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Next-generation firewalls (NGFWs) merge the capabilities of the first generation of firewalls with network security tools equipped for handling modern cyberthreats. 

See below to learn all about how NGFWs work:

Using behavior analysis, NGFWs are capable of anticipating and intercepting cyberthreats, not by identifying them directly, but by detecting network behavior that indicates an upcoming attack or data leak. Behavior analysis capabilities enable NGFWs to mitigate the damages of cyberattacks as well as internally motivated data leaks.

Sandboxing is an approach to cybersecurity where executable files and code from non-native sources are run inside an isolated part of the network. This allows the NGFW to observe, monitor, and analyze the behavior of the piece of code, preventing it from proceeding forward into the network and causing damage to the network’s resources.

Access control management is most suitable for being a part of a firewall solution due to its strategic location between network routers, users, and applications. This tool is responsible for verifying and authenticating the identity of users and device logins into the network before they gain access.

The application control technology is available in some NGFWs and web firewalls that enable you to implement security and privacy measures directly into the operations of an application. The traffic of each application can be identified in the data flow, subjecting it to a different set of limitations and security policies as needed.

Traffic monitoring and packet filtering are one of the primary components adapted from traditional firewall solutions. But with NGFWs, packet filtering can be further adapted to the type, source, and destination of the data, such as IP address, source and destination ports.

NGFWs operate on system layers, with most modern solutions ranging between layers 3 and 4 of the OSI model and systems to layer 7 of the network’s applications. Application-layer firewalls are capable of monitoring and scanning the data input and output of the network’s applications, managing its communications according to the set security policies.

Authentication is the key component that enables firewalls to associate known identities with users and devices to apply the network’s policies and access privileges to them.

Authentication techniques vary from traditional passwords and smart cards to biometrics and custom authentication tokens. The pairing occurring between the device or user and the network’s firewall results in a one-time password (OTP) that can be also applied to software and applications seeking access to one or more of the network’s resources.

Security policies are rules that organize what applications and user devices are capable of doing and how they’re allowed to behave without being blocked. Generally, this tends to focus on network traffic outbound and inbound that uses specific communications protocols, certain IP addresses, or content types from market applications.

See more: Check Point vs Palo Alto Networks: Top NGFWs Compared


NGFWs can be a part of your network as software that uses internal CPU and RAM resources. 


A hardware-based NGFW is connected to the outer parameter of the network and between any segments or components where the traffic needs monitoring.


A cloud-based NGFW is commonly referred to as firewall-as-a-service (FWaaS), which is hosted by a third party. They’re managed and deployed by the security vendor and can be scaled to include users and devices connecting remotely to your network.

See more: Best Next-Generation Firewall Software Compared

NGFWs need unobstructed access to a number of your network’s components for its tools to work properly. This includes anything from tracking user behavior and logs to controlling access privileges and application permissions.

An NGFW’s administrative client is the management portal that can be used by network administrators to gain access to the firewall’s configurations.

This is usually presented through an easy-to-use interface that connects the user to the remainder of the firewall environments from the servers and engines to gateways and active monitoring efforts.

Some vendors offer a web-based version of the firewall’s administrative portal that can be accessed remotely through a web browser and can allow access to log files and activity records, often for behavioral analysis.

Depending on the complexity and scope of the network the NGFW is covering, the number of servers under it may fluctuate. They’re the hardware the firewall software needs to run its operations.

A single server, depending on capacity, can host a number of the firewall’s engines and tools, such as monitoring, scanning, VPN deployment, and notifications.

Organizations with widely spread-out networks often opt for dedicated logging servers to manage their data logs, analysis, and any required calculations.

While they shouldn’t be used as the sole method of protection, NGFWs are an essential tool of network security, acting as a smart barrier between the user devices and applications and the public internet.

