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Economic Impact of Pandemic Has Boosted Demand for BU’s Program for Food-Insecure Students

Last year, students helped publicize Terrier Meal Share, a program allowing them to donate meals to food-insecure peers. This year, bracing for an increase as COVID-19 spikes, public service messages alerting students about the service have begun rolling out across the University. Photo by Cydney Scott

Campus Life

Economic Impact of Pandemic Has Boosted Demand for BU’s Program for Food-Insecure Students Terrier Meal Share expected to grow this year as COVID-19 continues

When Terrier Meal Share, the University’s program to combat food insecurity among BU students, launched last year, 18 students requested meals. That modest demand was expected, “after a soft rollout to be sure that the program was working as planned,” says Steve Singer, associate dean of students for shared business services, who oversees the program.

Then COVID-19 and its accompanying lockdowns hit. As those sliced families’ incomes, students’ food insecurity—inadequate amounts to eat because of financial or logistical impediments—soared. By the end of the academic year last May, Terrier Meal Share had served 77 students with 830 meals, says Singer. Students typically received between 5 and 20 meals each.

The completely confidential Terrier Meal Share uses an online portal, where students donate their extra guest dining hall meals to food-insecure peers. Those peers sign up to have five meals put on their Terrier Card, usable in all University dining halls.

The demand remains at BU, Singer says, though it’s been depressed this fall because many students are studying remotely. Hunger is growing on college campuses during the current COVID surge, and across the country more Americans are using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, usually called food stamps, to buy groceries online. 

Singer discussed the need for Terrier Meal Share and its impact with BU Today. 

Q

&

A With Steve Singer

BU Today:

How many students have requested help this semester?

Steve Singer: We have provided meals to 16 students, a total of 190 meals. We’re rolling out information to remind students about this program. We started with information in the Howard Thurman Center weekly newsletter. We’re rolling out similar information in many other departmental newsletters. Many of our colleagues—Financial Assistance, University Service Center, Student Services offices—are aware of this support program. Students can learn about the program on the Dean of Students and Wellbeing Project web pages.

BU Today:

Do you expect more students to sign up as the year progresses?

Steve Singer: Yes. Due to various financial and personal situations, we do expect an uptick. Keep in mind that Financial Assistance, the Dean of Students office, and others collaborate to understand if the student is having any additional challenges, such as the need for textbooks, daily supplies, and living expenses, etc. The Terrier Meal Share program has been designed to assist the student in the short term. Our goal is to review any long-term solutions that we can put in place to assist the student.

Flyers for the Terrier Meal Share program from last year’s event. Photo by Cydney Scott 

BU Today:

Was last year’s increase in demand caused by the pandemic?

Yes. Last spring, we saw an increase in demand as the program was more well known. From March and beyond, the pandemic was mentioned by many requesting meals.  Fortunately, we were able to provide assistance to all students in need who requested.

BU Today:

How many meals have been donated so far this fall? Are students aware of the greater need and responding?

We have received 35 donated meals from students. Auxiliary Services once again is matching meals by providing one meal for every meal a student donates. The combined total is 70 meals donated—35 by students and 35 matched by Auxiliary Services. Auxiliary Services also provided 250 meals to begin the school year.

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Javascript Program For Markov Matrix

A matrix is a kind of 2-D array, which is in the form of some number of rows, and for each row, there is the same number of columns and by the row and column number, we can get the element at any particular index. For the Markov matrix, each row’s sum must equal 1. We are going to implement a code to create a new Markov matrix and find if the currently given matrix is a Markov matrix or not.

Introduction to Problem

In the given problem, we have to write a code that will produce the Markov matrix by using the binary data that is by using only zero and ones as we know the Markov matrix is the matrix in which the sum of the row must be equal to one (this don’t mean that it only consists of the binary numbers) which mean in each row there will be a single 1 present and other elements are zero.

The program we will implement will be just a special case for the Markov matrix.

For the second code, we will be given a matrix and have to find whether the current matrix is Markov’s Matrix. Let us see both the codes −

Creating a Markov Matrix

In the current part, we are using the binary digits that are zero and ones to create a Markov matrix. Let us see the approach first then we will move to the code implementation −

Approach

In this code, we are going to create a matrix using the new keyword and the Array. For each index of array we will again make an array to fill in it.

