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What are Enzymes?

Enzymes are the substances which acts as catalyst in regulating various chemical reactions in living organisms. The presence of these enzymes speeds up the reaction by being itself unaltered.

Enzymes which are also called as biocatalysts are the protein molecules made up of long chain of amino acids. These long chains are usually folded to form an active site in an enzyme. The substrate which then binds to this site forming a complex. Once the reaction is done the products are released making the enzyme available for other reactions.

The enzyme’s catalytic activity depends mainly on L-alpha amino-acid sequence and peptide bonds within protein molecules. The primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of an enzyme are necessary for the catalytic activity.

Holoenzyme consists of protein part called as Apo enzyme and a non-protein part called a co-enzyme. The protein part of an enzyme is attached to the non-protein part by a covalent or non-covalent bond.

Application of Enzymes

Enzyme technology is concerned with the application of enzymes as tools of industry, agriculture and medicine.

Enzyme technology provides a new route for manufacturing bulk and high value added products utilizing enzymes. In order to meet needs such as food, fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals the enzyme based processes gained an importance in various factors such as in washing, bioremediation for analytical and diagnostic purposes. The 2 main challenges for enzyme technology are the development of new and better products and the improvement of processes to produce the products from renewable sources. The novel applications of enzymes are −

Medical

Analytical – Enzymes are highly analytical agents due to their efficiency and highly specific nature. Used in quantitative determination of substrate concentration in fluids like blood and urine.

Example: Alcohol dehydrogenase used mostly in bio-analytical applications.

Diagnostics – Examples: Alginase used to determine L-Arginine levels in plasma and urine. Cholesterol esterase is another example used for serum cholesterol level determination.

Cosmetic and Medicinal Enzymes – Enzymes are effective cellular catalysts responsible for controlling thousands of reactions in a cell. Hence enzymes are used in skin care products to facilitate exfoliation, help biological processes in skin due to its slow down because of age and sun damage and to inhibit free radical damage. Examples: Collagenase in skin ulcer treatment, Streptokinase and Urokinase in treating the blood clots.

Industrial

Many industrial processes make use of purest form of enzymes by isolating from the micro-organisms. These have been in use since thousands of years for making different products. Micro-organisms like yeast is used as a source of enzyme during the manufacture of these products by biotechnology.

Some of the products of enzyme technology used in our daily life are −

Wine

Beer

Vinegar

Soy sauce

Bread

Cheese

Pharmaceutical: Important in the production of insulin which is an essential hormone for controlling blood sugars. Production of protease capsules which provides therapeutic benefits like enhancing circulatory and immune systems.

Food and Beverage Industry: Used to monitor toxic chemical levels in food and water. Using enzymes can improve the texture, appearance, nutritional value and may generate desirable flavor and aroma.

Examples: Tenderizing of meat, production of fruits juices and other drinks etc.

Agricultural Industry: Enzymes are used for detoxification of pesticide residues. Enzymes in agriculture are used as natural pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers for odor removal and for feeding livestock to improve digestion. These are also sprayed in animal farm to remove insects and reduce infections.

Paper Industry: Enzymes used in pulping are cellulases, hemicellulases, Xylanase, endo glucanase and pectinase. These enzymes enhance the pulping and reduces the energy required for further refining.

Textile Industry: Enzymes used in this industry are for de-sizing, bio-polishing, stone washing, removal of stains, softening etc.

Enzymes used in washing powders: Amylases digests the starch and break into sugars. Proteases digest proteins and break them into amino acids and lipases digest fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Enzymes are used here for removing stains of blood, grass, sweat and food from the clothes.

Biofuel Production: Amylases, Cellulases and proteases. Biofuel production which provides an alternative for fossil fuels reduces the carbon emissions in the atmosphere.

Enzymes converts’ corn, wheat, barley and rye into fuel like ethanol. These enzymes also convert the biomass into bioethanol.

Commercial Significance of Immobilized Enzymes

Enzymes are the catalysts which can be used over and over again and have a huge range of commercial usage in medicine, food industry and technology.

Use of enzymes in industrial applications is limited because most of the enzymes are relatively unstable and is expensive for isolation, purification and recovery of active enzymes from the reaction mixture.