The value of traditional firewalls tends to end at identifying straightforward and previously identified malware and cyberattack avenues, but NGFWs are capable of employing a variety of technologies to offer more protection some key cyberthreats:

Insider threats are the weak point of traditional firewall systems, as they drive the threat past the security line at the outer parameter of the network. NGFWs use access control, application control, and wide-scale enforcement of security policies to monitor and scan the network traffic incoming, outgoing, and exchanged between endpoints.

Any activity by a malicious network user is immediately detected by the firewall, blocking it before it’s able to leak data or inject any type of malicious code, file, or software into the network’s infrastructure.

See more: How Next-Generation Firewalls (NGFWs) are Used by Softworx, PenChecks Trust, Flex, CNA, and Blackstone: Case Studies

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Minecraft Sculk: Everything You Need To Know

The Minecraft 1.19 Wild Update is here, and it brings a plethora of exciting new stuff to the game. And one of the most discussed additions in this latest Minecraft update is the sculk family. It is a collection of blocks that finally add movement and sound-based mechanics to the game. While doing so, it also unlocks a variety of new Redstone functionality for players to utilize in their farms and builds. But that can’t happen if you don’t know anything about the different types of sculk blocks in Minecraft 1.19. That’s where this detailed guide will come in handy. We are here to cover everything you need to know about sculks in Minecraft. So, without further ado, let’s dive in!

How to Find, Get, and Use Minecraft Sculk Blocks (2023)

We have divided our guide into separate sections to cover various aspects, types, and uses of sculk blocks. You can use the table below to skip to the section you are eager to discover about in this update.

What is Sculk in Minecraft

The Minecraft 1.19 update has added a new family of blocks called sculks to the game. They were first planned for the Minecraft 1.18 Caves & Cliffs Part 2 update and would have made the caves much darker and more interesting. But they were delayed because of some unknown reason. Now, in their improved version, the sculk blocks are making a return with Minecraft 1.19. Sculks are both decorative and functional blocks that can change the Redstone machines forever.

Key Features of Sculk Blocks

All sculk blocks in Minecraft have the following features:

They are fireproof and can’t catch fire even from lava.

All sculk blocks follow the same theme and even the Warden’s body has a similar texture.

A gold hoe is the fastest tool you can use to break sculk blocks.

The sculk blocks can’t generate naturally outside of the caves. However, you can get and use sculk catalyst in Minecraft 1.19 to easily generate sculk features anywhere. Read our attached guide for more details.

Types of Sculk Blocks in Minecraft 1.19

ImageNameTypeFunctionSculkDecorativeOnly for aesthetics and buildingSculk SensorRedstoneDetects vibration and sends out Redstone signalsSculks CatalystFunctionalGenerates sculk features whenever an experience dropping mob dies nearbySculk ShriekerFunctionalSummons the Warden after detecting vibrations three separate timesSculk VeinDecorativeOnly for aesthetics and decorationImage Courtesy: Minecraft Wiki

Where to Find Sculk Blocks in Minecraft

All sculk blocks exclusively spawn in the new Deep Dark biome of Minecraft. You can find them throughout the biome, but they spawn at a higher rate within the Ancient cities. So, our list of best Ancient city seeds can help you reach the home of sculks in no time.

If you are in the creative mode, all five types of sculk blocks show up in your creative inventory. But you can’t directly break the sculk blocks to pick them up in any game mode, be it hardcore or creative. You need to use enchantments to be able to successfully mine the blocks and get something useful out of them.

How to Get Sculk Blocks in Minecraft

To pick any sculk block, you have to break it using a tool with the silk touch enchantment applied to it. This allows you to pick the block as a whole without breaking it. Since a hoe breaks sculk blocks the fastest, it’s best to use an enchanted hoe to break sculk blocks. You can use our Minecraft enchantments guide to learn how to apply silk touch to your hoe.

On the other hand, if you break any sculk block without the silk touch enchantment, the block will simply disappear, leaving behind several experience orbs. So, depending on your requirements, you can break the sculk with enchanted or unenchanted tools.

Frequently Asked Questions

You can grow sculk features in your game by killings mobs that drop experience around a sculk catalyst. 

Does skulk drop XP?