For each row of matrix, using the random function, we will get the random number in range of number of columns and fill that column of current row with 1 and other as zero.

At the end we will return the matrix.

Example var row = 4 var col = 5 function MarkovMat(row, col){ var arr = new Array(row); for(var i = 0; i < row; i++){ var brr = new Array(col); brr.fill(0) var k = Math.floor(Math.random()*5); brr[k] = 1 arr[i] = brr; } console.log(arr) } MarkovMat(row,col) Time and space complexity

In the above code, we have moved over the complete matrix and for each movement or the traversal we have got the random number each time which takes the constant time. So, the time complexity of the above code O(N*M) where N is the number of rows and M is the number of columns.

The space complexity is just equal to the size of the matrix, and we haven’t used any extra space. So, the space complexity of the above code O(N*M).

Checking Whether Current Matrix is Markov or Not

In the current part, we are given a matrix and have to find whether the current matrix is Markov Matrix. Let’s see the approach first then we will move to the code implementation −

Approach

In this code, we will simply traverse over the matrix and for each row get its count. If the count of the current row is 1 then we move to next one otherwise we will return that current matrix is not Markov’s.

Example function isMarkov(mat){ var rows = mat.length var col = mat[0].length; for(var i = 0; i < rows;i++){ var count = 0; for(var j =0; j<col; j++) { count += mat[i][j]; } if(count != 1){ console.log("The given matrix is not Markov's Matrix"); return } } console.log("The given matrix is Markov's Matrix"); } matrix1 = [[0.5, 0, 0.5], [0.5, 0.25, 0.25], [1, 0.0, 0], [0.33, 0.34, 0.33]] console.log("For the matrix1: ") isMarkov(matrix1) matrix2 = [[0.5, 1, 0.5], [0.5, 0.25, 0.25], [1, 0.0, 0], [0.33, 0.34, 0.33]] console.log("For the matrix2: ") isMarkov(matrix2) Time and space complexity

In the above code, we have traversed the matrix and stored the sum of the each column, make the time complexity of above code as O(N*M).

We haven’t used any extra space in the above code, make the space complexity as O(1).

Conclusion

In this tutorial, we have implemented the JavaScript Program for the Markov Matrix. For the Markov matrix, each row’s sum must equal 1. We have implemented a code to generate a binary Markov’s matrix using the random number generating function in time complexity of O(N*M) and the same space. Also, we have implemented a code that will check whether the current matrix is Markov’s or not in O(N*M) time.

Here Are The Best Economic Simulation Games For Pc Users

Here are the best economic simulation games for PC users

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Economic simulation games are those primarily based on economic management in which players usually become a tycoon in an industry. For example, some economic simulation games have players build and run their own theme parks, zoos, railway lines, airline companies, hospitals, casinos, cinemas, hotels or even cities.

There are many games that loosely fit in the economic simulation genre. These include real-time and turn-based strategy games such as the Civilization and SEGA’s Total War series. For example, in the Total War games, players adjust tax rates, expand settlements and trade with other empires.

Below are a few of the best Windows games in the economic simulation genre.

Railroad Tycoon

There have been four installments in the Railroad Tycoon series dating back to 1990. Of course, it was the original Sid Meier’s Railroad Tycoon that really launched the franchise.

Railroad Tycoon 2 was also another great game of the series. This had a Railroad Tycoon 2: Platinum Edition that included both the original sequel and The Second Century expansion that expanded the time period the game to cover from the 1800s up to the present era. Sure, RT2 might lack some of the 3D gloss of the more recent additions to the series, but it’s a detailed economic simulation with UI design that captures the authentic look and feel of the industrial era.

In Railroad Tycoon 2, players build extensive railway tracks to transport all manner of cargo and passengers, construct stations, invest in a variety of rolling stock and even dabble in the stock market to expand their railway empires and beat AI tycoons. The original sequel had 18 missions in Europe, North America and beyond, and the expansion pack extended the scenarios to include 20th-century wars.

SimCity

SimCity is an economic simulation in which players become a city mayor. Players build, expand and run their very own cities in one of the first games to highlighted how viable economic simulations could be when it launched on MS-DOS in 1989.