Advantages of the Immobilized Enzymes

Product produced is not contaminated with the enzyme used and the enzyme can be easily separated. Hence used mostly in food and pharmaceutical industry.

These enzymes can be re-used again as the immobilization do not affect the catalytic activity of an enzyme.

As enzymes here are held in inert matrix and not fully exposed, these are thermally stable and less likely to denature and are tolerant to the changes in pH.

Ability to stop the reaction by removing the enzyme from a reaction mixture.

Reduces the effluent disposal problems.

In Food and Beverage Industry

Lactose free milk is produced by passing milk over immobilized lactase enzyme. This enzyme breaks down lactose into galactose and glucose which are easily absorbed monosaccharides.

Pectin is present in cell walls of the plants. So this pectin comes out when a fruit is pressed making the juice cloudy and changing the taste. For this immobilized pectinase is used to remove the pectin.

Glucose isomerase is another enzyme which is used in the food industries for making the high fructose syrups. This enzyme converts the glucose to fructose which is way sweeter.

Use in Diagnostics

Immobilized enzymes are used in diagnostic devices. This includes −

Dipsticks

Enzymes present in dipsticks which are used to see the components in urine like glucose, pH etc. These dipsticks when dipped in a urine changes color based on the different concentrations of the substances in urine. Hence it is used as a quick diagnostic test.

Examples: To test the glucose levels two enzymes, glucose oxidase and peroxidase are immobilized on the dipsticks. These enzymes catalyze the below reactions.

Glucose oxidase first catalyzes the reaction combining the glucose and oxygen to form gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. H2O2 then goes to the 2nd reaction where it combines with the colorless pad in the dipstick to form a brown compound. This second reaction is catalyzed by peroxidase enzyme. So more glucose present in the urine, produces more hydrogen peroxide and browner compound. So the color gets darker.

Biosensors

Biosensors are used to know the fully quantitative glucose reading from blood which is important in managing diabetes.

So here the glucose oxidase is immobilized in the biological recognition layer which oxidizes the glucose. The depletion of oxygen is then detected and converted to an electrical current by a transducer. An amplifier then boosts the strength of current which is then processed into a quantitative result.

Conclusion

Enzyme are the molecules which are soluble, amorphous, colloidal, proteinaceous and bioactive organic catalyst produced by the living cells like micro-organisms, animals or the higher plants. These enzymes are useful for the functioning of their metabolic reactions like digestion, respiration, photosynthesis etc. Hence most of the enzymes are used in biotechnology, food preservation, leather industry, paper industry, medical and diagnostic applications, improvement of environment and scientific research. RUBISCO is the most abundantly found enzyme on the earth as they are present in all plants and photosynthetic algae.

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Protein Science And Its Significance

Introduction

Proteins are known as the basic body-building macromolecules in our body. Since they are required in more quantity in our body like carbohydrates and lipids, they are called macromolecules. Proteins are made up of monomeric units called amino acids to form polymeric proteins. So, we can say that amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

Proteins form the essential part of every cell and are important for growth and repair are form the enzymes in our body. They mediate virtually every process that takes place in a cell, exhibiting an almost endless diversity of functions. Study of proteins, their structure, properties, mechanism of action and their functions in an organism is called protein science.

Properties of Proteins

It is very important to understand the physical and chemical properties of proteins for their isolation and synthesis in vivo and in vitro.

Physical Properties of Proteins Water Solubility

Primary and secondary structures are comparatively more soluble due to the formation of hydrogen bonds compared to tertiary structures.

Denaturing and Renaturing of Proteins

Denaturation is the process by which a protein loses its secondary and tertiary structure but there is no change in its primary structure. Denaturation is brought about by heat or urea which causes the breaking of the peptide bond.

When the denaturing agent is removed proteins get back to their original structure this property of proteins is called denaturing.

Coagulation

The process by which insoluble aggregates are formed when protein is subjected to denaturation by heat is called coagulation. Albumins and globulins are mostly prone to coagulation.

Isoelectric Point

It can be defined as the pH at which the number of cations is equal to the number of anions. This property is very useful in the extraction of proteins.

Post-Translational Modification

After the proteins are synthesized in ribosomes proteins undergo various modifications like glycosylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, etc. These modifications alter the protein function.

Chemical Properties of Proteins Ninhydrin Test

Appearance of violet colour when protein is heated with ninhydrin indicates the presence of α-amino acids.

