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In this tutorial, we will write a go language program to remove the last given number of items from an array. We can do this by either using the inbuilt functions in go or using for loops. The first method is more efficient in functionality than the second one but we will discuss both these methods in this program.

Method 1: Remove the Last given Number of Items from an Array of Integers using Append()

In this method, we will write a go language program to remove the last given number of items from an array by using the append() library function. This code runs in linear time i.e, the time complexity of this method is O(n).

Syntax func make ([] type, size, capacity)

The make function in go language is used to create an array/map it accepts the type of variable to be created, its size and capacity as arguments

func append(slice, element_1, element_2…, element_N) []T

The append function is used to add values to an array slice. It takes number of arguments. The first argument is the array to which we wish to add the values followed by the values to add. The function then returns the final slice of array containing all the values.

Algorithm

Step 1 − First, we need to import the fmt package.

Step 2 − Then, create a function to remove the elements from a given index. This function accepts the array as an argument and returns the final array.

Step 3 − Now, we need to start the main() function.

Step 4 − Here, initialize an array of integers using make() function and append values to the array. Further, print the array on the screen.

Step 5 − Store the index in a variable after which the elements should be deleted. Store the element present at that index in a variable.

Step 6 − Now, call the delLastElem() function by passing the array and the index as argument to the function and storing the array obtained.

Step 7 − Print the final array on the screen.

Example

Golang program to remove the last given number of items from an array of integers using internal functions

package main import "fmt" func delLastElem(array []int, index int) []int { return append(array[:index]) } func main() { array := make([]int, 0, 5) array = append(array, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) fmt.Println("The given array is:", array) var index int = 2 elem := array[index] result := delLastElem(array, index) fmt.Println() fmt.Println("The provided index is:", index) fmt.Println("Array obtained after deleting elements after ", elem, "is:n", result) } Output The given array is: [1 2 3 4 5] The provided index is: 2 Array obtained after deleting elements after 3 is: [1 2] Method 2: GoLang Program to Remove the Last given Elements from an Array in Main Function

In this method, we will write a go language program to remove the last given elements from an array in the main() section of the program.

Algorithm

Step 1 − First, we need to import the fmt package.

Step 2 − Now, we need to start the main() function.

Step 3 − Here, initialize an array of integers using make() function and append values to the array. Further, print the array on the screen by using fmt.Println() function.

Step 4 − Store the index in a variable after which the elements should be deleted. Store the element present at that index in a variable.

Step 5 − Now, to re-slice the array use the : operator and store values present before the provided index in a variable.

Step 6 − Further, print the final array on the screen.

Example

Golang program to remove the last given elements from an array

package main import "fmt" func main() { array := make([]int, 0, 5) array = append(array, 11, 20, 13, 44, 56) fmt.Println("The given array is:", array) var index int = 2 elem := array[index] result := array[:index] fmt.Println() fmt.Println("The provided index is:", index) fmt.Println("Array obtained after deleting elements after", elem, "is:n", result) } Output The given array is: [11 20 13 44 56] The provided index is: 2 Array obtained after deleting elements after 13 is: [11 20] Method 3: Remove the Last given Number of Items from an Array using For Loop

In this method, we will use for loop to remove the values after a particular index from the last in go programming language. Since we are using for loops so the time complexity of this method will be O(n2).

Algorithm

Step 1 − First, we need to import the fmt package.

Step 2 − Now, we need to start the main() function.

Step 3 − Here, initialize an array of integers using make() function and append values to the array. further print the array on the screen.

Step 4 − Store the index and value at that index in a variable after which the elements should be deleted.

Step 5 − Now, use for loop to iterate over the array and store the elements present in places before the index in the new array.

Step 6 − Further, print the final array on the screen.

Example

Golang program to remove the last given number of items from an array of integers using for loop

package main import "fmt" func main() { array := make([]int, 0, 8) var result []int array = append(array, 11, 20, 13, 44, 56, 96, 54, 97) fmt.Println("The given array is:", array) var index int = 3 for i := 0; i < len(array); i++ { if i < index { result = append(result, array[i]) } } elem := array[index] fmt.Println() fmt.Println("The provided index is:", index) fmt.Println("Array obtained after deleting elements after", elem, "is:n", result) } Output The given array is: [11 20 13 44 56 96 54 97] The provided index is: 3 Array obtained after deleting elements after 44 is: [11 20 13] Conclusion

We have successfully compiled and executed a go language program to remove the last given number of items in the array along with examples.

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Golang Program To Get The Magnitude Of The Given Number

In this article we will discuss about how to get the magnitude of a number in Go language.