In the game, players establish an annual budget by adjusting tax rates and allocating funds to police, fire services, and transportation. Then they can expand their cities by constructing residential, industrial and commerce zones that can either grow or decline. The game also includes approval polls that provide feedback on your economic management. The first SimCity had countless accolades and launched one of the biggest Windows game series.

Admittedly, not all the games in the series have been that great. However, SimCity 4 for Windows was an evolutionary step for the franchise as the first SimCity that had a 3D graphics engine with rotatable 3D objects. SimCity 4 includes diverse architectural styles, three alternative game modes, UFO invasions and neighboring cities that players could exchange resources with. The SimCity 4 Deluxe edition includes both SimCity 4 and its Rush Hour expansion pack.

Theme Park

Theme Park was originally an MS-DOS game, but you ca nown add it to Windows and macOS from this website. This is an economic simulation in which players build their own Magic Kingdom theme park with all manner of rides, restaurants and other facilities. Players expand parks to increase their overall value so that they can sell them and acquire new plots.

Expert tip:

RollerCoaster Tycoon

Theme Park probably inspired the RollerCoaster Tycoon game series, which began on Windows and was then ported to other platforms. The premise of RollerCoaster Tycoon is much the same as players construct and maintain theme parks. Building huge roller coaster designs with corkscrews and vertical loops is a big part of the game, but players can also still add a diverse range of rides to the parks including log fumes, go karts, and ferris wheels.

The main difference between the games is that RollerCoaster Tycoon includes scenarios for players to complete by either building a park from scratch or taking over a pre-built park that could do with a bit of investment. Some of the scenarios are also based on real theme parks such as Lightwater Valley.

Of course, it was the first RollerCoaster Tycoon game that really made the series and is rated among the best economic simulation games ever. There have been several titles in the series and RollerCoaster Tycoon 3 is also one of the best installments as the first to fully showcase theme parks in glorious 3D with adjustable camera angles.

The game also includes the CoasterCam that enables players to ride their roller coasters and other rides from a first-person perspective. In addition, RollerCoaster Tycoon 3 also has Soaked and Wild expansion packs in which players build water parks and zoos with wildlife and safari rides. RollerCoaster Tycoon 3: Platinum includes all the expansion packs and original Tycoon 3 within the same package.

Cities: Skylines

It has taken a while for a serious successor to SimCity to emerge, but Cities: Skylines could be it. This economic simulation game launched in 2024 and in it, players can build huge cities up to 36 kilometers in scale. Management of transportation infrastructure is a big aspect of the game, and players can designate customizable districts to their cities in which to apply alternative taxation policies and develop more specific industries such as oil, mining, agriculture, and others. Budgeting also comes into play as players can choose what utilities and services to budget for and tinker with.

The publisher already released a triumvirate of expansion packs for Cities: Skylines. After Dark includes day/night cycles and more unique buildings, Snowfall adds lots of snow to the cities, and Natural Disasters gives players earthquakes, flooding and tornadoes to deal with. There’s also a Deluxe Edition that includes five historic monuments and a digital art book. Cities: Skylines has had some rave reviews, so it could be the start of something big.

Offworld Trading Company

Offworld Trading Company is another recent game that could shake up the economic simulation genre. This is an  real-time strategy game set on Mars in the year 2063 after a worldwide market meltdown on Earth. In the aftermath of the Great Collapse, companies have established the New Martian Colonies on Mars. Thus, players must win over the resources from Mars, extract and then manufacture them into tangible goods with which to build up their colonies. Military maneuvering doesn’t come into play in Offworld Trading Company, as victory is won by buying up all competitor stocks.

The game pays close attention to realism as Mars planetary geologist Kirby Runyon even provided some input for it. He stated: “It’s great that space is being shared just beyond what is strictly ‘scientific.’ It’s an awesome setting for this game, and I hope that it does a lot to draw people into wanting to learn more. I’m so excited to be able to watch science infused with art.” So, Offworld Trading Company is certainly an original and intriguing sci-fi economic simulation game.

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Food@Bu’s Idea To Solve Campus Hunger Wins $10,000 Prize At Innovate@Bu Event

Food@BU’s Idea to Solve Campus Hunger Wins $10,000 Prize at Innovate@BU Event

BU Campus Hunger Challenge winning team Food@BU members Alexia Lancea (CAS’22) (from left), Eunice Lamothe (CAS’22, SPH’23), Saahil Adusumilli (Sargent’22), and Mary Campion (CAS’22) with US Rep. Jim McGovern (D-Mass.) and State Rep. Andy Vargas (Pardee’15) (D-3rd Essex).

