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It takes more than a simple comparison of how Indians and Westerners behave differently to distinguish the two psychologies. It is unnecessary to categorize Indians as introverts or collectivists, as having a strong need for dependency and a low desire for success, etc. Cross-cultural research has been primarily focused on identifying the such source and surface characteristic differences for many years. Such distinctions exist among people from various civilizations, not only in Indian cultureWestern and Indian Psychology
Indian and Western psychology are distinct approaches to understanding the human mind and behavior. While they share some similarities, they also have significant differences stemming from their cultural, philosophical, and historical backgrounds. The key differences between the approaches are in the view of the self and how it is connected to the rest of the world. Western culture has been called individualistic, while Indian culture is holistic. Individualistic culture views the self, or “I,” as the center of the universe and everything else as an extension of this entity. Holistic cultures view the self as part of a collective where it has a distinctive role.Self
Western psychology views the self as separate from the external world. In contrast, Indian psychology views the self as interconnected with the universe and, ultimately, one with the divine. Western psychology has traditionally focused on the individual self and its relationship to the external world. The self is seen as a separate entity, with a clear boundary between the self and the external world. Individual characteristics, such as personality traits, beliefs, and emotions, define the self. Western psychology has also focused on the cognitive processes that underlie the self, such as perception, memory, and reasoning. On the other hand, Indian psychology views the self as interconnected with the universe and, ultimately, one with the divine. The self is not seen as a separate entity but as an integral part of the universe. Indian psychology emphasizes the interconnectedness of all things and the idea that the self is a part of a larger whole. The self is not defined by its characteristics but by its connection to the divine.
Western Psychology Indian Psychology
Self separate from the universe Self as interconnected with the universe
Consciousness as a sense of awareness of surrounding Consciousness as the ultimate reality and goal of self
Self-actualisation as fulfilling one’s potential Self-actualization as the process of realising one’s true nature and ultimate realityConsciousness
The concept of consciousness is a fundamental aspect of psychology, and it is approached differently in Western and Indian psychology. Western psychology focuses on the conscious mind and its functions, while Indian psychology emphasizes the unconscious mind and ultimate reality. In Western psychology, consciousness is generally defined as awareness of one’s surroundings, thoughts, and feelings.Conceptualization of Mental Disorders
The understanding of mental disorders differs significantly between Western and Indian psychology. Western psychology tends to focus on mental disorders’ biological and psychological causes, and treatment is often based on medication and therapy. Indian psychology, on the other hand, places greater emphasis on the spiritual and cultural factors that contribute to mental disorders, and treatment often includes spiritual practices such as yoga and meditation.
Western psychology views mental disorders as a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. According to this perspective, mental disorders are caused by genetic, neurobiological, and psychological factors, such as childhood experiences, trauma, and stress. Western psychology has developed various diagnostic categories and treatments for mental disorders, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoanalytic therapy, and medication.
On the other hand, Indian psychology views mental disorders as imbalances in the individual’s spiritual and cultural factors. According to this perspective, mental disorders are caused by a lack of connection to the divine and an imbalance in the individual’s spiritual and cultural factors. Indian psychology emphasizes the importance of spiritual practices such as yoga and meditation, which aim to connect the individual self with the divine in treating mental disorders. Indian psychology also emphasizes the importance of cultural and spiritual factors, such as family, community, and tradition, in the understanding and treatment of mental disorders.Self-Actualization and Differences
The concept of self-actualization is a fundamental aspect of psychology, and the understanding of self-actualization differs significantly between Indian and Western psychology. Western psychology views self-actualization as fulfilling one’s potential and becoming the best version of oneself, while Indian psychology views self-actualization as realizing one’s true nature and ultimate reality. In Western psychology, self-actualization is often associated with the works of Abraham Maslow, who proposed the theory of self-actualization as the highest level of human motivation.Human Nature
The traditions concur that, like other animals, humans have certain biological or innate requirements for food, security, sexuality, and sleep. However, people may conquer or sublimate their fundamental wants, emotions, passions, and desires. S/he can actualize and develop amazing abilities that turn her/him into a superhuman person who may be referred to as Divine or God.