Magnitude of a quantity is defined as its numeric value. Magnitude of a number is always positive. In this article we will discuss about different methods by which we can obtain the magnitude of any number.

Syntax func Abs(number float64) float64

Abs() is a method defined in math library. This method accepts a 64 bit float number as an argument and return the absolute value of it excluding the sign.

The source code to the above stated problem is compiled and executed below.

Example 1

The simplest way to obtain the magnitude of any integer in go language is by using a library function Abs(). This function returns the absolute value of an integer.

Algorithm

Step 1 − Import the package fmt.

Step 2 − start the main function().

Step 3 − Initialize a variable of data type int and store value in it.

Step 4 − call the abs() function defined in math package and store the result.

Step 5 − print the results on the screen.

Example

package

main

import

(

“fmt”

“math”

)

func

main

(

)

{

var

number float64

=

3.8

result

:

=

math

.

Abs

(

number

)

fmt

.

Println

(

“Magnitude of:”

,

number

,

“is “

,

result

)

}

Output

Magnitude of: -3.8 is 3.8

Description of the Code

First, we import the package fmt that allows us to print anything and math package to use Abs() method.

Then we call the main() function.

Now we need to get the number whose magnitude we wish to calculate.

Pass this number in Abs() method defined in math package and store the result in a separate variable.

Abs() is a method defined in math package that takes a float number as an argument and returns the numeric value of the number (excluding the sign).

Print the results on the screen using fmt.Println() function.

Example 2

Now there is one more way by which we can obtain the magnitude of a number. This method includes creating our own logic to implement the result.

Algorithm

Step 1 − Import the package fmt.

Step 2 − start the main function().

Step 3 − Initialize a variable and store values in it.

Step 4 − Implement the logic and store the result.

Step 5 − print the results on the screen.

Example

The source code for that is compiled and executed below.

import

(

“fmt”

“math”

)

func magnitude

(

number float64

)

float64

{

var

temp float64

temp

=

math

.

Pow

(

number

,

2

)

result

:

=

math

.

Pow

(

temp

,

0.5

)

return

result

}

func

main

(

)

{

var

number float64

number

=

8.9

result

:

=

magnitude

(

number

)

fmt

.

Println

(

“Magnitude of:”

,

number

,

“is “

,

result

)

}

Output Magnitude of: -3.8 is 3.8 Description of the Code

First, we import the package fmt that allows us to print anything and math package to use Pow() method defined in the math package.

Then we create and define the magnitude() function which will contain our logic to find the magnitude of the number.

Then we call the main() function.

Now we need to get the number whose magnitude we wish to calculate.

Call the magnitude function by passing the number in it as an argument.

To find the magnitude we are using the standard mathematical definition of magnitude which says magnitude of a number is the root of its square.

To find the square of a number in golang we are using math.Pow() method. This method takes two arguments one is the number whose power we need to raise and second is the number of times we want to raise the power for example: to find the square of a number using this function the code will be math.Pow(number, 2).

Once the square is calculated we need to store the result to a variable which in our case is temp and use the similar approach to find the root of the function. To find the root of a number using math.Pow() method in golang the code will be math.Pow(number, 0.5).

Once we have achieved the magnitude we need to return this value back.

We have then stored the final result in the result variable.

Then we print the results on the screen using fmt.Println() function.

Conclusion

We have successfully compiled and executed the Go language program that will get us the magnitude of any number along with examples using both library and user defined functions.

Golang Program To Get The First Item From The Array

In this tutorial, we will write a go language program to get the first item from an array. An array is a data structure that is used to store elements in contiguous memory locations. Here, we will write two programs to store the first element in the array. In the first program, we will use the concept of indexing and in the second we will use the for loops to get the required result.

Method 1: Get the First Item from the Array using Append() Function

In this method, we will write a golang program to get the first element from the array of integers in the main() function of the program. To achieve the result here the concept of indexing arrays is used.

Syntax func make ([] type, size, capacity)

The make function in go language is used to create an array/map it accepts the type of variable to be created, its size, and capacity as arguments

func append(slice, element_1, element_2…, element_N) []T

The append function is used to add values to an array slice. It takes a number of arguments. The first argument is the array to which we wish to add the values followed by the values to add. The function then returns the final slice of an array containing all the values.

Algorithm

Step 1 − First, we need to import the fmt package.

Step 2 − Now, we need to start the main() function.

Step 3 − Here, initialize an array of integers using make() function and append values to the array. Further, print the array on the screen by using fmt.Println() function.

