container formatting with Python’s format() function is a strong instrument that enables us to present data in a flexible and comprehensible manner. We can produce content that is specific to our requirements by using the format() function with a range of container kinds and formatting choices. I trust that this piece has helped you comprehend container formatting in Python, and I invite you to learn more about it on your own.

Syllabus, Exam Dates, Careers (Updated For 2023)

What is Professional Risk Manager (PRM)?

A Professional Risk Manager (PRM) manages the risks that could affect an organization or project. They usually possess a background in finance, economics, accounting, or a related field and are knowledgeable about risk management tools and methods.

Further, they have a good understanding of the organization’s industry, operations, products, and services. Professional Risk Managers use various tools and techniques to detect, assess, and monitor risks, and they are assigned to develop and implement risk-mitigation strategies.

Role of Professional Risk Manager

The primary duties of a Professional Risk Manager involve analyzing financial statements, creating risk reports, and overseeing the organization’s activities and investments to identify potential sources of risk.

PRMs play a crucial role in helping organizations navigate the uncertainties and challenges of the business environment by developing risk management policies and procedures, communicating risk assessments to senior management, and implementing strategies to mitigate risks. They work closely in sync with other departments in the organization, such as legal, compliance, and audit, to ensure that risks are properly addressed.

PRM Exam Infographic

How to Become a Professional Risk Manager?

Here are some suggestions in order to become a professional risk manager:

1. Education: Various organizations and institutions offer certification programs in risk management, such as the Professional Risk Manager (PRM) designation, awarded by the Professional Risk Managers’ International Association (PRMIA). This certification can help you exhibit your risk management expertise, enhancing your job prospects.

2. Skill Development: It is important to develop the required skills, such as analytical, communication, and problem-solving abilities.

3. Experience Building: One can acquire experience in the field of risk management by working in positions such as risk analyst, risk consultant, or internal auditor.

4. Staying Updated: Furthermore, one must also stay up-to-date with regard to the latest developments and best practices involved in risk management.


Professional Risk Managers’ International Association (PRMIA) offers a PRM certification program, which can be registered via the following steps:

PRMIA offers various study packages, e.g., self-study, online instructor-led, and classroom courses.

The registration fee varies depending on the study package you choose.

You will now gain access to the PRM study materials, which include textbooks, practice exams, and other resources.

To earn the PRM certification, you must pass a series of four exams that cover topics such as risk management theory, financial instruments, and operational risk.

PRM Exam Overview

The PRM exam is an internationally recognized risk management certification program covering financial instruments, risk measurement, and risk management frameworks. It is divided into four levels that gradually increase knowledge and abilities through multiple-choice questions and a case study test.

Exam Title

Test Length (number of test questions)

Testing Time Limit

Exam 1 60 questions 4 hours

Exam 2 84 questions 4 hours

(Source: PRM Guidebook)

Eligibility & Requirements

Having a current sustaining membership with PRMIA is necessary.

The candidate must have completed graduate school (i.e., MBA, MSF, MQF, etc.) or be a current CFA charter holder.

The following are the requirements concerning experience in the absence of a Master’s degree:

Two years of full-time work experience along with a bachelor’s degree

Four years of full-time work experience

The work experience must be related to finance or risk management departments.

Candidates must pay the required fees to opt for the exam.

The program must be concluded within three years of enrollment. One must pass the exams within a period of two years, although exemptions can apply.


Individuals who have designations of (CFA) Chartered Financial Analyst or Certified International Investment Analyst (CIIA) can get an exemption from Exam 1. CFA holders are also exempted from any experience requirement.

New PRM applicants can apply for an exemption in the application form. Although there is no extra exemption fee, the total program fee must still be paid.

Current PRM candidates who want to apply for an exemption should upload the required paperwork to the “PRMIA Certification Profile” tab in their member profile.

Exam Dates

*Scheduling Window – the time frame in which you may contact Pearson VUE and fix the date you will sit for the exam (testing window).