These people can transcend space-time boundaries and feel a connection to the cosmos. That gives them access to knowledge about their fellow humans, animals, and what occurs in distant locations on the planet and even parallel universities (loka). As a result, they are omnipotent, omnipresent, and omniscient.Life and Death
The cycle of life and death is an ongoing process. Every living thing goes through this cycle. Humans go through these cycles again, and physical death is not the end of life energy (jiva). It may continue on its voyage and eventually make its way back to earth in a brand-new body immediately or after a short or long period. Karma is the accumulation of the effects of one’s acts throughout a lifetime, which results in specific inclinations, impressions, and habit patterns.
The power that perpetuates the cycle of birth and death is the accumulated karma of many lifetimes. The primary driving force behind our behavior is karma. However, people can actively decide to stop this process in a given life stage. It is referred to as moksha or emancipation. Such liberated humans are revered as Divine Persons and are free to return to this world and aid in the liberation of others. Since humans are treated as superior apes in Western psychology, which is inspired by Darwinian evolutionary theory, the continued evolutionary potential of humans is not taken into account.The Goals and Values of Life – Purushārtha
Four life objectives have been acknowledged since ancient times. The biological demands for food, rest, safety, and sex we have in common with other animals are not these needs. Instead, they are purushrtha, which humans deliberately decided was worthwhile. Dharma, Artha, karma, and moksha are the four. They allude to aspiring to be freed from the cycle of birth and death, living a moral life, accumulating money, and achieving desires. Here, the word “Kama” does not signify “sexual urge” as it is typically understood. Our additional psychological demands are mentioned.
These four objectives should be placed in a certain order. The ultimate, superior, or perfect purpose of human existence is the final and the most significant. As a result, it is known as parama purushrtha. The goal post was for humans to satisfy their need to acquire money and gratifying psychological wants. One should first be directed in seeking these needs by specific rules, ethics, and values, which is dharma. So within the confines of dharma, it was anticipated that one would strive for other objectives. Dharma was thus the primary aim of life. In the path of life, dharma and moksha worked as two opposing forces, one pushing from behind and the other pulling from the front.
We should mention that moksha has only been emphasized as the ultimate life aims in our nation for thousands of years. We see this belief in freedom from the cycles of birth and death so commonly held and also actively supported as a noble life aims in Asian countries that were historically impacted by Indian culture. From ancient times till the present, countless seers, saints, and sages in our nation have emphasized the potential of this happening. We do not find moksha, even if the other three objectives are stated and sought in every nation on earth.
The concepts of life after death, rebirth, and reincarnation are not as prevalent in Western society as in ours. This is the key distinction between Western psychology and what we refer to as Indian psychology. They are still present, nevertheless, from Western civilizations. Such events were experienced and reported, and the first Psychical Research Society was founded in England to look into them. That is why there is still a need for parapsychology as a subfield of psychology.
However, there has been a renaissance of spiritual seeking throughout the Western world for the past 50 years. Many people reported seeing such a thing. The number of studies on “altered states of consciousness” increased quickly. As a result, the study of consciousness is currently a popular study area. Western experts have discovered that many texts and treatises relating to Vaidka and the a-Vaidka darana are filled with arguments on the nature of consciousness and mind. They were referred to as “Consciousness disciplines” by one researcher.Conclusion
Indian and Western psychology are distinct approaches to understanding the human mind and behavior. They differ in their understanding of the nature of the self, the causes and treatment of mental disorders, the concept of consciousness, and their research methods. While Western psychology tends to focus on the individual self and the scientific study of mental processes, Indian psychology emphasizes the interconnectedness of all things and the spiritual aspects of the human experience.
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Two of the most frequent opioid antagonists used to treat substance abuse are naloxone and naltrexone. Although it has certain long-term uses, Narcan (Naloxone) is mostly employed as a short-term opiate drug blocker. Opioid overdose antidote that works similarly to Naltrexone (ReVia and Vivitrol) but has a shorter treatment time.
Naloxone and naltrexone are both effective and potentially lifesaving treatments for opioid addiction. Talk to your doctor first, though, because many of these drugs might have dangerous interactions with others.What is Naloxone?