Step 4 − Store the index of the first element in a variable that should be printed. Store the element present at that index in a variable using name_of_array[index].

Step 5 − Further, print the value present in that variable containing the first array element on the screen.

Example

Golang program to get the first item from the array of integers in the main() function.

package main import "fmt" func main() { array := make([]int, 0, 8) array = append(array, 11, 20, 13, 44, 56, 96, 54, 97) fmt.Println("The given array is:", array) var index int = 0 elem := array[index] fmt.Println() fmt.Println("The element present in the first location of array is:", elem) } Output The given array is: [11 20 13 44 56 96 54 97] The element present in the first location of array is: 11 Method 2: Get the First Element from the Array using For Loop

In this method, we will write a go language program to get the first element from the array using for loops in the main() section of the program.

Syntax func make ([] type, size, capacity)

The make function in go language is used to create an array/map it accepts the type of variable to be created, its size, and capacity as arguments.

func append(slice, element_1, element_2…, element_N) []T

The append function is used to add values to an array slice. It takes a number of arguments. The first argument is the array to which we wish to add the values followed by the values to add. The function then returns the final slice of an array containing all the values.

Algorithm

Step 1 − First, we need to import the fmt package.

Step 2 − Now, we need to start the main() function.

Step 3 − Here, initialize an array of integers using make() function and append values to the array. Further, print the array on the screen

Step 4 − Store the index of first element in a variable that should be printed.

Step 5 − Now, use for loop to iterate over the array and ignore the iteration values greater than index else store the element in a new variable called result.

Step 6 − Further, print the final result on the screen.

Example

Golang program to get the first element from the array using for loop.

package main import "fmt" func main() { var result int array := make([]int, 0, 8) array = append(array, 11, 20, 13, 44, 56, 96, 54, 97) fmt.Println("The given array is:", array) var index int = 0 for i := 0; i < len(array); i++ { continue } else { result = array[i] } } fmt.Println() fmt.Println("The element present in the first location of array is:", result) } Output The given array is: [11 20 13 44 56 96 54 97] The element present in the first location of array is: 11 Conclusion

We have successfully compiled and executed a go language program to get the first item from the array along with examples. We have used two functions for this. The first program runs in constant time that is the time complexity of that program is O(1) whereas the time complexity of the second program is O(n2).

How To Get The Number Of Seconds Between Two Dates In Javascript?

In this tutorial, we will learn how to get the number of seconds between two dates with JavaScript.

There are different methods for checking the number of days, hours, and seconds that are commonly used to provide information related to data. Since you can’t manually change the count of the years and months, we follow some simple tricks to get the number in JavaScript.

Using the Date getTime() Method

In JavaScript, we use different methods to calculate the days, hours, and seconds. Most popular way to calculate the time is .getTime(). However, you will get the result in milliseconds and have to convert it into seconds through division.

Syntax var x = new Date("Aug 12, 2023 19:45:25"); var y = new Date("Aug 14, 2023 19:45:25"); let seconds = Math.abs(x.getTime() - y.getTime())/1000;

Here x and y are two dates. We will use the getTime() to get the times in milliseconds of both dates. We take the absolute difference between the two times in milliseconds. Then, after subtracting the time in milliseconds, we will divide it by 1000.

Algorithm

STEP 1 − Create two dates using the new Date(). You can refer to the example for the format of a date.

STEP 2 − Use the .getTime() method to get the time in milliseconds of both dates.

STEP 3 − Subtract the old date from the recent date. Then, divide the output by 1000 to get the difference in seconds.

STEP 4 − Use the innerHTML method to check the number of seconds difference between the two dates

Example 1

We have created both the dates manually using the new Date(). You can also use different methods to generate the date in JavaScript.

var

t1

=

new

Date

(

“Aug 12, 2023 19:45:25”

)

;

var

t2

=

new

Date

(

“Aug 14, 2023 19:45:25”

)

;

var

dif

=

Math

.

abs

(

t1

.

getTime

(

)

t2

.

getTime

(

)

)

/

1000

;

document

.

getElementById

(

‘date1’

)

.

innerHTML

=

“First date: “

+

t1

;

document

.

getElementById

(

‘date2’

)

.

innerHTML

=

“Second date: “

+

t2

;

document

.

getElementById

(

‘seconds’

)

.

innerHTML

+=

dif

+

” seconds”

;

Using the Math.abs() Method

Math.abs() is a method used to round the numbers to the nearest answer to avoid getting floating numbers. Hence, you can also use Math.round() method instead of Math.abs(). You can get the time difference using this method in milliseconds. The time can be converted in seconds by dividing the output by 1000.