**Testing Window – days you can sit for your exam.

Scheduling Window*

Testing Window**

January 1 – March 10, 2023 February 13 – March 10, 2023

March 11 – June 16, 2023 May 22 – June 16, 2023

June 17 – September 8, 2023 August 14 – September 8, 2023

September 9 – December 15, 2023 November 13 – December 15, 2023

January 1 – March 8, 2024 February 12 – March 8, 2024

March 9 – June 14, 2024 May 20 – June 14, 2024

June 15 – September 6, 2024 August 12 – September 6, 2024

September 7 – December 13, 2024 November 11 – December 13, 2024

January 1 – March 7, 2025 February 10 – March 7, 2025

March 8 – June 13, 2025 May 19 – June 13, 2025

June 14 – September 5, 2025 August 11 – September 5, 2025

September 6 – December 12, 2025 November 10 – December 12, 2025

Syllabus and Structure




1. Finance Theory

Arbitrage Pricing Theory

The CAPM and Multifactor Models

Capital Structures

Mean-Variance Portfolio Theory

Performance Measures

The Term Structure of Interest Rates

Regulatory Frameworks

Trade Terminology

2. Financial Instruments


Forward and Futures Contracts



Credit Derivatives

Hedging Strategies

3. Financial Markets

Participants in and the Structure of Financial Markets

Bond Markets

Money Market Securities

Stock Market

Foreign Exchange Markets

Energy Markets

Commodities Markets

Real Estate Evaluation

Futures Markets

4. Mathematical Foundations of Risk Measurement

Algebraic Methods

Calculus Methods Related to Risk Management

Basic Statistics Related to Risk Management

Numerical Methods

Matrix Algebra

Probability Theory in Finance

Regression Analysis in Finance

Compounding Methods

5. Risk Management Frameworks and Operational Risk

Risk Governance

Risk Management Framework

Risk Assessment

Risk Information

Risk Modeling

6. Credit Risk and Counterparty Credit Risk

Classic Credit Life Cycle

Classic Credit Products

Classic Credit Risk Methodology

Counterparty Risk

Credit Derivatives and Securitization

Credit Portfolio Management

Credit Risk Modeling

Valuation Adjustments (XVA)

Leverage Ratio

Risk Mitigation

7. Market Risk, Asset Liability Management and Funds Transfer Pricing

Asset Liability Management

Liquidity Risk

Interest Rate Risk

Market Risk Management and Stress Testing

Market Risk Monitoring

8. Case Study Practicum

Risk Taxonomy

Historical Case Studies

9. Prmia Standards and Governance

Group of Thirty Best Practices

PRMIA Governance Principles and Bylaws

PRMIA Code of Conduct and Ethics


Domains Assessed

Number of Stand-Alone Test Questions [1]

Number of Practicum-Based Test Questions [2]

Proportion Across Both Exams

PRM Exam 1 PRM Exam 2

I. Finance Theory




II. Financial Instruments




III. Financial Markets




IV. Mathematical Foundations of Risk Measurement




V. Risk Management Frameworks and Operational Risk




VI. Credit Risk and Counterparty Credit Risk




VII. Market Risk, Asset Liability Management and Funds Transfer Pricing




VIII. Case Study Practicum [3]


20 [4]


IX. PRMIA  Standards and Governance








[1] Stand-alone test questions are questions intended to be answered based on the information provided in the question’s stem or prompt. The answer to the question will refer only to the content provided in that specific question.

[2] Practicum-based test questions are questions intended to be answered based on the information provided in the scenario that precedes the question. The question’s stem or prompt may require additional information to be identified from the provided scenario in order to answer the question.

[3] The Case Study Practicum portion of PRM exam 2 includes test questions that assess the application of knowledge from domains I through VII. Due to the nature of the practical application of the lessons learned from the case studies, different skill sets and knowledge will be assessed with each practicum. As a result, each exam form may contain different sets of test questions assessing these areas.

[4] The Case Study Practicum includes 4 sets of 5 test questions, to make up the 20 total test questions that assess the application of the lessons learned from the PRMIA Case Studies. Each set of test questions may include between 0-2 questions related to domains I-IV and will include between 4–7 questions related to domains V-VII.


To commence the enrollment process for the PRM Program, an Application Fee of US$150 must be paid.

Upon the approval of the application, the person must pay a PRM Program fee of US$1080.

In addition, a Sustaining Membership is mandatory, which amounts to US$225.

Please note that there can be an extra charge for retaking exams, expired exam authorizations, or if a scheduled exam was missed without prior notice.

Study Resources

PRM Handbooks and Study Guides: The PRM Handbook covers the syllabus for the PRM exams and provides detailed information on risk management-related concepts, principles, and practices. Likewise, PRM study guides are particularly designed for PRM exam preparation. They outline the key concepts and provide practice questions and exercises to reinforce the content learned.