This medication aids in preventing the ill effects of opioids (substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects). As an opioid antagonist, it can be used to reverse the effects of an overdose on opiates, such as breathing difficulties.
Opiate replacement medications like Suboxone, which includes both naloxone and buprenorphine, also make use of naloxone (sold under the brand name Subutex). This serves as a protection against the substance being abused.What is Naltrexone?
It’s a drug prescribed for people with substance abuse disorders, particularly those who are dependent on opioids or alcohol. For those who have developed a tolerance to opioids and are trying to break that tolerance, this drug is useful because it prevents them from relapsing. The “need” for opioid is lessened as a side effect. Addiction to drugs or alcohol cannot be cured in this way.Differences: Naloxone and Naltrexone
The following table highlights the major differences between Naloxone and Naltrexone −
It saves lives by reversing the effects in case there is some drug overdose. This has very strong affinity for Mu receptor. It is a repetitive competitive antagonist. The effect lasts about 45 minutes.
It aids in recovery and prevents drug and alcohol dependence. It binds more slowly.
Injected into a patient suffering from an opioid overdose
Works rapidly to take the effect of the drug away
It is also used for for blood pressure support in septic shock
It has been in use for over 30 years
It is injected and slowly released into the body
It works in the brain to block opiate effects (for example pain relief and feelings of well-being)
Concomitant benzodiazepine and opioid use
History of opioid dose
History of substance overuse disorder
Respiratory conditions (e.g., Sleep Apnea and COPD)
Excessive alcohol use
Mental health condition(s)
Multiple guidance’s/guidelines also suggest prescribing naloxone to individuals who were earlier on chronic opium like substances and have lost forbearance to an earlier dose and are at a risk of resuming that dose using prescriptions of illicit drugs (e.g., opioid taper underway, recent release from prison or detoxification facility)
Anyone beginning Naltrexone must be opioid (category of drugs that include the illegal substance like heroin) free. Though there is no proper information and evidence to decide which patients with Opioid Use Disorder are the best fit for this medication called naltrexone, the eligible candidates to consider include;
Highly motivated (e.g. want to live)
Desire a non-opioid option for OUD treatment
Short term opioid use (e.g. younger patients)
Poor response to other OUD patients
In a mandated monitoring program (e.g., pilots)
Co-morbid OUD and AUD
Patients who are not candidates for naltrexone include patients who use opioid in the last 7 days, have liverfailure, acute hepatitis or are pregnant. Patients without supervised administration are not good candidates for oral therapy. Patients with low muscle mass are not good candidates for the injection.
Length of effects
Often wears off within 30 minutes and completely gone within 90 minutes
The pill form may last all day; the injectable form may last for up to 30 days.
This medication should not be taken during pregnancy as it may cause may cause opioid withdrawal in the foetus
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended; Morphine, Naloxegol, Morphine Sulfate Liposome, Oxycodone, Naldemedine, Oxymorphone
Some products that may interact with this medication include: disulfiram, diarrhoea drug (such as diphenoxylate) dextromethorphan, opioid pain or cough relievers (for example hydrocodone, codeine), thioridazine.
2 per cent (high absorption but extensive first-pass metabolism)
Up to 40 percentConclusion
Naloxone and Naltrexone are two medications that are used to treat opioid addiction, but they have different uses and mechanisms of action. Naloxone is used to reverse the effects of an opioid overdose, while Naltrexone is used to prevent relapse in people who are trying to stop using opioids.
Both medications are important tools in the fight against opioid addiction, and they can be used together to provide a comprehensive treatment plan.
What is GPS?
GPS (Global Positioning System) is a satellite-based route framework that gives exact area and timing data to clients around the world. It employs an arrangement of circling satellites to decide the area, speed, and time of a GPS collector.
GPS was initially created by the Joined Together States Division of Defense for military applications, but it was made accessible for civilian utilize in the 1980s. Nowadays, GPS is broadly utilized in an assortment of applications, counting routes, looking over, mapping, following, and timing.
The GPS recipient employs these signals to calculate its position, speed, and time. The more signals the collector can get, the more accurate its location data will be. Ordinarily, a GPS collector will have to get signals from at slightest four satellites to decide its position precisely.
