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Introduction to Perl unpack

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The unpack is one of the functions that can be converted or transform the binary data type values into the user-defined data type templates with the help of representations that are related to the perl script functions, keywords, and other built-in syntax. The below codes are the basic syntax for creating and using the unpack function in the perl scripts.

#!/usr/bin/perl -w $vars= pack(""); @vars1=unpack("$vars");

—some Perl script logic codes depend upon the requirement—

How does unpack function work in Perl?

Generally, the perl script does not have to access the memory randomly. It has some structure and represents the same with some translators like a pack and unpack() functions. It has some default representations. It can be called a template like that if we use unpack() function; it seems like the opposite process of the pack() function. The binary data with some specific structures has its own reference of each value stored in the memory. So the pack function contains the specific format for listing out the values and packed or converted into the character strings but unpacks takes only the format with the character strings with some breaks to the strings with the specified formats and assigned with the variables in the script.


Let us discuss examples of Perl unpack.

Example #1


#!/usr/bin/perl -w $vars = pack("siva", 7849367); print "Welcome To My Domain $varsn"; $vars = pack( "" ); print "Have a Nice Day $varsn"; $vars = pack( "siva", 6354, "I", 6858 ); print "Welcome User please find your packed values $varsn"; @vars1 = unpack( "siva", "$vars" ); print "Thank You User your first Input user values $vars1[0]n"; print "Thank You User your second Input user values $vars1[1]n"; print "Thank You User your third Input user values $vars1[2]n"; print "Thank You User your first Input user values $vars1[3]n";


In the above example, we used the pack() and unpack() function at the time, and also we can use the variable like $vars. We assigned the value to the specific variable and used the pack and unpack() function based on their needs.

Example #2


#! perl -w use strict; sub exa { shift; } sub demo1 { unpack "i*", shift; } sub demo2 { unpack "V*", shift; } sub demo3 { unpack "I*", shift; } sub demo4 { unpack "a*", shift; } sub demo5 { unpack "b*", shift; } sub demo6 { unpack "c*", shift; } sub demo7 { unpack "d*", shift; } sub demo8 { unpack "h*", shift; } sub demo9 { unpack "l*", shift; } sub demo10 { unpack "n*", shift; } sub finsa{ my $vars= shift; my $vars1 = "Welcome To My DOmain wdejfh bwefvhd gdv gv jgfjw egf wkejg jerfg jewrgf ekjwrhw kjejhrw kjergkw j ehgw ejhrgke jrgf kjergk ejhrgfkw ejhrge jhrgfkweh jrk ehjkw jerhke jh ekhrj hg"; my $vars2 = "983465 ifsdg8 shdfgh he sdjsb khbwdsh 9876asnbd 87 hjg 90 jh999 jhjhj g89 7987987 hjh j j979 8jkhj 9jh egdf gh8888 wgefh w8 hh98878 878 87 7 79 7 778 78 89 9 98 98 98 98 98 9 9 "; if ($vars3 =~ /^$vars2/i) { print "Welcome Usersn"; } else { } } finsa &exa; finsa &demo1; finsa &demo2; finsa &demo3; finsa &demo4; finsa &demo5; finsa &demo6; finsa &demo7; finsa &demo8; finsa &demo9; finsa &demo10;


Example #3


#!/usr/bin/perl -w $vars = pack("B*", 192, 168,42, 76); print "Welcome To My Domain $varsn"; @vars1 = unpack("B*", "welcomen"); print "Array $vars1[0]n";


In the final example, we used the basic pack() and unpack() functions in the ip numbers. Basically, with the help of ‘.” Operator or symbol, we can split the numbers and set it as the system’s ip address.


Finally, we used Perl as default control basic structures, functions, user input, and output operations. These are the concepts that are held through the script for creating the task depending upon the user’s requirement.

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How Does Qw Function In Perl With Syntax And Examples?

Introduction to Perl qw

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The Perl has some default set of operators that are being used for a set of operations to be performed after the script code execution. Likewise, the qw() is the operator and the function which has been used to split the sentence into each string by using some delimiters like single quotes, parentheses, etc. Mainly it returns the array of the elements as the list values.

@array = qw(some sentences based on the users input); Loop used for to iterate the values $variable (@array) { }

The above codes are the basic syntax for utilizing the qw() operators in the script. We can use any set of delimiters while we are passing the inputs to the method.