Innovation

Food@BU’s Idea to Solve Campus Hunger Wins $10,000 Prize at Innovate@BU Event Students pitched to US Rep. Jim McGovern (D-Mass.) and YMCA Boston CEO at Tuesday night’s Campus Hunger Challenge

An idea for a campus-wide initiative that would make affordable or free food easily available to all BU students won $10,000 on Tuesday at Innovate@BU’s Campus Hunger Challenge.

“We’re all volunteers with BU’s Student Food Rescue, and through our work we’ve learned the best thing to solve hunger is infrastructure,” said Mary Campion (CAS’22), a team member of winner Food@BU. “There’s significantly more food grown than people are eating; it’s getting it in people’s hands that is so challenging.” Food@BU proposed creating a guide with information on local food pantries and federal food access programs. They also plan to partner with Student Wellbeing and become the one-stop shop on campus to find information about SNAP, leftover food alerts, the Wheelock Community Cares food pantry, and more. 

Cohosted by Innovate@BU and the YMCA of Greater Boston, the monthlong Campus Hunger Challenge sought inventive ideas from BU students and alumni to help local food-insecure 19- to 26-year-olds gain access to fresh produce and other food products. Approximately one-third of young adults in the United States go hungry every day, and hunger on college campuses has become a growing issue. In 2023, Temple University’s Hope Center for College, Community, and Justice, which studies college students’ economic challenges, surveyed nearly 167,000 college students nationwide and found that during the past month, 39 percent of respondents had experienced food insecurity—defined by the US Department of Agriculture as a lack of consistent access to enough food to maintain a healthy, active lifestyle.

The Campus Hunger Challenge teams were judged on how well their proposed solution could impact the Greater Boston area, with extra points given if the solution can be replicated elsewhere. 

On Tuesday night, a crowd of about 50 students, staff, government officials, and community leaders at the Kilachand Center for Life Sciences & Engineering heard one-minute pitches from the four finalist teams, along with remarks from local leaders working to combat hunger in Massachusetts communities. “If I can speak on behalf of all the judges, you gave us hope and joy for the future,” said James Morton, president and CEO of the YMCA of Greater Boston, who spoke of his own experience growing up relying on government food assistance. He said he was impressed with how the finalists’ pitches kept in mind the dignity of those who would be served, as well as listening to the subject matter experts and then coming up with solutions.

Vargas then introduced the keynote speaker, US Representative Jim McGovern (D-Mass.), House Rules Committee chair, who has worked to end food insecurity in the country since being elected to Congress in 1997. McGovern noted that food assistance programs exist for students in kindergarten through high school, but there is a lack of assistance for college students. When you go on to college, “do you magically have food?” he asked. Last semester, the House Rules Committee held a hearing on hunger on college campuses, and McGovern said he was frustrated hearing anecdotes from students about expensive college meal plans, being forced to choose between paying for books or buying food, and the number of students relying on campus food pantries, if they even existed.

“There are close to 40 million Americans who don’t know where their next meal is coming from, and I’m ashamed of that,” he said. “We have the food, we have the money. When it comes to the defense budget, people are tripping over themselves to build another nuclear missile at a cost of trillions of dollars. So if we can do that, why can’t we make sure that everyone has enough to eat?”

Fostered Food team members Matt Blanco, a Northeastern University student, Hayes Hart-Thompson (CAS’21, COM’21), and Taylor Stephens explaining their idea to James Morton, president and CEO of the YMCA of Greater Boston, who cosponsored the event along with Innovate@BU.

Student teams were tasked with focusing on one specific aspect of food insecurity affecting 19- to 26-year-olds, “anything from a policy recommendation to a tech-driven solution to marketing, media, or art,” said Micaelah Morrill, Innovate@BU director of external relations, who came up with the idea of having the incubator “hack” this semester address hunger. “We wanted things that start in the Boston area and can then be scaled to other communities,” she said. 

The community challenge, which has a different theme every year, was originally designed by Gerry Fine, former executive director of Innovate@BU and a College of Engineering professor of the practice, who recently retired.