GPS has revolutionized navigation and area following, making it conceivable for people and organizations to pinpoint their area with tall exactness in any place within the world. It has moreover empowered an extent of modern applications, from real-time following of vehicles and cargo to accuracy horticulture and looking over.What is GPRS?
GPRS is an always-on benefit, which suggests that information can be transmitted and gotten ceaselessly, without the ought to build up an association each time information is sent. GPRS works by partitioning the accessible transfer speed of a cellular network into little parcels of information, which are at that point transmitted over the organize. Each parcel is directed to its goal utilizing the foremost proficient way, which makes a difference to optimize arrange execution and diminishing inactivity.
GPRS has been to a great extent supplanted by more up-to-date versatile information innovations, such as 3G, 4G, and 5G, which offer quicker information exchange speeds and more progressed highlights. Be that as it may, GPRS is still utilized in a few regions where more progressed versatile information systems are not accessible, or where the fetching of overhauling to a more up-to-date innovation is restrictive.Differences between GPS and GPRS
The differences are in the following table −
Basis of Difference
GPS is utilized for the area following and route.
Whereas GPRS is utilized for portable information exchange and communication.
GPS could be a satellite-based route framework that employs an arrangement of circling satellites to decide the area, speed, and time of a GPS receiver.
GPRS, on the other hand, maybe a packet-based remote communication benefit that empowers information exchange over a portable organization.
GPS is utilized for an assortment of applications, such as route, following, mapping, and studying.
GPRS is utilized for versatile web browsing, e-mail, and remote checking, among other applications.
GPS scope is worldwide because it employs an arrangement of satellites to supply area information.
GPRS scope is limited to the scope region of a cellular organization.
GPS requires exceptionally small transmission capacity because it as it were should transmit area information.
GPRS, on the other hand, can transmit information in little parcels, which makes it perfect for applications that require more transfer speed but visit information transmission.
GPS gives exceedingly precise area data, with an exactness of up to a couple of meters.
GPRS does not give area data but can be utilized to transmit area information from a GPS-enabled gadget.Conclusion
In conclusion, GPS and GPRS are two diverse innovations that serve diverse purposes. GPS may be a satellite-based route framework that provides highly accurate area data, whereas GPRS could be a packet-based remote communication benefit that empowers information exchange over a portable organize. By understanding the contrasts between these two innovations, y be able to make educated choices appropriately /approximately which one to utilize for your specific needs.
The anatomy of bird’s beaks, rostrum or bills which are used for preening, eating, fighting, courtship, feeding the young and even courtship, is adapted to their eating habits and lifestyle. Although these structures may have significant differences in color, texture, shape, and size, they are basically bony projections, in the lower and upper mandibles, and also have two holes leading to the respiratory system, commonly referred to as nares lead. The features bill, beak and rostrums are evident in different species hence serve different purposes.What is Beak?
Beaks are basically a layer of the epidermis and are made up of a substance called keratin. They also have two holes, which are visible at the top, called nares, whose use is respiration. Beaks are connected by soft tissues and bones and may be of diverse types, such as thin, sharp, curved, long, slender, flat, conical and chisel beaks, just to name a few.
Despite the fact that beaks have many functions, the most significant one is feeding. Characteristics of birds can hence be easily categorized according to a bird’s beak structure, which in turn corresponds to the feeding habits.What is Bill?
Bills are mostly common in birds such as flamingos, spoonbills, and pelicans which enable them to filter food in water. They have two parts, the fleshy covering and the bony skeleton of the jaws. Some birds such as finches use the bill to open seeds.Differences: Beak and Bill
So, what exactly is the difference between a beak and a bill? In general, the term “beak” is typically used to describe the hard, pointed structure found on the face of birds such as eagles, hawks, and falcons. Beaks tend to be sharp and strong, enabling these birds to tear flesh from their prey or crack open tough shells to access food.
On the other hand, the term “bill” is often used to refer to the broader, flatter structures found on birds such as ducks, geese, and swans. Bills tend to be less sharp and more versatile than beaks, allowing these birds to filter feed in water or scoop up vegetation from the ground. Bills may also be used for courtship displays, such as when a male peacock fans out his brightly colored feathers and vibrates his bill to attract a mate.