Syntax

We will use the following syntax to get the time in milliseconds and convert it into seconds through the division method

let x = new Date(); let y = new Date(); let dif = Math.abs(x - y) / 1000;

Here, we find the number of seconds between two dates – x and y. We take the absolute difference between these two dates using the Math.abs() method. This difference is in milliseconds, so we divide by 1000 to convert it into seconds.

Example 2

In this example, there are more than 31 days of difference in both the dates. We kept the dates similar so that the output could also be checked in seconds manually.

let

date1

=

new

Date

(

“Nov 25 2023 07:24:35”

)

;

let

date2

=

new

Date

(

)

;

var

dif

=

Math

.

abs

(

date1

date2

)

/

1000

;

document

.

getElementById

(

‘date1’

)

.

innerHTML

=

“First date: “

+

date1

;

document

.

getElementById

(

‘date2’

)

.

innerHTML

=

“Second date: “

+

date2

;

document

.

getElementById

(

‘seconds’

)

.

innerHTML

+=

dif

;

The methods like .getTime() and Math.abs() are commonly used in JavaScript. You can alternatively use the Math.round() method to get similar output.

Have a look at the below example.

Example 3

let

date1

=

new

Date

(

“Nov 25 2023 07:24:35”

)

;

let

date2

=

new

Date

(

)

;

var

dif

=

Math

.

round

(

date1

date2

)

/

1000

;

document

.

getElementById

(

‘date1’

)

.

innerHTML

=

“First date: “

+

date1

;

document

.

getElementById

(

‘date2’

)

.

innerHTML

=

“Second date: “

+

date2

;

document

.

getElementById

(

‘seconds’

)

.

innerHTML

+=

dif

;

While getting the answers, you should ensure the time is converted in seconds because the output can also be in minutes or milliseconds. Hence, you can check the examples above to understand the best way to get the output in seconds.

Golang Program To Create An Enum Class

An enum combines related constants into a single type. Enums are a strong feature with many applications. However, compared to the majority of other programming languages, they are implemented very differently in Go. In this article, we’ll see how to use a predeclared identifiable iota to implement enums in Golang.

IOTA − Iota is an identifier that is used with constants and can make auto-increment number-based constant definitions simpler. The keyword “iota” stands for an integer constant that begins at zero.

Implementing Iota package main import "fmt" const ( c0 = iota + 1 c1 c2 ) func main() { fmt.Println(c0, c1, c2) } Output 1 2 3 Creating an Enum for Weekdays Algorithm

Step 1 − Import the fmt package that allows us to print anything on the screen.

Step 2 − create a new data type as Weekday to store the integer types for weekdays.

Step 3 − Declare related constants for each weekday starting with index 1.

Step 4 − Create a function to get the weekday as a string from the integer values provided.

Step 5 − creating a function to get the index of the enum.

Step 6 − calling the main() function.

Step 7 − initializing a Weekday type and storing a day in it.

Step 8 − print the corresponding weekday and index by calling the getWeekday() and getIndex() function respectively.

Example

In the following example, we are creating enum for weekdays.

package main import "fmt" type Weekday int const ( Sunday Weekday = iota + 1 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday ) func (w Weekday) getWeekday() string{ return [...]string{"Sunday", "Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday", "Saturday"} [w-1] } func (w Weekday) getIndex() int { return int(w) } func main() { var weekday = Sunday fmt.Println(weekday) fmt.Println(weekday.getWeekday()) fmt.Println(weekday.getIndex()) } Output 1 Sunday 1 Creating an Enum for Direction Algorithm

STEP 1 − Import the fmt package that allows us to print anything.

STEP 2 − Create a new type Direction to store the integer types for direction starting from 1-7

STEP 3 − Declare constants for each direction as Direction and index the set of constants with iota. Note that the first direction i.e north is indexed as iota + 1 i.e 1 and the following directions will get the index as auto incremented values.

STEP 4 − Now we need to create functions to the Direction type. The first function returns the direction as the string and we have named this function as getDirection(). While the other function returns the integer value of enum index and we have named this function as getIndex().

STEP 5 − Now call the main() function this is the main starting point of the program from where the program gets executed.

STEP 6 − Creating a new variable of Direction type and storing one of the direction as value to it.

STEP 7 − Now we can print the direction as well as enum index corresponding to that direction by calling the getDirection() and getIndex() function respectively.

STEP 8 − Print the result returned by this function on the screen by using fmt.Println() function.