Sculks blocks are known to drop some of the highest amounts of XP in the game. That makes them the perfect competition and companion for the mob XP farms in Minecraft. 

What does Warden drop?

Use Sculk Blocks in Minecraft Builds and Redstone Machines

Jiophone 2 Faq: Everything You Need To Know

Reliance Jio recently announced the JioPhone 2 at its 41st Annual General Meeting and we’re sure you have a lot of questions about the second-gen low-cost 4G device from the company. The budget JioPhone 2 has quite a lot of things going in its favor, from its super affordable cost to its new QWERTY design, and its a befitting device to fuel the next wave of the mobile internet revolution in the country.

Specifications and Hardware

What are the specifications of the JioPhone 2?

Display2.4-inch QVGA (320x240p)

Processor1.2GHz dual-core


Storage4GB, expandable up to 128GB via microSD card

Primary Camera2MP

Secondary Camera0.3MP

Operating SystemKaiOS 2.5


ConnectivityBluetooth 4.1, dual-SIM, Wi-Fi 802.11, b/g/n, GPS, NFC, 3.5mm audio jack, microUSB port

PriceRs. 2,999

Which processor does the JioPhone use?

The JioPhone 2 is powered by a 1.2 GHZ dual-core processor, but Reliance Jio has not revealed any information about its make or model number.

How much RAM does the JioPhone 2 have?

What’s the internal storage capacity of the JioPhone 2?

The JioPhone 2 will ship with 4GB of internal storage.

Does the JioPhone 2 have a microSD card slot?

Yes, the JioPhone 2 does have a microSD card slot which supports up to 128GB microSD cards.

Does the JioPhone 2 have dual cameras?

No, the device does not have a dual camera setup.

Does the JioPhone 2 have a fingerprint sensor?

No, the device does not have a fingerprint sensor.


What’s the operating software on the JioPhone?

Does the JioPhone 2 support Android apps?

No, the device does not support Android apps.

Does the JioPhone 2 have a voice assistant?

Yes, the JioPhone 2 comes with the Google Assistant and it even has a dedicated button to launch the assistant.

Does the JioPhone 2 offer video call support?

Yes, the JioPhone 2 support video calling using the 0.3MP front facing camera.

Does the JioPhone 2 have an app store?

Yes, the JioPhone 2 has an app store called JioStore.

Does the JioPhone 2 support WhatsApp?

Does the JioPhone 2 support regional languages?

Yes, the JioPhone 2 comes with support for 24 regional languages.

Does the JioPhone 2 support Google apps?

While the JioPhone 2 doesn’t support all Google app, it does include support for Google Maps, Assistant and Search.


What’s the battery capacity of the JioPhone 2?

The device packs in a 2,000mAh battery.

What kind of battery life can I expect from the JioPhone 2?

Does the JioPhone 2 support fast charging?

No, the device does not support fast charging.


What’s the size of the display on the JioPhone 2?

The device packs in a 2.4-inch QVGA display with a 320×240 resolution.

Does the JioPhone 2 have an HD display?

No, the device has a QVGA display.

Does the JioPhone 2 have a touchscreen?

No, the JioPhone 2 does not have a touchscreen.


Does the JioPhone 2 offer dual-SIM support?

Yes, the JioPhone 2 comes with dual-SIM support.

Does the JioPhone 2 have a USB-C port?

No, the JioPhone 2 has a microUSB port.

Does the JioPhone 2 include Bluetooth support?

Yes, the JioPhone 2 features Bluetooth 4.1 low energy.

Does the JioPhone 2 include NFC support?

Yes, the device comes with NFC support.

Does the JioPhone 2 include GPS support?

Does the JioPhone 2 include WiFi support?

Yes, the JioPhone 2 comes with 802.11 b/g/n WiFi support.

Pricing and Availability

What’s the price of the JioPhone 2?

The JioPhone 2 has an affordable price tag of just 2999 INR.

When does the JioPhone 2 go on sale?

The JioPhone 2 goes on sale on August 15th.