Another key difference between beaks and bills is their shape and size. Beaks tend to be longer and more pointed, with a distinct curvature that helps them grip and tear prey. Bills, on the other hand, may be broader and flatter, with a more subtle curve that allows them to scoop up food or filter water. Additionally, while beaks are generally symmetrical, bills may be asymmetrical, with one side being larger than the other to aid in feeding.
The structure and function of beaks and bills can also vary depending on a bird’s species and habitat. For example, birds that live in wetland environments may have bills that are specifically adapted for catching fish or filtering water, while birds that live in forested areas may have beaks that are better suited for cracking open nuts or tearing apart bark.
It’s also worth noting that not all birds have beaks or bills in the traditional sense. Some species, such as parrots and toucans, have highly specialized structures known as “beak complexes” that allow them to manipulate and crack open tough foods with incredible precision. And some birds, such as the kiwi, have a small, soft protuberance on their face that is sometimes referred to as a “bill” but is not used for feeding at all.
Beaks are pointed and rounded at the end.
Bills are flat and rounded on the end.
Beaks are common in birds that mainly feed on meat.
Bills are common in birds that feed on water creatures.Conclusion
In summary, while the terms “beak” and “bill” are often used interchangeably, there are distinct differences between these two structures. Beaks tend to be longer, sharper, and more pointed, while bills are broader, flatter, and more versatile. These differences in shape and function allow birds to adapt to their specific habitats and feeding strategies, and make them some of the most fascinating and adaptable creatures on the planet.
Acetone and benzaldehyde are two commonly used organic compounds with distinct chemical and physical properties. Both of these compounds are important in various fields, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and industrial applications. In this essay, we will explore the differences between acetone and benzaldehyde, including their structures, properties, and uses.What is Acetone?
Acetone (dimethyl ketone, propanone) is a chemical compound, a colorless, highly flammable, volatile liquid, with a characteristic odor. It is the simplest ketone.
The chemical formula of acetone is C3H6O. Its molecular weight is 58.08 g/mol.
The vapors of the acetone are heavier than air and their density related to air is 2.0 (air = 1). Acetone is less dense than water and its density related to water is 0.8 (water = 1).
Under the recommended storage conditions acetone is a stable compound. Its boiling point is 56°C and its melting point is -95°C. Auto-ignition occurs at 465°C.
Acetone dissolves well in water. It dissolves a number of polar and non-polar organic substances as well as inorganic ones. This property determines one of the most important uses of acetone – as a solvent for varnishes, plastics, adhesives, etc.
Acetone vapors are toxic. They have a narcotic effect and affect the central nervous system.
One of the important peculiarities of the acetone is its ability to accumulate in the body, thereby increasing its concentration. As a final effect of such accumulation, chronic poisoning can occur.
Acetone occurs in the human body, as a breakdown product of fat metabolism. It occurs in plants, animals, vehicle exhaust, volcanic gases, forest fires, etc.
Under normal circumstances, acetone is found in small amounts in the urine and blood. After long-term fasting or diet, the carbohydrate reserve in the body is depleted, the fat is decomposed, which results in the production of acetone and the occurrence of the so- called “acetone breath”.
Acetone occurs in larger amounts in the blood and urine of diabetics. Higher concentrations of acetone in the body result in ketoacidosis, which is one of the symptoms of diabetes.
Acetone is used as a solvent in a variety of organic reactions, as a drying agent, and to precipitate proteins. It is used in medicine and cosmetics, for acne treatments to peel dry skin. It is widely used nail polish remover. Acetone is also used as a food additive – flavoring agent. It is used in the production of paints and coatings. It is often used as a primary component in cleaning agents.What is Benzaldehyde?
Benzaldehyde is an oily, colorless to yellow liquid with an almond odor. It is an aromatic aldehyde with a single formyl group. It is contained in the stones of bitter almonds, peaches, cherries, etc. It can occasionally be found in human urine.
The chemical formula is of benzaldehyde is C6H5CHO. Its molecular weight is
The vapors of the benzaldehyde are heavier than air, its vapor density related to air is
3.66 (air = 1). It is slightly denser than water, its density related to water is 1.05 (water = 1).