Practice Exams: Practice exams are crucial for exam preparation, as it introduces the exam format, time constraints, and types of questions. PRMIA offers official practice exams that simulate the actual exam experience for the students.

Online Courses: Several online platforms offer PRM exam preparation courses. These courses comprise video lectures, study materials, practice questions, and mock exams. They provide structured learning and allow you to study at your own pace.

Reference Books: Several books on risk management can be used as reference materials for the PRM exam. Some recommended books are “Financial Risk Management: A Practitioner’s Guide to Managing Market and “Risk Management and Financial Institutions” by John C. Hull.

Online Forums: Engaging in online forums and discussion groups dedicated to PRM exam preparation can be quite useful. One can connect and correspond with other candidates, exchange study materials, ask queries, and obtain insights from their experiences.

PRM Results and Passing Rates

The PRM passing rates are estimated to be around 65%. Moreover, the pass rates for individual exams range from 59% (Exams I and III) to 78% (Exam IV).

Career Prospects

There are various career prospects available for individuals with Professional Risk Manager designation, such as:

Risk Analysts or Consultants

Compliance Officer

Portfolio Manager

Risk Modeler

Quantitative Analyst


Here is a graph outlining the average salaries pertaining to the domain of professional risk management:

(Source: Payscale)

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

Q1. Is the PRM certification recognized globally?

Answer: Yes, the PRM certification is globally recognized in the domain of risk management. Financial institutions, organizations, and risk management specialists hold value for it across the world.

Q2. What are the prerequisites for taking the PRM Exam?

Answer: There are no prerequisites for the PRM Exam. Nonetheless, a good foundation in statistics, mathematics, finance, and economics can be quite useful for comprehending the concepts in the exam. Please check out the eligibility criteria in the sections mentioned earlier in the article.

Q3. Can we retake a failed PRM Exam?

Answer: Yes, if you do not attain a passing score, you can retake the exam. The number of times you can retake an exam is unlimited. However, the exam fee must be paid every time.

How To Use Ai In Excel For Free

AI just killed Excel. As someone who’s spent thousands of hours using Excel, this is nothing short of amazing. Gone are the days of grappling with complex formulas and sitting through lengthy tutorials. Introducing Rows, the only AI Excel tool you will ever need. And the best part? It’s completely free!

You can access Rows for free at chúng tôi In this comprehensive guide, we will walk you through the process of using AI in Excel for free, highlighting its key features, and demonstrating how it can revolutionize your data analysis and visualization tasks.

Must Check: Best AI Video Generators: Create Engaging Videos Automatically

Rows allows you to import data from various sources seamlessly. Whether you want to upload files, fetch data from your Facebook ad campaign, Zapier, or Twitter, Rows has got you covered. With the ‘Actions’ feature, you can effortlessly bring in data from different platforms and get started with your analysis.

Once you’ve imported your data, it’s time to let the power of AI take over. Rows provides an intuitive interface where you can simply ask AI to perform various tasks and analyses. Here are a few examples of what you can do:

Do a trend analysis: AI can analyze your data and identify trends and patterns, helping you make data-driven decisions.

Create a graph: Simply ask AI to create a graph based on your data, saving you the time and effort of manual chart creation.

Request insights: Ask AI questions like “How many purchases per campaign?” and receive meaningful insights and answers.

Once you’re done with your analysis, sharing your work is a breeze with Rows. You have multiple options to choose from:

Embed in your notion, workspace, or any site: Easily embed your Sheets, graphs, or visualizations in your preferred platform.

Share as a public page: Showcase your work by sharing it as a public page, allowing others to view and interact with your data.

Share as a collaboration link: Collaborate with your team by sharing a link that allows them to access and work on the same Sheets simultaneously.

Even if you don’t have any data to import, Rows has you covered. The real-time data collection feature enables you to fetch data directly from the internet. Simply ask Rows for the information you need, and it will fetch it in real-time, ensuring your analysis is up to date.

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Rows understands that data can quickly become outdated. To address this, the ‘Schedule refresh’ function automatically updates your data periodically from the source. Say goodbye to manually updating your datasets and let Rows handle it for you.

Rows not only offers powerful AI capabilities but also provides a community-driven platform where users can create and share their own actions. The Community Feature allows you to explore and utilize actions created by other users, expanding the functionality of Rows even further. This collaborative environment fosters innovation and enables users to benefit from the collective knowledge and expertise of the community.

Yes, Rows is completely free to use. You can access all its features and functionalities without any cost.