During spring break, students had the opportunity to visit food pantries and distribution centers, such as Wheelock’s Community Cares, a service open to the entire BU community that provides free food and hygiene products, and About Fresh, a nonprofit where they help pack trucks with fresh, affordable food that is then distributed in neighborhoods throughout Boston. They also met with staff from the Greater Boston Food Bank, the American Red Cross, and BU’s Terrier Meal Share, a program that allows students to donate their extra guest dining hall meals to students in need. Auxiliary Services matches the students’ donations and Terriers can request assistance confidentially.

In their one-minute pitch, Food@BU team members Campion, Alexia Lancea (CAS’22), Eunice Lamothe (CAS’22, SPH’23), and Saahil Adusumilli (Sargent’22) talked about how food is an integral part of students’ experience at BU. “From our very first Lobster Night to our Senior Breakfast, food unites our community,” Campion said. “However, food insecurity is a pervasive issue on every college campus. Through our research, we’ve identified that infrastructure and university-level solutions are key to reducing food insecurity.”

“All the ideas were phenomenal,” said judge Erin McAleer, CEO of Project Bread. 

“I thought Food@BU had the best data and was well-rounded, and their plan was extremely thorough,” added judge Irene Li, owner of Mei Mei Dumplings.

Are you a BU student experiencing food insecurity? Check out this list of resources compiled by Innovate@BU for help.

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Economic Recovery Tax Act Of 1981 (Erta)

Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA)

A federal tax law passed by the U.S. Congress to encourage economic growth by providing crucial tax cuts

Written by

CFI Team

Published November 16, 2023

Updated July 7, 2023

What is the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA)?

The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA) was a federal tax law passed on August 13, 1981 by the 97th U.S. Congress as a big move to encourage economic growth by providing crucial tax cuts. The legislation was also known as the “Kemp-Roth Tax Cut.” It was signed into law by then-President Ronald Reagan.

Summary

The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA) was a federal tax law passed on August 13, 1981 by the 97th U.S. Congress as a major move to encourage economic growth by providing crucial tax cuts.

The legislation was also known as the “Kemp-Roth Tax Cut.” It was signed into law by then-President Ronald Reagan.

The main objectives of the ERTA were to provide tax cuts to stimulate economic growth, capital cost recovery of fixed investments in plant, equipment, and real estate, providing incentives to increase savings in the economy, and so on.

Main Objectives of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981

The Economic Recovery Tax Act was enacted into law, keeping in mind the working principles of supply economics. The basic idea behind it was that providing tax cuts, especially for the higher income tax groups, would lead to more money in the hands of the wealthy and the businesses. It would help increase the potential for more and more investment and economic growth, as the higher income groups would be able to spend on capital investment and economic growth.

The benefits of these tax cuts would then “trickle down,” i.e., pass on to the average and lower-income group citizens. A flourishing economy would increase employment opportunities in the economy and increase consumer expenditure, thereby increasing the purchasing power of the overall economy.

The main objectives of the ERTA were as follows:

Providing tax cuts to stimulate economic growth

Capital cost recovery of fixed investments in plant, equipment, and real estate

Providing incentives to increase savings in the economy

What was the Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS)?

The Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS) was a major component of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. The ACRS’ main purpose was to change the way depreciation is accounted for, i.e., deducted to provide tax concessions. Such a way of providing tax concessions was crucial to reduce the tax liabilities of businesses and corporations. The move, in turn, enhanced investment and economic growth.

The Accelerated Cost Recovery System’s depreciation changes were later repealed by the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (TEFR). The TEFR was later amended in 1986 into the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS).

Tax Cuts under the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA)

The tax cuts under the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA) were as follows:

The accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS) accelerated the depreciation tax reductions and changed the way depreciation was accounted for to reduce taxation.

Indexing individual tax brackets, with a 23% cut in individual tax rates

The top tax rate cut was from 70% to 50% over three years.

The lowest tax rate cut was from 14% to 11%.

The real estate tax exemption was increased to $600,000 from $175,600 to promote capital cost recovery.

All working taxpayers were to establish Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs). The move was intended to increase savings in the economy.

A 10% exclusion on income was introduced for two-earner married couples up to $3,000.

Taxations on windfall profit gains were reduced.

There was a reduction in the capital gains tax from 28% to 20%.

The ERTA indexed for inflation as well.