Benzaldehyde is a reactive liquid and becomes yellowish on keeping. Its boiling point is 178.7°C and its melting point is -57°C. Auto-ignition occurs at 192°C.
Benzaldehyde is insoluble in water and soluble in liquid ammonia.
Benzaldehyde can be harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Prolonged contact with skin can cause skin irritation. Contact with eyes causes serious eye irritation.
Benzaldehyde can be obtained from various natural sources. It is widely used by the chemical industry in the production of flavorings, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. It is also used in the preparation of different aniline dyes, in water treatment, and in the production of fuels and fuel additives.Differences: Acetone and Benzaldehyde
Structural Differences − Acetone, also known as propanone, is a colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor. Its molecular formula is C3H6O, and its structure consists of a carbonyl group (C=O) attached to two methyl groups (CH3). Acetone is a member of the ketone family of organic compounds.
Benzaldehyde, on the other hand, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C7H6O. Its structure consists of a benzene ring (C6H5) attached to a formyl group (CHO). Benzaldehyde is an aromatic aldehyde and is commonly used in the synthesis of fragrances, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.
Physical Differences − One of the main physical differences between acetone and benzaldehyde is their boiling points. Acetone has a boiling point of 56.1°C, while benzaldehyde has a boiling point of 179.1°C. This means that benzaldehyde is much more volatile than acetone and requires a higher temperature to evaporate.
Another physical difference is their solubility in water. Acetone is highly soluble in water, while benzaldehyde is only slightly soluble. This difference is due to the polar nature of acetone, which allows it to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, whereas benzaldehyde is nonpolar and does not interact with water molecules in the same way.
Chemical Differences − Acetone and benzaldehyde also have different chemical properties. Acetone is a relatively stable compound that does not react with most organic and inorganic compounds. However, it can be oxidized to form acetone peroxide, a highly unstable and explosive compound.
Benzaldehyde, on the other hand, is a reactive compound that undergoes a wide range of chemical reactions. It can be oxidized to form benzoic acid, reduced to form benzyl alcohol, and used in condensation reactions to form a variety of aromatic compounds. One of the most important reactions of benzaldehyde is its ability to undergo the Cannizzaro reaction, which involves the simultaneous oxidation and reduction of two molecules of benzaldehyde to form benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid.
Uses − Acetone is commonly used as a solvent in the manufacturing of plastics, fibers, and pharmaceuticals.
The following table highlights the major differences between Acetone and Benzaldehyde −
Acetone: Acetone is a chemical compound, a colorless, highly flammable, volatile liquid, with a characteristic odor. It is the simplest ketone.
Benzaldehyde: Benzaldehyde is an oily, colorless to yellow liquid with an almond odor. It is an aromatic aldehyde with a single formyl group.
Acetone: The chemical formula of acetone is C3H6O.
Benzaldehyde: The chemical formula is of benzaldehyde is C6H5CHO.
Acetone: The molecular weight of acetone is 58.08 g/mol.
Benzaldehyde: The molecular weight of benzaldehyde is 106.124 g/mol.
Acetone: The vapors of the acetone are heavier than air and their density related to air is 2.0 (air = 1).
Benzaldehyde: The vapors of the benzaldehyde are heavier than air, their density related to air is 3.66 (air = 1).
Acetone: The acetone is less dense than water and its density related to water is 0.8 (water = 1).
Benzaldehyde: The benzaldehyde is slightly denser than water, its density related to water is 1.05 (water = 1).
Acetone: Under the recommended storage conditions acetone is a stable compound.
Benzaldehyde: Benzaldehyde is a reactive liquid and becomes yellowish on keeping.
Acetone: The boiling point of acetone is 56°C.
Benzaldehyde: The boiling point of benzaldehyde is 178.7°C.
Acetone: The melting point of acetone is -95°C.
Benzaldehyde: The melting point of benzaldehyde is -57°C.
Acetone: The auto-ignition of acetone occurs at 465°C.
enzaldehyde occurs at 192°C.
Acetone: Acetone dissolves well in water.