Absolutely! Rows supports importing Excel files, CSV files, and data from various other sources. You can easily bring your existing data into Rows and leverage its AI capabilities.

Not at all! Rows is designed to be user-friendly and accessible to users without programming skills. Its intuitive interface and AI-powered features make it easy for anyone to analyze and visualize data without extensive technical knowledge.

Yes, collaboration is a key feature of Rows. You can share your Sheets with others by providing them with collaboration links. Multiple users can work on the same Sheets simultaneously, making it convenient for teamwork and project collaboration.

Rows takes data security seriously. Your data is encrypted and stored securely, and Rows adheres to industry-standard security protocols to protect your information.

Yes, Rows provides export functionality, allowing you to export your data in various formats, including Excel, CSV, and PDF. This enables you to use your data in other tools and share it with stakeholders who might prefer different file formats.

AI has revolutionized the way we analyze and work with data, and Rows brings the power of AI to Excel users for free. With its intuitive interface, seamless data importation, AI-driven analysis, and collaboration features, Rows offers a comprehensive solution for data analysis and visualization. Whether you’re a business professional, a student, or a data enthusiast, Rows can help you unlock the full potential of your data and make informed decisions. Try it out today at chúng tôi and experience the future of data analysis in Excel.

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Divide In Excel (Formula, Examples)

Introduction to Divide in Excel

In Excel, division is an arithmetic operation commonly used to divide numbers or values of the cell. It is one of the basic mathematical functions essential for solving complex numeric problems.

Unlike addition, which has built-in functions such as the SUM function, no such function is available for division in Excel. To divide numbers or values of a cell in Excel, you need to start with an equal sign (=), followed by the numbers you want to divide, and put a forward slash (/) between the numbers. Businesses often use the divide formula in Excel to calculate and perform various financial and work management tasks. For instance, they might calculate profit margins, monthly budgets, employee wages, expenditure reports, and other important metrics.

Let’s start by understanding how you can perform division in Excel.

The arithmetic operation or formula for division in Excel starts with an equal sign (=) followed by entering the values or cell references you want to divide and a forward slash (/) between them.

How to Divide Numbers in a Cell in Excel?

To divide numbers in a cell, directly type the numbers within the cell and apply the divide formula. For example, if you want to divide 10 by 5, enter “=10/5″ in a cell and press “Enter“. The division formula “=10/5” will give a result of 2.

Note: Please start the formula with an equal sign (=) and use the (/) operator between two values in each cell to get the output. For instance, If you only type 10/5 in a cell, Excel will display 05-Oct. Or else Excel will consider the equation as a date.

Example #1

You can download this Divide Formula Excel Template here – Divide Formula Excel Template

How to Divide Numbers Using Cell References?

For example, we want to divide the Cell A1 value by the Cell B1 value and display the result in Cell C1.

Enter the formula “=A1/B1” in Cell C1 and press “Enter“, where the Cell A1 value is the dividend and Cell B2 value is the divisor. The result will be displayed in Cell C1.

Example #2

Suppose you want to divide the value of each cell of a column by a certain number obtained in another cell. You can easily do this task. In the below example, you will learn how to divide the values of column A by the value of Cell B1.

Step 2: Enter the formula =” A1/$B$1” and press “Enter“.

Note: The symbol $ in Excel is used for absolute cell references. In the formula =” A1/$B$1″, the value of the divisor is constant as the value of Cell B1. If you place a dollar sign ($) in front of a row, that row is fixed, and if you place a dollar sign ($) in front of a column, that column is fixed.

Result 2 is displayed in cell C1.

Step 3: Drag the cell with the formula to get the desired output.

Congratulations, you have successfully done this task.

Example #3

You can divide column 1 with column 2 by using the division formula. Consider the below table with numbers in columns A and B. Follow the below steps to learn how to divide two columns in Excel.

Step 2: Enter the formula “=B3/C3” in Cell D3, as shown below.

Result 5 is displayed in Cell D3.

Step 3: Drag the formula on the corresponding cell to get the following output.

Example #4

Under this method, you will learn to use division operators with other arithmetic operators like subtraction to solve complex division problems.

For example, you have the below data of salespersons and their actual sales in 2023 and 2023. You must calculate the sales growth percentage for the respective salesperson in 2023. Here, you must use the division formula, subtraction, and percentage operator.