How does qw function in Perl?

The qw operator in Perl used to split the sentences that the user inputs may be the n number of lines they giving the input to the script. So it’s difficult to perform the operations in the script for storing and retrieving the datas from memory. Using delimiters, we can split the strings in various ways, but the string characters are split and equivalent to the corresponding user input values. The qw is the quote word that is related to the other operators like qq and q.

The user input datas are stored as the elements of the array because the list is the ordered set of collections using scalar type input variables and values, and the arrays are the variables that held to the lists in the Perl codes. We can extract every array element in the string datatype values; it may be out of scope in the list using some delimiters like space, commas, quotes, backslash, forward slash, etc. These are some default delimiters available in the Perl scripts. For each Perl script functions, the operators are assigned to the variable values using some default loops; the values are iterated and displayed on the output screens.

The user input as sometimes list formats the list is the set of sequence scalar values it can be used and delimiters the datas using parenthesis and comma operators. By using these operators, the list is to be constructed and also each value of the list is known as the list elements; these elements are to be some sorting type of ordered with indexed values. These values are to be set and allotted with some storage positions in the memory. Quote function uses the embedded type of whitespaces. If we use non-alphanumeric characters in the strings, we use the q/ and q// operators as delimiters; the list is any type which they have used in the elements.

Each set of list elements are stored at a specific position in the memory list. The range set of operators is performed using these functions not only for the strings; by using the qw; we can avoid the quote marks. We entered the datas less in the list we use a punctuation set of characters as the delimiters in the array variables. Whenever the delimiters used, the opening and closing parenthesis are must be the same in the array elements.

Examples of Perl qw

Here are the following examples mention below

Example #1 #!/usr/bin/perl use warnings; use strict; my @months = qw(Dec Nov Oct Aug July June May Apr Mar Feb Jan); $months[0] = 'June'; @months[1..6] = qw(December November October August July June May April March February January); print("@months","n"); my @var1 = sort @var; print("@var1","n"); my @first = qw(Welcome To My DOmain kdjhv hkdsjbjkfw     qwdkhefj90898 iwidhfkjbdfkdh   qwdjehfkdbj o                                   qhkwdbjfqwljdk    qwhkdbjvjn wqdljkhfjb    qwkjefdb   qwjkdhbf qwkdhfjbdf wqihkewfj 2oiewhlfkj iwqehwfgkjdb eihwfjfb ewihfugejdv  owhefb oiewhkbd  qwdhksjb qiowhew); my @second = sort @first; print("@second","n");


Example #2


#!/usr/bin/perl use warnings; use strict; my @expn=(); @expn = ('12', '763', '127344', '73784','629387867', '23784', '82347', '346c', '73', '387', '83', '8374r', '83', '467', '837', '874', '93897', '3748', '784', '93'); @expn = qw/12 763 127344 73784 629387867 23784 82347 346c 73 387 83 8374r 83 467 837 874 93897 3748 784 93/; my %vars = (); while (my ($keys, $values) = each %vars) { }


Example #3


#!/usr/local/bin/perl use strict; use warnings; my %example = (); %example = qw( 1 718253 6253 welcome To My Domain kjagdsvj j kqwdbvwjkdfd lwjekfjwekjlfwekljf helfkjvwekjfhkwerhrfj kwejf kehgf wekrjg ewkhrjgh ewiiurh erjh 298 98 9028 928 cguh 2983 2763 jqwhevg 728365 28937 wdghe 298376 sdhgc 2837we sjdhg 3847 siudy 23847re6 sdedf 237eyr wdjh 23847r ewuy23  3847 weduf233 384 sjd qiwh 987 kjh 978 kjwqegh 786 ); foreach my $var (sort keys %example) { }


In the above three examples, we used the qw() operator with different scenarios; we can use the operator using some methods like sorting, unsorting, slicing the elements in the both array and list of the script.


In Perl scripts, we used different operators, keywords, variables, and functions to create the applications using text manipulations, data securities, other IT, System-related issues, Web development, and network programming concepts. In that programming concept, this operator is must be concatenated and split the huge datas using some delimiters technique.