Where can I buy the JioPhone 2?

The JioPhone 2 will be available for purchase on Reliance Jio’s website and retail outlets.

Excited for the JioPhone 2?

Everything You Need To Know About Ransom Web Attacks

There are many reasons why people execute such attacks, but a recent trend has emerged in which attackers are now asking for remuneration with the promise that the attacks will stop once the payment is made. To better understand how to stop ransom web attacks, we will need to dive into the minds of the attackers and understand how they differentiate themselves.

How Ransom Web Attacks Work

Think of a ransom DDoS attack as a kidnapping. The perpetrator has taken something of value from the victim and asks for compensation, promising restitution of what was lost. In this case it’s not a human being kidnapped but the ability for a web service to operate. Attacks often happen on websites, but they could also bring down any other service that uses the Internet. Some of the worst attacks could take down a service, even if the port attacked is closed simply because the infrastructure becomes overloaded by an excessive amount of incoming traffic. Lighter attacks may be more effective on an open port (i.e. a port that is actively “listening” for traffic because a service runs on it, such as port 80 for HTTP).

Unlike ransomware, which kidnaps your computer from you, a ransom attack robs you of your ability to provide services over the Internet. If your computer (as opposed to a remote server) is the target of the attack, you also lose the entire ability to communicate or browse on the Web. For major companies this may create losses that amount to more capital than what they would spend paying the ransom, which is why they may give in to the demands.

What Motivates Attackers to Demand Ransom?

A ransom attack, as opposed to hacktivism, does not have any ulterior motive other than short-term profit. While hacktivists may be attacking a server for a cause (such as the October 2023 attacks on allegedly racist websites), ransom attackers will be satisfied only by a lump sum of cash. Hacktivism can be more severe in most cases since the duration of their attacks can be much longer. Despite the distinction I have outlined, the two groups may overlap. Hacktivists can sometimes ask for ransom, although the “reward” may not be in the form of monetary gain but a change in policy or some sort of other measure. Such was the case when Canadian intelligence services were threatened by Anonymous in mid-July 2023.

How Service Providers Can Combat Ransom Attacks

As I mentioned earlier, ransom attacks can cause significant losses during the outages. The longer the attack lasts, the more tempting it is for the target to pay the ransom to cut their losses. This is a flawed way to do things and puts the victim at a more vulnerable position considering there is no guarantee that the attackers will keep their word. Such was the case in November 2023 when a Swiss firm called Protonmail that provided encrypted email services paid the ransom and the attacks continued. The payment simply motivates the attackers to press harder and try their luck again by adding more demands to the table.

The best way to solve the issue is to wait until the attackers move onto another target (which usually happens after they realize they’re not going to get what they asked for). If this is unacceptable, perhaps you should be running your web services on a load balancing infrastructure which will help maintain traffic flow while the main server is attacked. You could use a service like CloudFlare or Incapsula to make sure that addresses are filtered and no attacker knows your website’s actual IP address.

Miguel Leiva-Gomez

Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.

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Supervooc Fast Charging Technology: Everything You Need To Know

Harley Maranan / Android Authority

The smartphone market is flooded with fast charging standards, including both universal and proprietary options. At first glance, OPPO’s VOOC and SuperVOOC charging systems may seem like just another manufacturer-specific standard. However, that’s not exactly the case. A good number of other smartphone brands like OnePlus also rely on OPPO’s charging technology.

Given how prolific OPPO’s SuperVOOC standard has become today, let’s take a closer look at the standard, what you can expect from it, and how it stacks up against the competition.

See also: Charging habits to maximize battery life

VOOC fast charging over the years: What changed?

The VOOC standard has received plenty of updates over the years. VOOC 3.0 (2023) and VOOC 4.0 (2023) offered straightforward improvements, bumping up the maximum charging current from 5A to 6A.

