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Introduction to Perl qw

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The Perl has some default set of operators that are being used for a set of operations to be performed after the script code execution. Likewise, the qw() is the operator and the function which has been used to split the sentence into each string by using some delimiters like single quotes, parentheses, etc. Mainly it returns the array of the elements as the list values.

@array = qw(some sentences based on the users input); Loop used for to iterate the values $variable (@array) { }

The above codes are the basic syntax for utilizing the qw() operators in the script. We can use any set of delimiters while we are passing the inputs to the method.

How does qw function in Perl?

The qw operator in Perl used to split the sentences that the user inputs may be the n number of lines they giving the input to the script. So it’s difficult to perform the operations in the script for storing and retrieving the datas from memory. Using delimiters, we can split the strings in various ways, but the string characters are split and equivalent to the corresponding user input values. The qw is the quote word that is related to the other operators like qq and q.

The user input datas are stored as the elements of the array because the list is the ordered set of collections using scalar type input variables and values, and the arrays are the variables that held to the lists in the Perl codes. We can extract every array element in the string datatype values; it may be out of scope in the list using some delimiters like space, commas, quotes, backslash, forward slash, etc. These are some default delimiters available in the Perl scripts. For each Perl script functions, the operators are assigned to the variable values using some default loops; the values are iterated and displayed on the output screens.

The user input as sometimes list formats the list is the set of sequence scalar values it can be used and delimiters the datas using parenthesis and comma operators. By using these operators, the list is to be constructed and also each value of the list is known as the list elements; these elements are to be some sorting type of ordered with indexed values. These values are to be set and allotted with some storage positions in the memory. Quote function uses the embedded type of whitespaces. If we use non-alphanumeric characters in the strings, we use the q/ and q// operators as delimiters; the list is any type which they have used in the elements.

Each set of list elements are stored at a specific position in the memory list. The range set of operators is performed using these functions not only for the strings; by using the qw; we can avoid the quote marks. We entered the datas less in the list we use a punctuation set of characters as the delimiters in the array variables. Whenever the delimiters used, the opening and closing parenthesis are must be the same in the array elements.

Examples of Perl qw

Here are the following examples mention below

Example #1 #!/usr/bin/perl use warnings; use strict; my @months = qw(Dec Nov Oct Aug July June May Apr Mar Feb Jan); $months[0] = 'June'; @months[1..6] = qw(December November October August July June May April March February January); print("@months","n"); my @var1 = sort @var; print("@var1","n"); my @first = qw(Welcome To My DOmain kdjhv hkdsjbjkfw     qwdkhefj90898 iwidhfkjbdfkdh   qwdjehfkdbj o                                   qhkwdbjfqwljdk    qwhkdbjvjn wqdljkhfjb    qwkjefdb   qwjkdhbf qwkdhfjbdf wqihkewfj 2oiewhlfkj iwqehwfgkjdb eihwfjfb ewihfugejdv  owhefb oiewhkbd  qwdhksjb qiowhew); my @second = sort @first; print("@second","n");


Example #2


#!/usr/bin/perl use warnings; use strict; my @expn=(); @expn = ('12', '763', '127344', '73784','629387867', '23784', '82347', '346c', '73', '387', '83', '8374r', '83', '467', '837', '874', '93897', '3748', '784', '93'); @expn = qw/12 763 127344 73784 629387867 23784 82347 346c 73 387 83 8374r 83 467 837 874 93897 3748 784 93/; my %vars = (); while (my ($keys, $values) = each %vars) { }


Example #3


#!/usr/local/bin/perl use strict; use warnings; my %example = (); %example = qw( 1 718253 6253 welcome To My Domain kjagdsvj j kqwdbvwjkdfd lwjekfjwekjlfwekljf helfkjvwekjfhkwerhrfj kwejf kehgf wekrjg ewkhrjgh ewiiurh erjh 298 98 9028 928 cguh 2983 2763 jqwhevg 728365 28937 wdghe 298376 sdhgc 2837we sjdhg 3847 siudy 23847re6 sdedf 237eyr wdjh 23847r ewuy23  3847 weduf233 384 sjd qiwh 987 kjh 978 kjwqegh 786 ); foreach my $var (sort keys %example) { }


In the above three examples, we used the qw() operator with different scenarios; we can use the operator using some methods like sorting, unsorting, slicing the elements in the both array and list of the script.