Biuret Test

A violet color is formed when sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate is added to the protein solution which indicates the presence of a peptide bond.

Structure of Proteins

Proteins are made up of amino acids that are joined end to end by peptide bonds, this chain like structure is known as polypeptide. The arrangement of amino acid residues in a polypeptide chain determines its function.

There are four levels of organization in protein structure −

Primary structure

Secondary structure

Tertiary structure

Quaternary structure

Primary Structure

It consists of amino acids which are joined together in the form of the polypeptide chain, in which amino acids are linked to one another by peptide bonds. The N-terminal amino group and C-terminal carboxyl group are responsible for the charges on the polypeptide chain.

Secondary Structure

Alpha helix (α-helix)

Beta helix (β- helix)

Tertiary Structure

It is the three-dimensional structure of the protein, which occurs due the non-covalent interactions like electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interaction, etc. Mostly these interactions are responsible for the hydrophobic properties of certain proteins. In addition to the non-covalent interaction covalent disulfide bonds are also found in the tertiary structure.

Quaternary Structure

This organization contains more than one polypeptide chain and represents the spatial arrangement of various subunits in a protein.

Types of Proteins

Based on the shape, structure, chemical properties and solubility proteins have been divided into three types −

Simple proteins.

Conjugated proteins.

Derived proteins.

Simple Proteins

These proteins on hydrolysis give only amino acids as they consist of only amino acids. They are of two types namely- Fibrous and globular proteins.

Conjugated Proteins

In addition to amino acids, they also contain non-proteinaceous groups like lipids, phosphate groups, or metal ions.

Derived Proteins

When simple and conjugated proteins are subjected to physical or chemical treatment, derived proteins are obtained. For example, peptones, protease, etc.

Significance of Protein Science

Proteins are involved in nearly all the vital activities in an organism and their functions are endless. Knowing about proteins is very important and it has the following applications −

Proteins form all the enzymes in the body, they also form other components of the body like antibodies and hormones. knowledge about these proteins can be used for their synthesis in large scale.

Some metalloproteins help in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body.

Proteins like thrombin, fibrinogen help in blood clotting. They also play important role in providing immunity to our body through antibodies.

Proteins like actin and myosin help in movement and locomotion. They also help in storage like in case of albumin.

Proteins play a crucial role in expression of the genetic information across generations.

Plasma proteins always make up the balance between the volumes of circulating blood and interstitial fluid by a process called homeostasis.

Conclusion

Protein science is all about knowing structure, function and properties of the proteins in detail. This study helps in the knowing various mechanisms that proteins are involved in, various proteins formed in the body, their action and the conditions related to their deficiency. All these studies provide insights into the development of various proteins outside the body on a large scale.

What Is Microbial Chemistry And Its Significance?

Introduction

Microbial chemistry or microbial biochemistry can be defined as the branch of microbiology that deals with the study of biochemical reactions taking place in microorganisms which help in their growth and development of mechanisms of pathogenesis.

This branch encompasses the study of the structure of microbial cells, metabolic reactions, and interaction of various macromolecules which provide detailed skeletal aspects and the basis of function associated with life.

Biomolecules Found in Microorganisms

Various types of biomolecules constitute the structure of microorganisms. Most of the microorganisms are prokaryotes except fungi which are eukaryotes. Every microbe contains a different component in its cell wall and produces different compounds for its defense.

Fig. Virus capsid

Every class of microbe produces different cell wall components. For example, carbohydrate present in the cell wall of bacteria is peptidoglycan and glycocalyx. The cell wall of fungi is made up of glucans, chitin, and glycoprotein. Protozoans do not have any cell wall instead they contain pellicles made up of proteins. Viruses also lack cell walls instead they contain a cover called a capsid made up of proteins that cover its DNA. archaea have distinct cell walls made up of isoprenyl groups and glycoproteins.

Metabolism in Microorganisms

Metabolism in any organism may lead to growth of the organism. Microbial metabolism is the way through which microorganisms obtain their nutrition and in turn energy for growth and reproduction. Metabolic processes in microorganisms can be divided into different types based on the pathway and utilization of raw material 

1) Pathway by which microorganisms obtain carbon products to increase cell mass-

Autotrophic– can synthesize their own food from the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Heterotrophic – are dependent on others for their nutrition.