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Working Of Localtime() Function In Perl With Examples

Introduction to Perl localtime

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Working of localtime() Function in Perl with Examples

In this article, we will see the Perl time function known as localtime(), which is defined as a function for returning the time elements related to the date and time of the system or program. In Perl, date and time codes usually need a Perl module known as the DateTime module, which contains various combinations of representation of date and time where; this module uses a New Style calendar, which is known as a geographic calendar.

In Perl, to display date and time that has analyzed time of the current time zone which is done by converting the given expression of time into a set of time elements which is an array of time elements and contains at least 9 element in this array which includes the time and date of the current time zone such as second, minute, hour, day, month, year, day of the week, day of the year, isdst.

Now let us see syntax and examples of localtime() function:


Use DateTime; localtime();

In this, if there is no argument passed, then the localtime() function returns the current date and time of the timezone.

or with expression : locatime expr;

In this, we can write expr anything which can display result related to time elements only.

In the above syntax, both can be used where the first one displays the set of time elements having 9 different elements defining the time of time zone. Then the second syntax can display only those time elements which are specified as expression (expr) in the syntax as seen in the above syntax section.

Example #1 #!/usr/local/bin/perl use DateTime; print "Demonstration of localtime() function in Perl"; print "n"; print "n"; print "The use of localtime() function without any arguments "; print "n"; $sys_dt = localtime(); print "The date and time of the system of the timezone which is used is :"; print "n"; print $sys_dt; print "n"; print "The localtime() function to display particular format of date and time"; print "n"; @mon_name = qw( Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec ); @day_name = qw(Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun); ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime(); print "The current day name and month name is: "; print "n"; print "$mday $mon_name[$mon] "; print "$day_name[$wday] ";


In the above program, we can see we have first imported a Perl module for date and time as “use DateTime” so that we can use locatime() inbuilt function of Perl. In the above code, we are declaring a variable that stores the current date and time of the system where we are assigning this variable to store the value of the locatime() function and is displayed using the print command. In this, we have not passed any argument to the function, so it will just print the current day date and the current time in an hour, minutes and seconds along with the current year.

Then we are trying to use the localtime() function to display a particular date and time format, which we specify in print command where in the code we are printing only the current date with day and current month using localtime() function. Therefore we can use this function in both ways. We have written the month and day name in which format we want to display, and these are stored in the variables “mon_name” and “day_name” so that we can display in the same name which is defined here; we can also use full name to display here. The output can be seen in the above screenshot, which displays the system’s current date and time.

Example #2


#!/usr/local/bin/perl use DateTime; print "Demonstration of localtime() fucntion with argument in Perl"; print "n"; print "n"; $cur_dt = localtime(); print "The current date and time is as follows: "; print "n"; print $cur_dt; print "The elapsed time and date can be represented using time() function"; print "n"; $epoc = time(); $epoc = $epoc - 24 * 60 * 60; print "The elapsed time in seconds to display  yesterday's date and time is "; print "n"; print $epoc; print "n"; $cur_dt = localtime($epoc); print "The epoc passed as argument for displayng yesterday's date and time:"; print "n"; print $cur_dt;


In the above code, first, we import the “use DateTime” module for using the localtime() function. In this code, first, we have declared a variable to display the current date and time, which displays the current date and time of the system and then we are using another variable, “$epoc,” in which we are storing the number of seconds that are elapsed until the current day and time using time() function. Therefore we can see we have then passed this $epoc to the localtime() function, which displays yesterday’s date and time. The output for this code can be seen in the above screenshot.


In this article, we conclude that the localtime() function is a time function used to display the date and time of the time zone the system is using. This function returns the set or array of time elements which has 9 different elements of date and time such as hour, minutes, seconds, etc. In the article, we saw a simple example of using localtime() without argument and to display the particular date and time elements and also we saw another example where we are passing the elapsed time to display the elapsed date that is passed as an argument to the localtime() function.

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How Does Masking Work In Css? (Examples)

Introduction to CSS Masking

CSS Masking masks images or elements by completely hiding them or making certain portions of the image invisible, using various levels of opacity. In CSS, you can achieve masking by using the mask-image property, which applies a mask to the text content and background. Masking is a graphical operation that conceals a specific part of an image, allowing the background to show through the mask. It applies to both HTML and SVG images, as well as elements with multiple layers.

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With this CSS, the mask is find using #mask Id.