In Perl scripts, we used different operators, keywords, variables, and functions to create the applications using text manipulations, data securities, other IT, System-related issues, Web development, and network programming concepts. In that programming concept, this operator is must be concatenated and split the huge datas using some delimiters technique.

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Working Of Localtime() Function In Perl With Examples

Introduction to Perl localtime

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Working of localtime() Function in Perl with Examples

In this article, we will see the Perl time function known as localtime(), which is defined as a function for returning the time elements related to the date and time of the system or program. In Perl, date and time codes usually need a Perl module known as the DateTime module, which contains various combinations of representation of date and time where; this module uses a New Style calendar, which is known as a geographic calendar.

In Perl, to display date and time that has analyzed time of the current time zone which is done by converting the given expression of time into a set of time elements which is an array of time elements and contains at least 9 element in this array which includes the time and date of the current time zone such as second, minute, hour, day, month, year, day of the week, day of the year, isdst.

Now let us see syntax and examples of localtime() function:


Use DateTime; localtime();

In this, if there is no argument passed, then the localtime() function returns the current date and time of the timezone.

or with expression : locatime expr;

In this, we can write expr anything which can display result related to time elements only.

In the above syntax, both can be used where the first one displays the set of time elements having 9 different elements defining the time of time zone. Then the second syntax can display only those time elements which are specified as expression (expr) in the syntax as seen in the above syntax section.

Example #1 #!/usr/local/bin/perl use DateTime; print "Demonstration of localtime() function in Perl"; print "n"; print "n"; print "The use of localtime() function without any arguments "; print "n"; $sys_dt = localtime(); print "The date and time of the system of the timezone which is used is :"; print "n"; print $sys_dt; print "n"; print "The localtime() function to display particular format of date and time"; print "n"; @mon_name = qw( Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec ); @day_name = qw(Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun); ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime(); print "The current day name and month name is: "; print "n"; print "$mday $mon_name[$mon] "; print "$day_name[$wday] ";


In the above program, we can see we have first imported a Perl module for date and time as “use DateTime” so that we can use locatime() inbuilt function of Perl. In the above code, we are declaring a variable that stores the current date and time of the system where we are assigning this variable to store the value of the locatime() function and is displayed using the print command. In this, we have not passed any argument to the function, so it will just print the current day date and the current time in an hour, minutes and seconds along with the current year.

Then we are trying to use the localtime() function to display a particular date and time format, which we specify in print command where in the code we are printing only the current date with day and current month using localtime() function. Therefore we can use this function in both ways. We have written the month and day name in which format we want to display, and these are stored in the variables “mon_name” and “day_name” so that we can display in the same name which is defined here; we can also use full name to display here. The output can be seen in the above screenshot, which displays the system’s current date and time.

Example #2


#!/usr/local/bin/perl use DateTime; print "Demonstration of localtime() fucntion with argument in Perl"; print "n"; print "n"; $cur_dt = localtime(); print "The current date and time is as follows: "; print "n"; print $cur_dt; print "The elapsed time and date can be represented using time() function"; print "n"; $epoc = time(); $epoc = $epoc - 24 * 60 * 60; print "The elapsed time in seconds to display  yesterday's date and time is "; print "n"; print $epoc; print "n"; $cur_dt = localtime($epoc); print "The epoc passed as argument for displayng yesterday's date and time:"; print "n"; print $cur_dt;


In the above code, first, we import the “use DateTime” module for using the localtime() function. In this code, first, we have declared a variable to display the current date and time, which displays the current date and time of the system and then we are using another variable, “$epoc,” in which we are storing the number of seconds that are elapsed until the current day and time using time() function. Therefore we can see we have then passed this $epoc to the localtime() function, which displays yesterday’s date and time. The output for this code can be seen in the above screenshot.


In this article, we conclude that the localtime() function is a time function used to display the date and time of the time zone the system is using. This function returns the set or array of time elements which has 9 different elements of date and time such as hour, minutes, seconds, etc. In the article, we saw a simple example of using localtime() without argument and to display the particular date and time elements and also we saw another example where we are passing the elapsed time to display the elapsed date that is passed as an argument to the localtime() function.