Benzaldehyde: Benzaldehyde is insoluble in water and soluble in liquid ammonia.
Acetone: Acetone is used as a solvent in a variety of organic reactions, as a drying agent, to precipitate proteins, as a flavoring agent, in the production of paints, coatings, cleaning agents. It is also used in medicine and cosmetics.
Benzaldehyde: Benzaldehyde is used by the chemical industry in the production of flavorings, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. It is also used in the preparation of different aniline dyes, in water treatment, and in the production of fuels and fuel additives.Conclusion
Acetone vapors are toxic. They have a narcotic effect and affect the central nervous system. One of the important peculiarities of the acetone is its ability to accumulate in the body, thereby increasing its concentration. As a final effect of such accumulation, chronic poisoning can occur.
Benzaldehyde can be harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Prolonged contact with skin can cause skin irritation. Contact with eyes causes serious eye irritation.
Provisions are used in financial accounting to set aside funds to provide for a future excepted loss/liability. It is compulsory for companies to make Provisions to meet their future expenses. Reserves, on the other hand, are the surplus funds that a company sets aside in order to invest in future projects. Read through this article to find out more how Provisions and Reserves are used in Financial Accounting.What is Provisioning in Accounting?
A Provision is the amount which kept aside to cover future expenses. It is a separate fund which is kept aside to cover certain expenses. Note that a provision is not a reserve. Examples of Provisioning include Guarantees, Deferred tax, Restructuring liabilities, Depreciation, Sales allowances, etc
A provision can be recognised if it meets the following criteria −
An entity which has a current obligation due to past events.
It may be cash outflow to settle obligation.
The main objective of provisioning is to make the balance sheet more accurate in an accounting period or financial year. Accountants use provisioning to present correct financial statements, predict losses and liabilities, and meet known losses and liabilities.
Companies do tax provisions to meet their income tax requirements. Tax deductions include depreciation, allowances, interest expenses etc. After some calculations, the firm determines its amount to be allocated on its books in a provision known as tax provisions.What is Balance Sheet Reserve?
Reserves in the balance sheet are surplus funds that a company sets aside to carry out its future projects. Balance Sheet Reserves are of two types −
Capital Reserve − The capital reserve is funded by capital profits, which are typically not distributed as dividends to shareholders. It cannot be established from earnings generated by a company’s main operations.
Revenue Reserve − Revenue reserves are derived from earnings generated by an organization’s core operations. Revenue Reserves are recorded in the Reserves and Surplus portion of a balance sheet’s liabilities section. It can be used to pay out dividends to shareholders or to expand the company in the future.
When companies make a sizeable profit, they retain a portion of it to meet future needs, growth prospects, and so on. In accounting, Reserves refer to the amount of money that is set aside for future. Reserves are helpful in strengthening an enterprise’s financial condition and can be used for a variety of purposes including steady dividend payments, business expansion, meeting probable contingencies, legal requirements, investments, and improving overall financial health of a company.
For insurance companies, it is mandatory to show Reserves in their balance sheet. They show it in the liabilities side of their balance sheet as the Reserves set aside for settling future insurance claims of their policy owners. Hence, it is also known as Claim Reserves.Difference between Provision and Reserve
The following table highlights the major differences between Provision and Reserve −
ProvisionReserveProvision records expenses incurred but payment yet to made. It is a means to provide for a future excepted loss/liability.Reserves are the funds that a company sets aside in order to invest in future chúng tôi is showed on both sides of the balance chúng tôi is showed on the liability side of the balance chúng tôi is not compulsory to generate profits in order to create Provisions.Companies that create Reserves must be chúng tôi availability of Provision is required in order to meet a probable loss in the future or an accruing liability.Companies create Reserves to strengthen their financial positionFor business entities, it is mandatory to create provisions in their chúng tôi is not mandatory to create chúng tôi amount set as Provision can’t be used to invest outside business. Provisions are used for which they chúng tôi amount set as Reserve can be used to invest outside business.Conclusion
A Provision is an amount that is set aside to cover a probable future expenses. Note the word “probable” because these expenses have not been incurred yet. Balance Sheet Reserves, on the other hand, are surplus funds that a company sets aside to carry out its future projects
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