Where mask – reference is img or mask source, the # tag states any number of mask references separated by a comma. Multiple images follow the Stack property rule.

How Does Masking Work in CSS?

You can use a masked image to apply a color blur or mask the properties of an element by utilizing the filter. This Masking partially conceals the visual elements. Files like PNG, CSS gradient and a few SVG utilize masking to hide specific parts of an image or another element on the page. The CSS mask property achieves this masking effect.

This masking technique makes web design interesting and flexible, eliminating the need for manual image alterations when creating new ones. We use a few properties here, like mask image, mask mode, mask repeat, mask position, mask clip, mask origin, and mask size. So this mask is applied either to an entire element or sometimes excluding border padding.

1. mask-image Property: This sets a layer in the image element by setting this with a URL value. So this can be referenced as a path of the image file to be masked. We need an image link file that is going to be masked. Any number of mask image layers can be added, and commas separate it. Example: The below example references the PNG file.

masked-element { mask-image: url(pic.png); }

We need two URL values to set more than one mask image layer. Here, we observe the process of combining two masks.

.double mask { mask-image: url(pic.png),url(pic.png); }

Next, using Gradient-image, which is well suited for this property

. masked-element { mask-image: linear-gradient (black 0%, white 0%,transparent 100%); }

2. mask-size: This sets the pixel value over here. This is an important case to create the effect.

3. mask-repeat: This has different effects like space, round to spread across the area. This has only one mask with it.

Types of CSS Masking

There are two types of masks. They are:



Luminance Masking: In this type, an image is transformed into a Grayscale type. If a portion of a mask is lighter, the more of the mask is visible. Black indicates Full Transparent, and Gray specifies partial transparency.

Alpha Masking: Alpha is the Default mask. This is the same as Luminance Masking except in the Opaque portion of an element. In both cases, Transparency matters.

Examples to Implement CSS Masking

In this section, we shall discuss how to show CSS masking capabilities. Using the Chrome browser is highly recommended.

Example #1

Demo showing an example for Gradient along with text masking

body { color: yellow; font-size: 1.2em; font-family: 'calibri', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; } p { padding: 1.2em; color: white; } margin: 21px auto; max-width: 660px; height: 300px; margin: 32px auto; overflow-y: scroll; background: url(floral1.png) no-repeat; -webkit-mask-image: linear-gradient(black, transparent); mask-image: linear-gradient (black, transparent); }


Russia has natural beauty on nature which has a list of travel destinations around them. They too celebrate a nature protection day. Russia has majestic lakes, mountains and rivers. Russia has natural beauty on nature which has a list of travel destinations around them. They too celebrate a nature protection day. Russia has majestic lakes, mountains and rivers. Russia has natural beauty on nature which has a list of travel destinations around them. They too celebrate a nature protection day. Russia has majestic lakes , mountains and rivers. Russia has natural beauty on nature which has a list of travel destinations around chúng tôi too celebrate a nature protection day. Russia has majestic lakes , mountains and rivers.


Example #2

Masking with the help of borders.



chúng tôi

img { width: 300px; margin: 30px; } .normask { mask: url("floral1.png"); } .bordmask { -webkit-mask-box-image: url("floral1.png") 20 repeat; mask-border: url("floral1.png") 20 repeat; } body { transform-origin: top right; transform: scale(0.8); white-space: nowrap; overflow: hidden; }

The left side is the original image. The right side shows how the two images masked.


Example #3

This implementation shows applying a mask to an image. The mask used here is alpha. The image fills the black area.

body { background-color: black; color: pink; font-size: 1.2em; font-family: 'Calibri', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; } img { margin: 30px auto; display: block; width: 90%; height: 300px; -webkit-mask-position: centercenter; mask-position: centercenter; -webkit-mask-repeat: no-repeat; mask-repeat: no-repeat; }


HTML CSS Making Black color


Example #4

Image Stretches using a mask.


chúng tôi

body { width:100%; margin:0; } .stretch { width: 90%; height:100vh; background: url("cind.png"); background-size: cover; position: absolute; } .para { width: 110%; height: 150vh; } .title { font-family: Impact, 'Arial Narrow Bold', sans-serif; font-size: 300px; color: white; position: fixed; top:21vh; width:100%; text-align: center; text-shadow: 2px 2px 12px rgba(0,0.1,0,0.1); } .exmask { mask:url("sketch.png"); mask-size: cover; -webkit-mask:url("sketch.png"); -webkit-mask-size:cover; width:100%; height:100%; }



Coming to the final thoughts, this article has covered approaches to masking objects in CSS and depends on the purpose. Also, we have seen their properties and demo of them. And when building masks, their border property and multiple backgrounds have the power.