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How Does Unpack Function Work In Perl?

Introduction to Perl unpack

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The unpack is one of the functions that can be converted or transform the binary data type values into the user-defined data type templates with the help of representations that are related to the perl script functions, keywords, and other built-in syntax. The below codes are the basic syntax for creating and using the unpack function in the perl scripts.

#!/usr/bin/perl -w $vars= pack(""); @vars1=unpack("$vars");

—some Perl script logic codes depend upon the requirement—

How does unpack function work in Perl?

Generally, the perl script does not have to access the memory randomly. It has some structure and represents the same with some translators like a pack and unpack() functions. It has some default representations. It can be called a template like that if we use unpack() function; it seems like the opposite process of the pack() function. The binary data with some specific structures has its own reference of each value stored in the memory. So the pack function contains the specific format for listing out the values and packed or converted into the character strings but unpacks takes only the format with the character strings with some breaks to the strings with the specified formats and assigned with the variables in the script.


Let us discuss examples of Perl unpack.

Example #1


#!/usr/bin/perl -w $vars = pack("siva", 7849367); print "Welcome To My Domain $varsn"; $vars = pack( "" ); print "Have a Nice Day $varsn"; $vars = pack( "siva", 6354, "I", 6858 ); print "Welcome User please find your packed values $varsn"; @vars1 = unpack( "siva", "$vars" ); print "Thank You User your first Input user values $vars1[0]n"; print "Thank You User your second Input user values $vars1[1]n"; print "Thank You User your third Input user values $vars1[2]n"; print "Thank You User your first Input user values $vars1[3]n";


In the above example, we used the pack() and unpack() function at the time, and also we can use the variable like $vars. We assigned the value to the specific variable and used the pack and unpack() function based on their needs.

Example #2


#! perl -w use strict; sub exa { shift; } sub demo1 { unpack "i*", shift; } sub demo2 { unpack "V*", shift; } sub demo3 { unpack "I*", shift; } sub demo4 { unpack "a*", shift; } sub demo5 { unpack "b*", shift; } sub demo6 { unpack "c*", shift; } sub demo7 { unpack "d*", shift; } sub demo8 { unpack "h*", shift; } sub demo9 { unpack "l*", shift; } sub demo10 { unpack "n*", shift; } sub finsa{ my $vars= shift; my $vars1 = "Welcome To My DOmain wdejfh bwefvhd gdv gv jgfjw egf wkejg jerfg jewrgf ekjwrhw kjejhrw kjergkw j ehgw ejhrgke jrgf kjergk ejhrgfkw ejhrge jhrgfkweh jrk ehjkw jerhke jh ekhrj hg"; my $vars2 = "983465 ifsdg8 shdfgh he sdjsb khbwdsh 9876asnbd 87 hjg 90 jh999 jhjhj g89 7987987 hjh j j979 8jkhj 9jh egdf gh8888 wgefh w8 hh98878 878 87 7 79 7 778 78 89 9 98 98 98 98 98 9 9 "; if ($vars3 =~ /^$vars2/i) { print "Welcome Usersn"; } else { } } finsa &exa; finsa &demo1; finsa &demo2; finsa &demo3; finsa &demo4; finsa &demo5; finsa &demo6; finsa &demo7; finsa &demo8; finsa &demo9; finsa &demo10;


Example #3


#!/usr/bin/perl -w $vars = pack("B*", 192, 168,42, 76); print "Welcome To My Domain $varsn"; @vars1 = unpack("B*", "welcomen"); print "Array $vars1[0]n";


In the final example, we used the basic pack() and unpack() functions in the ip numbers. Basically, with the help of ‘.” Operator or symbol, we can split the numbers and set it as the system’s ip address.


Finally, we used Perl as default control basic structures, functions, user input, and output operations. These are the concepts that are held through the script for creating the task depending upon the user’s requirement.

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How Python Eval Function Work With Examples

Introduction to Python eval()

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eval(expression, globals=None, locals=None)


Eval() function usually needs 3 parameters, but the 2nd and 3rd parameter terms are optional/not much important than the 1st parameter. The 3 parameters are expression, globals, and locals.