Step 2: Enter the formula “=(C3-B3)/B3” in Cell D3

Note: Using this formula, “=(C3-B3)/B3″, you can calculate the sales growth percentage for the respective salesperson.

The output is 9%.

Step 3: Drag the cell with the formula downwards to get the desired output

The above result shows the sales growth percentage for the individual salesperson.

Example # 5

We have the sales data for five famous companies (Apple, Tesla, Netflix, Starbucks, and McDonald’s) for 2023 and 2023 and the estimated figures for 2023. We need to calculate the percentage growth rate for each company for 2023 using basic mathematical operators such as division, subtraction, and the percentage operator.

Step 1: Add the title “% Growth in 2023” to column E, as shown below.

According to this formula, we will subtract the sales value of 2023 from 2023 and then divide the result by the sales value 2023. The output is the percentage increase in sales from 2023 to 2023.

Note: In this example, we used the formula’s opening and closing parenthesis, “( )”.

The output is 8%, as shown below.

Note: The formula “=(B2+C2)/D2″ will give a decimal value. Thus, convert this decimal value into %.

Step 4: Drag the cell with the formula to get the result, as shown below.

The future sales growth in percentage for all five companies in 2023 is now ready.

How to Use the Division Operator (/) with Addition (+)?

Under this method, you will learn to use the division operator with the addition operator (+) with the help of the following examples.

Example #6

In this example, we will calculate the average of the student’s marks in maths and science by using the division and addition operator.

Step 1: Add a new column, “Average“, as shown below.

The formula states to add the marks of Maths and Science subjects and then divide by the total subject, i.e., 2.

Result 84 is displayed, as shown in the below image.

Step 3: Now, drag the cell with the formula to the rest of the cells.

The average score of the students in Maths and Science subjects is displayed.

How to Handle #DIV/0! Error Using IF Function?

While executing the division operation on a data set, Excel will display the error of #DIV/0! When the formula tries to divide a number by an empty cell or 0. In the following example, you will learn how to use the IF function, such as the “IFERROR” condition, to prevent and resolve the #DIV/0! Error.

Suppose you have the below table of dividends and divisors. You have applied the division formula to this data, and Excel has shown error #DIV/0! in Cell C3 and Cell C5 because Cell B3 and Cell B5 have no value. Now, you want to overcome this problem.

Step 2: Enter the IFERROR formula “=IFERROR(E2/F2,”)” as shown below and press “Enter“.

Note: The Formula “=IFERROR(E2/F2,”)” indicates that divide the value of Cell E2 by Cell F2, and if there is an empty cell or 0 value, then leave the cell blank in the result column to avoid displaying of the #DIV/0! Error.

Output 4 is displayed.

Step 3: Drag the cell with the formula as shown below.

The result is displayed above, and Cell G3 and Cell G5 are blank instead of #DIV/0! Error.

Things to Remember while Using the Divide Function in Excel

Put an equal sign (=) in the cell before using the divide formula.

While selecting the data for calculation, do not select the row or column headers.

If there is an empty cell or 0 value in the Cell, then Excel will throw an #DIV/0!

You should properly use the opening and closing parenthesis in the division formula. For example, formulas like “=10/4-2” will give 0.5 output, and “=10/(4-2)” will give 5 output. Always remember, the “PEDMAS” is the order of calculations in Excel.

If you want to display only the integer value of a division operation, use the QUOTIENT function of Excel.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQS)

Answer: The symbol or arithmetic operator used to represent divide or division in Microsoft Excel is “/“, a forward slash. The Excel division formula is “=x/y,” where x is the dividend and y is the divisor.

Answer: There are various methods to divide in Excel. You can directly type the numbers in a cell or divide two (or more) numbers by referring to a cell or constant number. As seen in the image below, you must use an equal sign (=) before the division formula and a forward slash (/) between the numbers or cells you want to divide.

Answer: The alternate method for dividing numbers is using the “QUOTIENT” formula. When you want to display only the integer part of a division, use the formula “QUOTIENT(numerator, denominator)”. If a division equation has a remainder value, the QUOTIENT function will only return the integer value as an output. For example,” =3/2” returns 1.5 whereas “=QUOTIENT(3,2)” returns 1, where 1.5 is the remainder, and 1 is the integer/quotient.

Recommended Articles

This article has been a guide to Dividing in Excel. Here we discuss the Divide Formula in Excel and How to use Divide Formula in various scenarios using practical examples. Furthermore, you can read our other suggested articles. You also get a downloadable Excel template for your reference.

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