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How Python Eval Function Work With Examples

Introduction to Python eval()

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eval(expression, globals=None, locals=None)


Eval() function usually needs 3 parameters, but the 2nd and 3rd parameter terms are optional/not much important than the 1st parameter. The 3 parameters are expression, globals, and locals.

Expression parameter: This is the string that is as parsed and also evaluated as the Python expression.

Globals parameter ( dictionary parameter ): This parameter is a dictionary, and this parameter is also optional. Nothing happens even if we don’t specify this parameter in the eval() function.

Locals parameter ( Mapping Object ): This locals parameter is an object which is mapping… The dict or dictionary of the globals parameter is the best and standard mapping type in the Python Programming Language commonly.

How Python Eval Function Work with Examples

Eval() function/method will returns the value/result after evaluating the expression. eval function works by parsing the string value, and that string value also be evaluated as the python expression.

Example #1

At each and every IF statements, if the IF condition is False, then the interpreter of python goes to the ELSE condition’s statements, and the programming inside of it will be printed/interpreted etc.. all at a time, but the program inside of the ELSE condition is also be interpreted every line one by one.


x = 10 print(eval('x')) print(eval('x+10')) print(eval('x*x')) print(eval('x*x*x')) if(x%2==0): print('X is even number') if(x%2!=0): if(x%3!=0): if(x%5!=0): if(x%7!=0): print(eval('x')) print('is a prime number') else: print ('x is not prime number') else: print('x is not prime number') else: print('x is not prime number') else: print('x is not prime number')


Example #2

Now we enter the try, except concept. These are just like the IF and ELSE condition. If the “try” has correct parameters, then try to run properly and exits from the program, or else the except concept comes into the picture. Try, except concept will be very helpful to handle errors and usage of the eval() function/functions. Statements that are in the try will print the eval() function, which has math functions “square root” and the power of x and y values which are about to declare manually by the user. If the input doesn’t contain any input as needed with the mentioned math functions, the result will be printed, and the loop once again runs and asks again for the input, or else you can just enter and go the except concept. There you will print the ext1 value, and the interpreter breaks out and comes out from the except concept. Then the print statement will print “Now it is Done” like that.


from math import * for lm in range(1, 3): func1 = input("Enter the Math Function which are mentioned below to Evaluate.nFunctions Allowed are: 1. square_root(x) and 2. power(x,y):n") try: print(eval(func1, {'square_root': sqrt, 'power': pow})) except Exception as ex1: print(ex1) break print('Now it is Done')


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How Does An Nft Work?

Online space is abuzz with talk of NFTs. However, as is the case with any new thing, especially when it involves the transfer of money and property, digital or physical, non-fungible tokens operate in a sphere that may seem foggy and confusing to those on the outside.

Whenever there is an explosion of cryptocurrency news, most people tend to wait until the hype subsides to see if there was any real substance propelling the whole thing forward. But the nature of the NFT phenomenon warrants some understanding, for, chances are that you may be able to benefit from it, or, at the least, understand what impact it can have on our lives.

Here are the basics of how an NFT works, and what the craze is all about. 

Related: 10 Weirdest NFT Crypto Art For Sale Right Now

NFT characteristics

Non-Fungible Tokens are assets that correspond to a physical or digital item that is unique and is set apart by others of its kind. Owning an NFT is not unlike owning a collectible or an artwork. There is a wide class of NFTs, like paintings, music, Pokemon cards, and even tweets. And just about anything in the world can come under this umbrella. 

Other than being a one-of-a-kind entity, NFTs are also indestructible. This is because all of their data is stored on a blockchain which makes copying or destroying them (almost) impossible. On top of that, when you own an NFT, it is you who actually owns it, not the companies that created them. This is unlike the music that you listen to on Spotify or iTunes, or the games you get on Steam, which you don’t own per se. 