Expression parameter: This is the string that is as parsed and also evaluated as the Python expression.

Globals parameter ( dictionary parameter ): This parameter is a dictionary, and this parameter is also optional. Nothing happens even if we don’t specify this parameter in the eval() function.

Locals parameter ( Mapping Object ): This locals parameter is an object which is mapping… The dict or dictionary of the globals parameter is the best and standard mapping type in the Python Programming Language commonly.

How Python Eval Function Work with Examples

Eval() function/method will returns the value/result after evaluating the expression. eval function works by parsing the string value, and that string value also be evaluated as the python expression.

Example #1

At each and every IF statements, if the IF condition is False, then the interpreter of python goes to the ELSE condition’s statements, and the programming inside of it will be printed/interpreted etc.. all at a time, but the program inside of the ELSE condition is also be interpreted every line one by one.


x = 10 print(eval('x')) print(eval('x+10')) print(eval('x*x')) print(eval('x*x*x')) if(x%2==0): print('X is even number') if(x%2!=0): if(x%3!=0): if(x%5!=0): if(x%7!=0): print(eval('x')) print('is a prime number') else: print ('x is not prime number') else: print('x is not prime number') else: print('x is not prime number') else: print('x is not prime number')


Example #2

Now we enter the try, except concept. These are just like the IF and ELSE condition. If the “try” has correct parameters, then try to run properly and exits from the program, or else the except concept comes into the picture. Try, except concept will be very helpful to handle errors and usage of the eval() function/functions. Statements that are in the try will print the eval() function, which has math functions “square root” and the power of x and y values which are about to declare manually by the user. If the input doesn’t contain any input as needed with the mentioned math functions, the result will be printed, and the loop once again runs and asks again for the input, or else you can just enter and go the except concept. There you will print the ext1 value, and the interpreter breaks out and comes out from the except concept. Then the print statement will print “Now it is Done” like that.


from math import * for lm in range(1, 3): func1 = input("Enter the Math Function which are mentioned below to Evaluate.nFunctions Allowed are: 1. square_root(x) and 2. power(x,y):n") try: print(eval(func1, {'square_root': sqrt, 'power': pow})) except Exception as ex1: print(ex1) break print('Now it is Done')


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How Does Url_For Work In Flask With Examples?

Definition of Flask url_for

Flask url_for is defined as a function that enables developers to build and generate URLs on a Flask application. As a best practice, it is the url_for function that is required to be used, as hard coding the URL in templates and view function of the Flask application tends to utilize more time during modification. If we are using hard coding, and in case we would need to change our URL by inserting another element in the URL, we would have to visit each and every template or form in the code library and make the modifications and will lead to overkill. The url_for function is capable of changing this with just a snap of fingers!

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It is time now for us to look into different syntax that is present to url_for function before we even dive into learning the working of url_for. This will help us map the syntaxes to the working methodology so that the learning is more practical and easier to grasp. So, without much further ado, let us get straight into the syntax!

Creating dynamic URL with no key passed:

Note: We need to make sure that the function name doesn’t carry any argument, else it might lead to an error.

Creating a dynamic URL with a key and corresponding value passed:

Redirect to a URL using Flask (assuming we are passing key and value pair):

How does url_for work in Flask?

In this section let us go through the working of url_for in Flask, but before that, it is very much required to know about the need for building URLs using the reversing function url_for( ). The concept of reversing function is to use meaningful URLs to help users. If the web application is able to create a meaningful URL that consists of inputs from users, users may remember the inputs used and will enhance the return to the same page again. Not only this there are other pointers that we will discuss below which signifies the importance of using a dynamic URL, keeping in mind the inputs of the user, instead of hard coding the URL.

Developers can change the content of the URL in one shot, and there is no dependency on remembering locations to manually change the hard-coded URLs.

The process of reversing is more descriptive than hard coding.

The special characters and Unicode data are efficiently handled in case of using dynamic URLs.

This is the easy way to avoid unexpected behavior of relative paths in browsers by allocating absolute paths to the generated URLs.