Mixotrophic – they depend on organic matter as well as synthesize food by fixing carbon dioxide.

2) Pathway by which microorganisms obtain nutrition for growth and reproduction

Phototrophic – they depend on sunlight for the synthesis of food.

Chemotrophic – Food is synthesized using inorganic compounds obtained from the soil.

Metabolic Pathway

Every metabolic action in any organism is followed by either loss of energy or there is a transfer of energy. But the transfer of energy is not 100% efficient, so to maintain a stable amount of energy, microbes must take in more energy than needed.

Inorganic molecules that are taken in by microorganisms cannot combine without any external driving force, this driving force is known as the Energy of activation which can be heat or chemical energy and a biological catalyst called enzymes.

These enzymes can catalyze either a synthetic pathway called anabolism or a pathway that involves a breakdown of large molecules called catabolism. In addition to all these a chemical that acts as the driving force for the reaction called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is also required.

Generally, all microorganisms use ATP making it energy currency of all cells and aiding in energy transfer. Whenever there is a catabolic reaction takes place ATP is generated which is used by the microbial cell for the anabolic processes.

Whenever there is a breakdown of an ATP molecule adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a phosphate ion is generated. These two will re-join to form ATP. To generate ATP three very important processes are required namely-

Photosynthesis in photosynthetic microorganisms,

Respiration in the presence of oxygen (aerobic respiration)

Fermentation (anaerobic respiration)

Significance of Microbial Chemistry Identification of Microorganisms

Correct identification is a must while studying the bacterial isolates or other microbes in the lab for the development of precise treatment measures against the microorganism. for example, during an epidemic, it is very important to correctly identify the causative organism to develop suitable measures to check the growth of the organism and eventually contain the epidemic.

Microorganisms can be identified in many ways by appearance, by examination of their metabolic and nutritional requirements, by analyzing various granular components stored by them, from the places they have been isolated, their biochemical pathway, etc. Nowadays automated techniques are available like MALDI-TOF.

Development of Drugs

Correct identification and deeper analysis of the various metabolic pathways carried out by the microorganisms can help scientists to develop effective drugs against the microorganism.

Agricultural Significance

Many microorganisms play an important role by fixing atmospheric nutrients and increasing soil fertility understanding the biochemistry of such microorganisms can increase soil fertility and crop yield with less harm to the environment.

Saving Environment

Not only do microorganisms fix atmospheric nutrients but also help in cleaning the environment by breaking down complex substances to simpler ones. For example, Pseudomonas putida is bacteria that can clean oil spills biodegradation.

Significance in Food Industry

Understanding the biochemistry of microbes can help in development of optimized conditions for their better and steady performance to get a uniform product in food and beverage industries.

Conclusion

Scientists like Urey and Millar have long back established the importance of microorganisms in the development of life on Earth. Since then, extensive studies have been going to understand the biochemical reactions carried out by them. Microorganisms have been of great use in many industries and the development of sustainable processes.

Understanding various reaction carried out by them and their interactions with the environment provide better insights for the development of drugs and environmental initiatives.

Suits By Indigent Persons: Meaning And Significance

Any person who has a right or an interest in the subject matter of the dispute may file a civil suit to claim that right or interest. However, such a person is required to pay court fees to the court for the adjudication of his rights. The court fee is determined by the value of the subject matter in dispute. There may be cases in which a parson has a substantial interest in the suit property, but he does not have the means to pay for the court fees. In that case, how would he be able to file his suit without paying anything as court fees?

What is the Meaning of Suits by Indigent Persons?

Order 33 of the Code of Civil Procedure provides for civil suits that may be filed by a person even without payment of a court fee. Therefore, a suit instituted without paying court fees by a person who is incapable of paying court fees is characterized as a suit instituted by an indigent person or a suit instituted in forma pauperis.

Legal Provisions

Legal provision for the institution of suits by an indigent person has been provided under Order 33 of the Code of Civil Procedure. This order consists of 18 rules that provide details on procedure, such as how permission for filing a suit by an indigent person may be obtained, if such permission has been obtained by misrepresentation, how it is to be withdrawn, and how the pleader is to be appointed to represent the indigent person’s case after it’s filed.

Who is an Indigent Person?