And because NFT ownership data is stored on the blockchain, the items can be traced back to the creator allowing easy authentication without involving a third-party. So, there’s never a dispute over ownership of the material. 

The Importance of NFTs

The boom in NFTs is tied to cryptocurrency users and the potential for a revolution in the digital collectibles and gaming space. In fact, a whopping $423 million have been spent on NFTs so far, a number that is only set to grow exponentially in the coming weeks and months. 

The growth can be attributed to the blockchain technology behind it since it gives owners full rights to their unique assets (and even gives them the opportunity to make money off of it). In fact, people also sell digital merchandise that they acquire in-game such as decals, stickers, costumes, and game currency on other markets.

But artists stand to gain the most from NFTs, or so it’s been claimed by NFT proponents. The most popular instance of this is Grimes, who sold her digital art for $6 million as NFTs. Of course, this is an extreme example and only artists that have already made it big can bag such huge sums of money from die-hard ostensibly rich fans.

But those who want to support local artists can do so with NFTs as well. Their artwork can be sold digitally to anyone anywhere in the world, without having to go to a gallery or an auction house. Furthermore, this allows them to keep a much higher profit-share from the sales. On top of that, NFTs can have royalties programmed within them, allowing the creator to receive a cut of the profit every time the artwork changes hands.  

Related: How to Make and Sell NFT Art

How do they work?

Most NFTs are part of the Ethereum blockchain and though Ethereum is a cryptocurrency, its blockchain also stores information about NFTs, which differentiates them from the ETH coin. Most of the NFT tokens are built using Ethereum token blueprints for easy compatibility with the ecosystem as a whole. But Ethereum isn’t the only blockchain to host NFTs. There are many other blockchains that have also started implementing their own NFT token standards, such as Tron, Neo, and Eos. 

There are dozens of NFT markets where you can purchase everything from rare artworks to NBA top shot clips, games, and other collectibles. A happy buyer needs only to go to the marketplace, find something worth splurging on, and bid. A creator can also submit their NFTs for others to purchase. All transactional history is kept secure thanks to the publically accessible blockchain technology.  

What makes NFTs valuable?

As is the case with any market asset, NFTs derive their value from supply and demand. The reason why some people pay such exorbitant amounts is that NFTs are in short supply, while the demand is extremely high, especially from gamers, investors, collectors, and fans. 

But NFTs are not just dead things that you buy and horde for the rest of your life. Some of them have the potential to generate profit for their owners. For instance, one investor spent more than $200,000 on a single segment of a racing track in the game F1 Delta Time which will generate 5% profit from all races that take place on it. 

NFT uses

Though still in its infancy, there is a broad range of NFT uses that could simplify ownership authentication controversies. For instance, we all can have digital as well as printed copies of Van Gogh’s Starry Night, but there is only a single original. Likewise, though there may be multiple copies of a piece of art (painting, music, etc.), only the person that has its token owns it. All the usage (as well as bragging) rights lie with that person. 

In the future, there could also be an integration between the physical and the virtual space through NFTs. Nowadays, when you buy a physical piece of art, you either have its custody or you get to keep it somewhere. But these can also be tokenized so that their digital forms also exist. Whoever owns the token, owns that physical, tangible, art as well.  

The Nifty craze

There is no telling where the nifty (as NFTs are sometimes called) craze is headed. From people spending hundreds of dollars on CryptoKitties, to entire albums being produced through NFTs (case in point – When You See Yourself by Kings of Leon who have generated $2 million from the sales so far) – who knew NFTs would take on such a massive life of their own. 

Nifty enthusiasts find it exciting to say that they own this or that unique piece of art (and potentially make money from reselling it), but how long can this bubble last? The sales are growing exponentially with each passing week and there’s doesn’t seem to be an end in sight. 

There are other concerns as well. Blockchain technologies use up a lot of electricity per transaction, and since NFTs use the same transaction framework, the increasing number of transactions is definitely going to have an impact on the environment. Many artists have even decided to not sell their NFTs after hearing about the detrimental effects that NFT transactions could have on climate change. 

Climate change will be irreversible once Pokemon releases NFTs

— Zach Leffers (@ZachLeffers) March 10, 2023

These are the basics of how NFTs work. Whether this is capitalism on steroids or the harbinger of doom, only time will tell. But at least you’re now informed.  


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