In the case of an application placed outside URL root, the url_for( ) function is capable of handling such scenarios.

Now that we have an understanding of why url_for( ) is so widely appreciated, we would need to understand the types of View responses, as one of these responses relates to the work of url_for( ). The big 3 ways of route logic, an act of mapping the URLs to their specific actions, are namely generating a page template, providing a response, and redirecting the user to a specified location. The working of url_for( ) falls under the category of redirecting.

The method of redirecting accepts a string and this string is nothing but the path that the user is directed to. For the same, the routes are referred to by their names and not by their URL patterns. In the process of creating this input for the redirect function, we use url_for( ). The function url_for( ) takes the name of the view function as an input and creates an output of the provided view. With the change of route URLs, there will be no broken links between pages. Now, when a view is registered with the @app.route decorator, the endpoint name is determined and is ready to be stored with the route registration. This stored route registration is then used to find all routes which link to the registration with the name along with the parameters passed and then execute them to reveal the output.

One important thing to be kept in mind is that, in case we have registered 2 different functions under the same name, we are bound to get an AssertionError and for the same, we can take the help of the endpoint variable and specify the needful. With this, we complete the working of the url_for( ) function in terms of URL routing.

It’s now time for us to look at the implementation of url_for in a Flask application!


Now that we have complete knowledge about the implementation of url_for and the working methodology along with a complete view on syntax, in this section, we will try using them in practice so that it is easier to learn them by knowing what the practical output will look like! In the examples, we would look at using test_request_context( ) so that we can realize it on the python shell on what URL the particular command is routed to.

Example #1

Creating dynamic URL with no key passed (Run it on console)

from flask import url_for, Flask appFlask = Flask(__name__) @appFlask.route('/home') def home(): return 'We are in Home Page!' with appFlask.test_request_context(): print(url_for('login'))


Example #2

Creating a dynamic URL with a key and corresponding value passed


from flask import url_for, Flask appFlask = Flask(__name__) def profile(authorname): return f'{authorname}'s profile' with appFlask.test_request_context(): print(url_for('profile', authorname='EduCBA')) print(url_for('profile', authorname='EduCBAPremium'))


Here, we can easily see the distinction when 2 different values are passed using parameters

Example #3


from flask import Flask, redirect, url_for appFlask = Flask(__name__) def accountType(Type): return 'This is a %s account' % Type def userType(name): if name =='premium': return redirect(url_for('accountType',Type = name)) else: return redirect(url_for('accountType',Type = name)) if __name__ == '__main__': = True)


When the type is Premium account type:

When the type is basic account type:


Herewith in this article, we have got an essence of how URL routing happens and what dynamic URL can bring to the table. With this, we encourage our readers to experiment with notes in the article and build an exciting Flask application!

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How Does Laravel Permissions Work With Examples

Introduction to Laravel Permissions

Laravel is one of the most sought after frameworks for E-commerce development. The reason for this popularity being the ease of usage. Laravel allows the developer of the scope of creating complex structures and functionalities using simple and expressive syntax. Laravel is scalable and that is the reason why E-commerce site owners prefer to use it. This gives them a wide range of options to choose from for catering to demanding customers. Laravel is known for its vast library of queries which provide all that is needed for quick development. The framework is also capable of integrating with third-party queries to form standalone systems.

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One such query that makes development easy is Laravel Permissions.

What is Laravel Permission? How does Laravel Permission work?

Through Roles and Permissions, one can create several types of users with different roles and permissions, some users will only have view access, some users can also edit items, some can go ahead and delete. Access is usually provided by the Super Admin.

Example #1

Installing the tool: The migration needs to be run: PHP artisan migrate

1. The HasRole needs to be added to the User Model:

class User extends Authenticatable { use HasRoles; ... }

2. It now has to be loaded into the Tool for the Roles to be displayed:

public function tools() /* defining the function tools */ { return [ new NovaToolPermissions(), ]; }

3. Adding an additional relationship if roles are to be assigned from the User resource:

public function fields(Request $request) { return [ ... BelongsToMany::make('Role', 'role', Role::class), ]; }

4. Since we are using the Nova Tool for permission, the viewNova Gate default can be replaced with Gate():

protected function gate() { }

5. This program comes with default permissions:

"viewNova": "viewRoles": "manageRoles": "assignRoles": "viewUsers": "manageUsers":

6. It is pertinent to know that, routine permission is required for certain sections. This is to ascertain that only the correct authority has access to the sections of the blog or the whole blog.