A person is an indigent person if he does not have sufficient means to pay the fee prescribed by law for such a suit. Here it is clear that a person may have means for his livelihood that consist of property that is exempt from attachment in the execution of a decree and the subject-matter of the suit. So apart from the subject matter of the suit and such other property that cannot be attached in execution of a court decree, an indigent person does not have other property or means to pay for the prescribed court fees.

However, there may be a case where no such fee is prescribed. In that case, a person is said to be an indigent person if he is not entitled to property worth one thousand rupees other than the property exempt from attachment in execution of a decree and the subject-matter of the suit.

Moreover, any property that is acquired by a person after the filing of the application for permission to sue as an indigent person and before the decision on the application shall be taken into account in deciding whether the applicant is an indigent person or not.

Furthermore, if a suit is filed by the plaintiff in a representative capacity, the question whether he is an indigent person shall be determined with reference to the means possessed by him in such a capacity.

Therefore, a person shall be deemed to be an indigent person if he does have means exceeding one thousand rupees in value. However, if such a person has property worth more than a thousand rupees, it is insufficient to pay the fees prescribed by law. Without any doubt, property that is either the subject matter of a dispute or that is exempt from attachment in execution of a decree shall not be considered to be property in his possession for the purpose of determining his status as an indigent person.

Who is Included in “Person”?

The word “person” mentioned in Order 33 of the Code of Civil Procedure shall include both a natural person as well as a legal person such as a company or a body corporate. Therefore, a company can also maintain an application under Order 33 Rule 1, seeking permission to file a suit as an indigent person.

What property should not be considered for the determination of an “indigent person”?

For the purpose of determining a person as an “indigent person,” the property that is exempt from attachment and the subject of the suit are not to be taken into consideration.

Inquiry into the Means of an Indigent Person

On an application seeking permission to sue as an indigent person filed by the plaintiff, a details inquiry is to be conducted by the executive magistrate (SDM) of his local area to verify details of the property of the indigent person. And a report is prepared mentioning the details of the plaintiff’s property. On the basis of this report, the court may decide whether the applicant is a suitable person to be permitted to file a suit as an indigent person. Rule 1A of Order 33 of the Code of Civil Procedure provides that every inquiry regarding the indigence of the person shall be made by the chief ministerial officer of the Court unless the Court otherwise directs, and the Court may adopt the report of such an officer as its own finding or may itself make an inquiry into the question.

Examination of the Applicant

The court may examine the applicant regarding the merits of the claim and the property of the applicant to verify the details of the property and his claim given in the application seeking permission to sue as an indigent person.

Giving an Opportunity to Participate in an Inquiry

The provisions of Rule 6 of Order 33 are intended to give the opposite party (defendant) an opportunity to participate in the inquiry into indigent status and adduce evidence to establish that the applicant is not a pauper.

Procedure if Permission Granted

When permission to sue as an indigent person is granted to the plaintiff, his suit shall be numbered and registered, and the suit shall be proceeded with like an ordinary suit, except that the plaintiff shall not be liable to pay any court fee.

Withdrawal of Permission to Sue as an Indigent Person

The plaintiff’s right to sue as an indigent may be revoked by the court on the defendant’s application; however, the plaintiff has to be given an opportunity to be heard. The plaintiff’s permission to sue as an indigent person may be withdrawn on any of the following grounds −

That the plaintiff is guilty of vexatious or improper conduct in the course of the suit;

That he has sufficient means to pay the court fees.

That the plaintiff has entered into an arrangement with any other person to finance the litigation, and thereafter he will be given a share of the property under dispute. The person financing the litigation has sufficient means to pay court fees.

Assignment of a Pleader to the Indigent

The court may assign a pleader to the indigent person who has not been represented by a pleader before the court after filing a suit under the provision of Order 33 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

Legal Representative for Indigent Person

When an applicant who has filed a suit as an indigent person dies, his legal representatives are not entitled to continue the suit as an indigent person. The right to sue as an indigent person is a personal right. Therefore, the entire proceedings come to an end and lapse the moment the applicant dies.