In 2023, OnePlus licensed OPPO’s VOOC standard under the Dash Charge moniker. Starting with the OnePlus 3, the company used the same 5V and 5A setup across its entire product line. That streak finally ended in 2023 with the OnePlus 7 Pro, which increased that to 5V/6A instead. The company also rebranded its fast charging tech to Warp Charge 30. Branding aside, however, Warp Charge 30 was simply licensed VOOC 3.0 technology.

Around this time, OPPO also developed a unique charging system that delivered power to two cells connected in series. This simple change meant that OPPO could double the charging power and halve the time required for a full charge. The only drawback to splitting the battery in this way is that you can’t fit as much battery capacity. Regardless, OPPO dubbed the technology SuperVOOC charging and it has become a mainstay of the standard ever since.

Oppo’s SuperVOOC technology uses a split battery system, doubling output power in the process.

The first release of SuperVOOC charging operated at 10V/5A for a total power output of 50W. In 2023, OPPO’s SuperVOOC 2.0 bumped that figure up to 10 V/6.5 A (65W). OnePlus adopted the latter with the OnePlus 8T that same year, under its own Warp Charge 65 branding.

We’ve seen modern OnePlus and Oppo smartphones break the 100W and even 200W barrier. The latest OnePlus 11, for instance, ships with a 100W adapter in the box that can fully charge up the phone within half an hour.

Which phones support VOOC fast charging?

C. Scott Brown / Android Authority

Virtually every OPPO smartphone released within the past few years supports VOOC fast charging in some capacity. That includes mid-range smartphones like the OPPO K10, which offers 33W SuperVOOC charging. For context, that roughly translates to a 65-minute charging time, from start to finish.

Moving up the product stack, you’ll find OPPO’s premium mid-range offerings like the Reno series sporting 80W SuperVOOC charging. In the real world, that means a full charge will take just over half an hour — plenty fast for most people. Finally, flagship smartphones like the Find X5 Pro support up to 80 watts of power, which improves 0-50 charging times. With the OnePlus 10 series, the company joined OPPO and began using the SuperVOOC branding on its smartphones.

In 2023, OPPO demonstrated its latest 240W SuperVOOC charging technology. This standard can fully charge a 4,500mAh battery in just nine minutes. Even more impressive, it can juice up a battery to 50% charge in just three and a half minutes. And in 2023, 240W SuperVOOC charging technology finally made its way to the first mainstream cell phone with the Realme GT Neo 5. It currently holds the record as the world’s fastest-charging cell phone as it can go from 0-100 in just nine and a half minutes.

As we alluded to earlier, OPPO has licensed its VOOC technology to various other smartphone manufacturers as well. In theory, VOOC chargers are often cross-compatible with other brands under the BBK Electronics umbrella. This means that you can use a Warp Charge 65 adapter in place of a 65W SuperDart charger from realme. However, keep in mind that neither brand officially endorses this practice and compatibility could break at any point in the future.


SuperVOOC charging speed depends on the phone. The fastest 240W implementation can fully charge a phone within ten minutes, but most other SuperVOOC phones take around half an hour to charge.

Yes, VOOC and SuperVOOC require a special cable and adapter pairing to charge at full speed. You can use any Type-C cable for slower charging.

Phones from OnePlus, realme, vivo, and Iqoo support SuperVOOC fast charging, although some brands may use different branding.

Amazon Echo Spot Faq: Everything You Need To Know

Amazon’s Echo line of product started with the launch of their first Alexa powered smart speaker dubbed “Echo”, back in 2023. It was then followed by the Echo Dot which was a miniature version of the smart speaker and the Echo Show which was a smart-speaker which sported a touch-screen display. However, the original Echo speaker was long overdue an upgrade and much to our surprise, at a press event which Amazon conducted yesterday, not only they released an upgraded Echo speaker but also followed it with a bunch of other smart-home devices, all of which are powered by Alexa.

Amazon Echo Spot FAQ: Everything You Need to Know

As I mentioned above, in its simplest form, the all-new Echo Spot is an alarm clock with a built-in multi-touch display. However, we all know that it is much more than that. The Echo Spot is also a smart home device which is being powered by Alexa. But, it is also different from the Echo speaker in many ways. For one, it has a touchscreen display. Think of Echo Spot as a mix of the Echo Dot and the Echo Show. It’s small, has a touchscreen, and does a lot more than what you expect from its size.