Example

In the following example we are creating an enum for direction

package main import "fmt" type Direction int const ( North Direction = iota + 1 East South West ) func (d Direction) getDirection() string { return [...]string{"North", "East", "South", "West"}[d-1] } func (d Direction) getIndex() int { return int(d) } func main() { var d Direction = West fmt.Println(d) fmt.Println(d.getDirection()) fmt.Println(d.getIndex()) } Output 4 West 4 Conclusion

We have successfully compiled and executed a golang program to create an enum class along with examples. we have created various functions to implement the logic of creating the enum class.

Golang Program To Print First Letter Of Each Word Using Regex

A string of characters known as a regular expression (regex or regexp) creates a search pattern. Regular expressions are frequently employed to carry out string matching, sometimes known as “find and replace,” or pattern matching with strings. Input validation, parsing, and other tasks are also possible with them. Regular expressions use special characters and metacharacters to specify the pattern to be matched, and their syntax differs widely between computer languages. Let’s see different Golang examples to get a clear view of the concept.

Method 1: Using regex.MustCompile() function

In this example, we will see how to print first letter of each word using regex.MustCompile() chúng tôi program creates a regular expression that matches the initial letter of each word using the regexp library. The input string is searched for every instance of the regular expression that matches it using the FindAllString method, and the resulting slice of strings is reported to the console. Let’s go through the Example: and algorithm to get a clear understanding of the concept.

Syntax regex.MustCompile()

The Go standard library’s regexp package contains a function called MustCompile() that converts a regular expression pattern into a regexp. struct with regex. Then, using functions like FindAllString(), FindString(), and ReplaceAllString, this struct may be used to compare against other strings (). A convenience function, MustCompile() panics if the expression cannot be parsed and wraps the Compile() function.

Algorithm

Step 1 − Create a package main and declare fmt(format package) and regexp package in the program where main produces executable Example:s and fmt helps in formatting input and output.

Step 2 − Create a function main and in that function create a regular expression object that matches the initial letter of each word by using the regexp.MustCompile function.

Step 3 − To discover every instance of the regular expression in the input string, use the FindAllString function on the regular expression object.

Step 4 − Put the FindAllString function’s output in a variable named print_firstletter.

Step 5 − To print the resulting slice of strings to the console, use the fmt.Println method.

Step 6 − This algorithm prints out all words that match the input string’s first letter using regular expressions.

Example package main import ( "fmt" "regexp" ) func main() { mystr := "Hello, alexa!" fmt.Println("The inital value of string is:", mystr) reg := regexp.MustCompile("b[a-zA-Z]") print_firstletter := reg.FindAllString(mystr, -1) fmt.Println("The first letter of each word is:") fmt.Println(print_firstletter) } Output The inital value of string is: Hello, alexa! The first letter of each word is: [] Method 2: Using strings.Field() function

In this method, we use the fields function, the input string is divided into a word-by-word iteration using a for loop. It uses string indexing to print the first letter of each word inside the loop. Let’s go through the Example: and algorithm to see its execution.

Syntax strings.Fields()

The Golang function fields() is used to slice a string into many substrings based on whitespace. All of the substrings of the original text that are separated by whitespace characters are included in the slice that this method returns (spaces, tabs, and newlines). This action does not change the original string.

Algorithm

Step 1 − Create a package main and declare fmt(format package) and strings package in the program where main produces executable Example:s and fmt helps in formatting input and output.

Step 2 − Create a function main and in that function create a string variable that holds the input value named mystr.

Step 3 − Use the strings.Fields() to slice the input string into words and to iterate over the words use a for loop.

Step 4 − Use string indexing within the loop to retrieve the current word’s initial letter.

Step 5 − Print the word’s first letter using the fmt.Println() function where ln means new line.

Step 6 − For each word, follow steps 4-6 once again.

Step 7 − This algorithm loops through the words in the input string and prints the initial letter of each word after each iteration. It is more memory-efficient and does not employ regular expressions.

Example

In this example we will learn how to print first letter of each word using strings.Field() function.

package main import ( "fmt" "strings" ) func main() { mystr := "Hello, alexa!" fmt.Println("The string created here is:", mystr) words := strings.Fields(mystr) fmt.Println("The initial character of the mystr is:") for _, word := range words { fmt.Print(string(word[0])) } } Output The string created here is: Hello, alexa! The initial character of the mystr is: Ha Conclusion

We executed the above program of printing the first character of each word using two examples. In the first example we used regex.MustCompile function and in the second example we used strings.Fields() function. Both the programs give similar output.

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