Realization of Court Fees

The exemption from filing the court fee at the time of institution of the civil suit, as granted to the indigent person under Order 33 of the CPC, is applicable till the suit is finally disposed of. However, where an indigent person succeeds in a suit, he shall be required to deposit the court fee out of the property he received as an outcome of the suit. The court shall make appropriate directions in the decree itself. The state government is empowered by law to recover court fees from the indigent person as per the directions in the decree. Where an indigent person fails in the suit, no court fees shall be paid by him.

Conclusion Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Who is an indigent person?

Ans. An indigent person is someone who does not have enough money to pay the court fee for the suit he filed for his claim. However, a person’s capacity is to be assessed based on his property and means of earning, which he possessed in addition to the suit property in dispute and property that cannot be attached in the execution of a decree.

Q2. What property shall be taken into consideration while deciding the indigence of a person?

Ans. The property that is taken into account for deciding the indigence of a person must be possessed by him in addition to the suit property, and it should be such a property that cannot be attached in execution of a court decree.

Q3. Under what provision can a suit as an indigent person be filed?

Ans. The provisions for filing suit as an indigent person are provided under Order 33, Rules 1 to 18.

Q4. What is the effect of a suit filed by an indigent person?

Ans. If a suit is filed by the plaintiff as an indigent person and the appropriate permission is granted by the court in his such suit, he is not required to pay court fees for his suit, and the court fees in his suit are exempt.

What Is Financial Management? Its Nature, Scope And Significance

blog / Finance What is Financial Management? Its Nature, Scope and Significance

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Finance is one of the crucial prerequisites to starting any business. Further, a sufficient corpus of funds and efficient financial management is required throughout a business’s lifetime and even when a company is sold or wound up. Therefore, funds need to be managed, regulated as per procedures, and monitored at every step of the business lifecycle.

Any business that manages its finances better experiences exponential growth, and businesses that mismanage their financial resources and activities usually undergo losses or make lower profits. Let’s delve deeper into the world of financial management.

What is Financial Management?

In simple terms, financial management is the business function that deals with investing the available financial resources in a way that greater business success and return-on-investment (ROI) are achieved. Financial management professionals plan, organize and control all transactions in a business. They focus on sourcing the capital whether it is from the initial investment by the entrepreneur, debt financing, venture funding, public issue, or any other sources. Financial management professionals are also responsible for fund allocation in an optimized way to ensure greater financial stability and growth for the organization.

Importance of Financial Management

The financial management of an organization determines the objectives, formulates the policies, lays out the procedures, implements the programs, and allocates the budgets related to all financial activities of a business. Through a streamlined financial management practice, it is possible to ensure that there are sufficient funds available for the company at any stage of its operations. The importance of financial management can be assessed by taking a look at its core mandate:

Availability of sufficient funds

Maintaining a balance between income and expenses to ensure financial stability

Ensuring efficient and high ROI

Creating and executing business growth and expansion plans

Safeguarding the organization against market uncertainties through ensuring buffer funds

Let’s take a deeper look at the scope of financial management to gain a greater understanding of its importance.

Financial Management Scope

Financial management in a company is governed by the principle that it must protect the financial interests of the investors, shareholders, and ensure business growth. Apart from securing their interests, financial managers are also expected to ensure greater ROI that generates more wealth for all shareholders. There are certain objectives of financial management which are universally accepted by experts and business leaders, and these clearly outline the financial management scope and functions.

Objectives of Financial Management

Certain specific and highly impactful objectives that financial managers aim to attain are:

Assessing Capital Needs

Financial managers need to evaluate factors such as cost of current and fixed assets, cost of marketing, need for buffer capital, long-term operation, human resources cost, etc. Successful businesses have clearly defined short-term and long-term financial requirement projections in place.

Determination of Capital Structure

A company’s capital structure is the framework that determines decisions such as debt-equity ratio in the short as well as long term.

Creation of Effective Financial Policies

There is a need to frame efficient financial policies that govern cash control, the lending and borrowing processes, and so on.

Resource Optimization

Great financial managers are able to navigate through different scenarios by making optimum use of the available financial resources. This would reduce the cash burn and increase the cash churn to generate maximum ROI.

Functions of Financial Managers and Advisors Fundraising

For any business to grow confidently and have a good market reputation, an adequate amount of cash and liquidity is critical. Therefore, businesses raise funds by equity or debt financing. Financial managers take decisions on maintaining a healthy balance between debt and equity to ensure that the company’s financial health is not impacted.