Amazon Echo Spot FAQ: General

How much does the Echo Spot cost?

The best part about this press event from Amazon was that none of its products were priced above a reasonable 150 dollars. While the Echo Spot might night be the cheapest of the bunch, it’s not also the costliest and will cost you $129.99.

When Can I Get it.

Amazon Echo Spot FAQ: Design and Build

What is the size of the Echo Spot?

Echo spot sports a very compact design and measures only at 4.1 x 3.8 x 3.6 inches or 104 x 97 x 81 mm. It is also very light and weighs only 14.8 oz or 419 grams.

What are the materials used in the Echo Spot?

The Echo Spot sports a metal body with a glass front panel. The front glass panel houses a 2.5 inch round touchscreen display.

What Colours do I get to choose from?

At the time of writing this article, the Echo Spot comes only in two colours; Black and White.

Amazon Echo Spot FAQ: Hardware

Does it have a built-in hub for simple setup of compatible smart home devices?

No, that feature is only present in the new Echo Plus.

Does it has a touchscreen? Does it have a camera?

Yes, the Echo Spot has a front-facing camera. However, the camera specifications have still not been released.

Does it have a headphone jack?

Yes, it has a standard 3.5 mm headphone jack.

Does it have a built-in battery?

No, the Echo Spot doesn’t have any built-in battery. It needs to be plugged in for power.

Does it have a microphone?

Yes, the new Echo Sport has built-in 4-Microphone Array.

Does it have a built-in Speaker. Does it pack separate woofers and tweeters?

No, the separate woofers and tweeters are only present on the New Echo and the Echo Plus.

Amazon Echo Spot FAQ: Functions

Can I watch videos on Echo Spot?

Yes, the 2.5” touchscreen allows you to watch videos on the device. You can even stream videos directly from your Amazon Prime Video account.

Can I make video calls on this device?

Yes, the front-facing camera allows you to make video calls easily. In fact, at the time of publishing this article Amazon has announced that you can use Alexa for making free video calls anywhere in United States, Canada, and Mexico.

Can I connect my speakers with it?

Yes, you can either use the built-in 3.5 mm headphone jack or you can connect them wirelessly using Bluetooth.

Amazon Echo Spot FAQ: Alexa Specific Questions

Does Echo Spot connect to Alexa? Can I activate Alexa with my voice from across the room?

Yes, you can. The built-in 4-array microphone support ensures that the device can recognise your voice from across the room and activate Alexa. In fact, it uses second-generation far-field voice recognition technology, and hence, it will be able to recognise your voice even when there’s music playing in the background.

Can I stream music using Echo Spot?

Yes, you can. Just ask Alexa to play a song, artist, or genre and the device will stream music directly from your preferred service. Currently, it supports Amazon Music, Pandora, Spotify, TuneIn, iHeartRadio, and Audible.

Does it let me control my smart-home devices?

Yes, it does let you do that. Since the Echo Spot is also powered by Alexa, you can control pretty much every smart device connected to it. For example, you can ask it to turn on your lights, show baby monitors, front door cameras, lock your doors, control the thermostats, garage doors, sprinklers, and more.

Does it support Alexa skills?

Yes, it does. You can take a look at our article which lists out 30 best Alexa skills for Echo, all of which will work with the Echo Spot.

Amazon Echo Spot FAQ: Connectivity

Does it support Bluetooth Connectivity Which WiFi standard does the device supports?

The device supports the latest dual-band 802.11 a/b/g/n (2.4 and 5 GHz) WiFi standard. However, it does not support connecting to ad-hoc (or peer-to-peer) Wi-Fi networks.

SEE ALSO: iPhone X FAQ: Everything You Need To Know

Amazon Echo Spot: Frequently Asked Questions Answered

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