Consequences and Effects of the ERTA

The ERTA, to some extent, did work according to the underlying supply-side economics principles. However, some consequences were dire to the economy:

Due to the massive decline in tax revenues, the federal deficit increased significantly.

The overall consumer spending did not increase despite the tax concessions.

By the end of 1982, the U.S. unemployment rate reached an all-time high of approximately 11%.

While there were some initial positive effects of the ERTA, the act was ultimately a failure for the Reagan presidency.

Additional Resources

Javascript Program For Frequencies Of Even And Odd Numbers In A Matrix

In this tutorial, we will implement a JavaScript program for finding the frequencies of even and odd numbers. We will be given a 2D matrix that is the size of MXN and we have to find the frequencies (means the count of element present) of all odd and even numbers present in the matrix. We will see two approaches, one will be the brute force approach (using for loops) and another will be the bitwise and operator approach.

Introduction to Problem

In this problem, we are given a 2d matrix that contains odd and even numbers in an unsorted manner we have to find the frequencies of odd and even numbers in the 2d matrix. For example −

In this problem, we are given a 2d matrix that contains odd and even numbers in an unsorted manner we have to find the frequencies of odd and even numbers in the 2d matrix. For example −

Row ( m ) = 3; Column ( n ) = 3; Matrix = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]];

From the given matrix of size 3X3, we have frequencies of odd and even numbers are −

Frequency of odd number = 5 Frequency of even number = 4

We can return the frequencies, we can simply print them as it is, let’s move to the approach of the problem −

Approach 1 (Using mod ‘%’ operator)

In this approach, we simply traverse the matrix using nested for loop. While traversing the for loops we calculated the frequencies of odd and even numbers in the 2d matrix. For checking whether the value is odd or even here we the used mod (‘%’) operator basically taking mod of 2 with the numbers if the mod value is ‘1’ it means it is an odd value otherwise it is an even value and in the end, we return those count of odd and even numbers. Let’s move to the code of this approach for a better understanding.

Example

Below is a JavaScript Program to find the frequency of even and odd numbers in a matrix using mode operator −

let MAX = 100; function freq(arr,row,col) { let evenNum = 0, oddNum = 0; for (let i = 0; i < row; ++i) { for (let j = 0; j < col; ++j) { if ((arr[i][j] % 2) == 0) ++evenNum; else ++oddNum; } } console.log(" Frequency of odd numbers = " + oddNum ); console.log(" Frequency of even numbers = " + evenNum ); } let m = 3, n = 3; let arr = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]; freq(arr, m, n); Time and Space Complexity

The time complexity of the above code is O(M*N), where M is the size of row and N is the size of the column of the 2d matrix.

The space complexity of the above code is O(1) because we have used a int value to store only a integer.

Approach 2 (Using bitwise ‘&’ operator)

In this approach, we are going to simply traverse the matrix using a nested for loop. While traversing the for loops we calculated the frequencies of odd and even numbers in the 2d matrix. For checking whether the value is odd or even here we used the bitwise (‘&’) operator basically taking a bitwise of 1 with the numbers, if bitwise value is ‘0’ it means it is an even value otherwise it is an odd value and in the end we return those count of odd and even numbers. Let’s move to the code of this approach for a better understanding.

Example

Below is a JavaScript program to find the frequency of even and odd numbers in a matrix using the bitwise & operator −

let MAX = 100; function freq(arr,row,col) { let evenNum = 0, oddNum = 0; for (let i = 0; i < row; ++i) { for (let j = 0; j < col; ++j) { if ((arr[i][j] & 1) == 0) ++evenNum; else ++oddNum; } } console.log(" Frequency of odd numbers = " + oddNum ); console.log(" Frequency of even numbers = " + evenNum ); } let m = 3, n = 3; let arr = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]; freq(arr, m, n); Time and Space Complexity

The time complexity of the above code is O(M*N), where M is the size of the row and N is the size of the column of the 2d matrix.

The space complexity of the above code is O(1) because we have used an int value to store only an integer.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, we have implemented a javascript program for finding the frequencies of even and odd numbers in a 2d matrix. We have given a 2d matrix of size NXM and we have to find the frequencies of the odd values and even values of the 2d matrix. We have seen two approaches one is by using the mod operator and another one is by using the bitwise operator.

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