Fund Allocation

Smart fund allocation is as critical to a business’s financial health as fund-raising itself. The funds that a company has must be allocated in the best way possible after due diligence on:

Business size and growth potential

Whether the assets are short-term or long-term before spending on them

Mode of fundraising

Profit Planning

Unless it is a social organization, earning more profits would be among any business’s primary goals. The profits a company makes determine its financial health and future growth. Therefore, adequate usage of the money generated as profit is needed. Whether they have to be plowed back to acquire assets and expand coverage, or to be spent on marketing, acquiring other businesses, or invested to act as a buffer resource, all these considerations are made by financial leaders.

Understanding Capital Markets

A company’s shares are publicly traded on stock exchanges, and the transactions as well as the change in a listed company’s market capitalization is a constant phenomenon. Good financial managers have to be well-versed with the capital market dynamics, and the risks associated. Whether dividends are to be given to the shareholders when the business generates profits or is reinvested into the business, is one of the crucial decisions that can impact shareholders’ sentiments and the company’s goodwill.

Career Opportunities in Financial Management

Since financial management is integral to any business, and there are huge opportunities in the financial sector verticals such as accounting, banking, insurance and other financial companies, there are various career options available in the field. We’ve curated a few lucrative opportunities in financial management for you:

Corporate Finance Roles

Corporate finance is one of the financial roles pertaining to raising funds for business operations. Corporate finance professionals have to manage funding sources, investment decisions, and capital restructuring while focusing on the following parameters.

Striking a balance between risk and profitability

Analyzing and forecasting economic trends in the industry

Analyzing the company’s reports and making improvement-related suggestions

Enhancing the value of stock

Fund management through the selection of investment portfolios

Focusing on actions that mitigate financial risks for the company

Investment Banking Roles

One of the most rewarding and reputed careers in the finance sector is in the field of investment banking. Investment banking professionals handle the financial restructuring of companies and they use data and technologies to generate insights and make impactful financial decisions. Investment banking requires a good understanding and a passion for financial markets and economic trends. Trading and stockbroking, and asset management roles are also a part of this segment. While stockbrokers make stock market transactions on behalf of their clients, asset management companies determine the investment portfolios over longer periods and diversify client investments with an aim to mitigate risk and deliver superior ROI.

A diploma in banking and finance or a financial risk management course would be an ideal value addition for job seekers in this segment.

Portfolio Management Risk Management

Financial Risk Manager

Enterprise Risk Manager

Supply Chain Risk Manager

Operational Risk Manager

Digital Risk Manager

A financial risk management course would be a perfect value addition to an accounting qualification or an MBA degree.

Financial Planning

Financial planners are in high demand these days. Individuals, as well as companies, are availing of the services of financial planners to optimize their investments and savings, to ensure future financial safety. Financial planners need to be experts in analyzing financial statements, income flows, and expenses and creating customized solutions that match a client’s needs. There are various segments of financial planning such as wealth management, tax planning, retirement planning, investments, etc. The aspirants can work as self-employed financial planners, launch a financial planning startup or work in businesses such as Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPOs), NBFCs, Asset Management Companies (AMCs), or wealth management and financial services companies.

A master’s degree in finance or PGDM Finance along with an MBA would make a person a good hire in this arena.

Commercial Banking Sector

Banks are a key enabler of financial support to individuals as well as businesses. From maintaining savings and current accounts, debit, and credit cards, to offering personal, home, education, or business loans, the banks are a key to everyone’s financial journey. The banking jobs are respected, and offer good salaries and fixed working hours. Nowadays, having technological expertise alongside an MBA degree can make a person highly employable in this arena.

Compliance and Internal Financial Management

Companies also employ managers and financial administrators to handle various procedures and regulations such as law adherence, ethical operations, compliance with industry standards, and reputation management, etc.

These roles are best suited for people with college degrees in accounting and law. By adding a sector-specific qualification such as a diploma in financial accounting, one can grab attractive internships or job opportunities in this arena.

Explore Learning Options in Financial Management

Today, we are living in a world where hybrid educational models combining online, as well as on-campus learning options, are available in all fields including financial management. Emeritus offers numerous options in general as well as area-specific financial management specializations.