For example, the policy related to the blog: PHP artisan make: policy BlogPolicy Now the policy needs to be assigned:

class AuthServiceProvider extends ServiceProvider { use ValidatesPermissions; protected $policies = [ ]; public function boot() { collect([ 'viewBlog', 'manageBlog', Gate::define($permission, function ($user) use ($permission) { return true; } }); }); } }

7. Final step. Access control has to be specified in the policy:

use IlluminateSupportFacadesGate; public function viewAny($user) { return Gate::any(['viewBlog', 'manageBlog'], $user); } public function view($user, $post) { return Gate::any(['viewBlog', 'manageBlog'], $user, $post); } public function create($user) { } public function update($user, $post) { } public function delete($user, $post) { } public function restore($user, $post) { } public function forceDelete($user, $post) { }

8. Now add labels:

{ "viewBlog": "View Blog", "manageBlog": "Manage Blog" }


This one is for the Edit Role:

The Role would now need to be assigned.

Example #2

Another quick example:

Install: Install it into the Laravel application which uses Nova through composer. Register the provider in case you have the package discovery disabled. It will be registered in the config/app PHP file as shown below:

NovaPermissionServiceProvider::class, ]

1. Now tool needs to be registered as shown below:

/*defining tools method */ public function tools() { return [ /*…*/ LaravelNovaPermission::make(), ]; }

2. Now, the addition of Morph To Many to the resource as follows:

use LaravelNovaFieldMorphToMany; /*defining method*/ public function field(Request $request) { return [ /* ...*/ MorphToMany::make('Role', 'role', Role::class), MorphToMany::make('Permission', 'permission', Permission::class), ]; }

3. Now, adding class ForgetCachedPermissions to the config/nova.php as follows:

/* config/nova.php */ /*Registering middleware*/ ‘web’, /*adding different classes*/ DispatchServingNovaEvent::class, Authenticate::class, Authorize::class, BootTools::class, ForgetCachedPermissions::class, ],

4. Artisan command line can be used for localization files publishing: vendor: publish. Usage of Custom Role:

/*app/Providers/NovaServiceProvider.php*/ /*defining tools method */ public function tools() { return [ /* ...*/ LaravelNovaPermission::make() ]; }

5. Changing the default Authorization (Policy-based) to Permissions based Authorisation:

/* app/Nova/MyNovaResource.php*/ class MyNovaResource extends Resource { use PermissionsBasedAuthTrait; /* defining array*/ public static $permissionsForAbilities = [ ]; } public static $permissionsForAbilities = [ ];


Here one can create Roles and give access to users as well as to others who would have defined Roles. It is imperative to remember that at the top of the Access control Hierarchy, sits the Super Admin. The Role of the Super Admin is to provide definite access control authorizations for specific responsibilities. Developers need to be careful while creating ACL or Access Control Lists, since a wrong move here may lead to jeopardizing the entire project.

Steps to Provide Laravel Permissions

Another way to provide permissions is:

Step #1

PHP artisan make: seeder PermissionSeeder

Step #2 <?PHP use IlluminateDatabaseSeeder; use SpatiePermissionModelsRole; use SpatiePermissionModelsPermission; class PermissionSeeder extends Seeder { /** * Run the database seeds. * @return void */ public function run() { $roles=[ 'admin', 'accountant', 'user' ]; $permissions=[ ]; foreach ($roles as $role) { } foreach ($authorized_roles as $role) { } } } }

Add role to the Users

Go ahead and refresh the database:

php artisan migrate: fresh –seed


Laravel Permission is important from the perspective of access control. An access control list is a concise set of information authorising users for a certain level of access. Laravel Permissions work on the basis of hierarchy. Developers will be given a higher level of access than front end users.

The administrator of the site will be provided with greater access. The final access rests with the Super Admin. He/she will be the one providing everyone with the Roles and their access limits.

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