There is an extensive range of financial management, analytics, and other learning opportunities from Emeritus that can give a jump start to a career in the financial sector. Alternatively, for those already working in this field, these courses offer a significant value addition that would lead to career growth, taking up leadership roles, or helping launch the dream business that will transform the financial industry of the future.

15 Must Have Linux Applications

An operating system is of no value whatsoever without needed applications to get things done on a day to day basis. And even though this sounds obvious, it’s something that is on the minds of many new Linux converts.

Will they be able to relinquish control over their tired, older legacy apps on the Windows desktops? While finding usable, Linux compatible alternatives?

In this article, I’ll share fifteen software titles I use frequently — often everyday. These are applications that quite literally make using the Linux desktop a real pleasure.

1) LibreOffice – Long before LibreOffice even existed, I was a big fan of OpenOffice. So my history with the software suite predates many folks as I’ve been a full time user of OpenOffice since day one.

Today however, LibreOffice is the preferred option for distributions looking to offer a cutting edge, dependable office suite to their users. My most commonly used applications within the LibreOffice suite are Writer and Calc. I use Writer because it’s stable, provides me with strong control over my word processing documents and the options of installing extensions, and only further increases the software’s functionality in my eyes.

2) Evince – An application that doesn’t always make it into everyone’s list, Evince is a PDF viewer that is fast and stable. In my humble opinion, I’ve found Evince to be a preferred alternative to Adobe’s PDF viewer for Linux. It may have less options, but Evince makes up for it with speed and stability. Best of all, it comes pre-installed with many desktop Linux distributions these days.

3) gscan2pdf – Thanks to the SANE backend that comes with modern Linux distributions, scanning a document is usually as simple as connecting a scanner and selecting Simple Scan. And while it’s a good application for scanning images, even supporting export to PDF, it’s a pretty basic tool.

By contrast, gscan2pdf offers greater functionality, a better UI and of course, even supports network document scanners. In an enterprise environment, you’re going to want to have access to gscan2pdf’s capabilities. Another benefit to using gscan2pdf, is that it generally performs better, and works with greater stability for higher resolution scans.

4) Self Control – When you’re on your PC, distractions are something you have to contend with. And usually, I am able to make the most out of my work time. But every once in awhile, like during big events that I might be tracking, I can get distracted. This is why I use an application called Self Control. It allows me to easily block specific websites, for a set amount of time. Best of all, once activated, it’s very difficult to undo. So you won’t be temped to simply turn off the app, should you wish to stop working and visit those time-wasting websites.

5) Kazam – Perhaps not an application that is going to be used by everyone out there reading this, but for me, it’s a must-have. I have used a variety of screen capturing programs over the years on the Linux desktop. Without exception, nearly all of them were unusable. Worse, they offered poor results and left my recorded video looking over-compressed and grainy. Kazam is fantastic! It works well with most Linux audio connections, plus the video can be saved as WebM or MP4. Coming full circle, back to the audio connections, I love that it can actually record from two separate audio devices at the same time.

6) VLC – Whether I need a video player to view my own screen captures or perhaps instead I’m catching up on my favorite video podcasts, VLC is always my first video player of choice. This cross platform player plays practically anything, without needing to worry about which codecs are installed on your Linux distro. Everything that’s needed is already included with the VLC application. It’s also worth mentioning that VLC will also play DVDs, without any extra configuration. With this functionality, VLC saves me time and is hassle free. I know that any media file I throw at it will likely be played without missing a beat.

7) guvcview – Cheese, the photobooth app provided in many distributions, is garbage in its current state. The concept, layout and filters are pretty neat. But sadly, the application is a buggy, crashing, software mishap. Thankfully, there is still a solid solution for those of us using the UVC (Universal Video Class) powered webcams under the Linux desktop. Appropriately called guvcview, this software will provide you with much of the same photobooth functionality found in Cheese. The difference being, it won’t crash or over-tax your CPU in the process of running. This software is capable of capturing still images and video recordings. You can even save your captures in a wide rage of file formats and codecs.

8) Pithos – Regardless of where you happen to work from, I believe that music can often help to avoid distractions. But one of the problems of managing an MP3 playlist, is that it can become a distraction in and of itself. Therefore, the next logical step might be to look to services like Pandora. The best way to enjoy Pandora on the Linux desktop in my opinion is through an application called Pithos.

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