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To convert numeric levels of a factor into string in R data frame, we can follow the below steps −

First of all, consider an in-built data set or create new one.

Then, use mutate function with ifelse to create string column based numeric column representing a factor.

Consider an-inbuilt data set

Let’s have a look at mtcars data set in base R −

 Live Demo

data(mtcars) head(mtcars,25)

On executing, the above script generates the below output(this output will vary on your system due to randomization) −

Output                       mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb Mazda RX4              21.0 6 160.0 110 3.90 2.620 16.46 0 1 4 4 Mazda RX4 Wag          21.0 6 160.0 110 3.90 2.875 17.02 0 1 4 4 Datsun 710             22.8 4 108.0 93 3.85 2.320 18.61 1 1 4 1 Hornet 4 Drive         21.4 6 258.0 110 3.08 3.215 19.44 1 0 3 1 Hornet Sportabout      18.7 8 360.0 175 3.15 3.440 17.02 0 0 3 2 Valiant                18.1 6 225.0 105 2.76 3.460 20.22 1 0 3 1 Duster 360             14.3 8 360.0 245 3.21 3.570 15.84 0 0 3 4 Merc 240D              24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.190 20.00 1 0 4 2 Merc 230               22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.150 22.90 1 0 4 2 Merc 280               19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.440 18.30 1 0 4 4 Merc 280C              17.8 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.440 18.90 1 0 4 4 Merc 450SE             16.4 8 275.8 180 3.07 4.070 17.40 0 0 3 3 Merc 450SL             17.3 8 275.8 180 3.07 3.730 17.60 0 0 3 3 Merc 450SLC            15.2 8 275.8 180 3.07 3.780 18.00 0 0 3 3 Cadillac Fleetwood     10.4 8 472.0 205 2.93 5.250 17.98 0 0 3 4 Lincoln Continental    10.4 8 460.0 215 3.00 5.424 17.82 0 0 3 4 Chrysler Imperial      14.7 8 440.0 230 3.23 5.345 17.42 0 0 3 4 Fiat 128               32.4 4 78.7 66 4.08 2.200 19.47 1 1 4 1 Honda Civic            30.4 4 75.7 52 4.93 1.615 18.52 1 1 4 2 Toyota Corolla         33.9 4 71.1 65 4.22 1.835 19.90 1 1 4 1 Toyota Corona         21.5 4 120.1 97 3.70 2.465 20.01 1 0 3 1 Dodge Challenger      15.5 8 318.0 150 2.76 3.520 16.87 0 0 3 2 AMC Javelin           15.2 8 304.0 150 3.15 3.435 17.30 0 0 3 2 Camaro Z28             13.3 8 350.0 245 3.73 3.840 15.41 0 0 3 4 Pontiac Firebird       19.2 8 400.0 175 3.08 3.845 17.05 0 0 3 2 Convert numeric factor into string

Loading dplyr package and converting values in gear column that represents a factor to string −

data(mtcars) library(dplyr) ifelse(gear == 4, "Four", "Five"))) Output                               mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb gearW Hornet 4 Drive                  21.4 6 258.0 110 3.08 3.215 19.44 1 0 3 1 Three Hornet Sportabout               18.7 8 360.0 175 3.15 3.440 17.02 0 0 3 2 Three Valiant                         18.1 6 225.0 105 2.76 3.460 20.22 1 0 3 1 Three Duster 360                      14.3 8 360.0 245 3.21 3.570 15.84 0 0 3 4 Three Merc 450SE                      16.4 8 275.8 180 3.07 4.070 17.40 0 0 3 3 Three Merc 450SL                      17.3 8 275.8 180 3.07 3.730 17.60 0 0 3 3 Three Merc 450SLC                     15.2 8 275.8 180 3.07 3.780 18.00 0 0 3 3 Three Cadillac Fleetwood              10.4 8 472.0 205 2.93 5.250 17.98 0 0 3 4 Three Lincoln Continental             10.4 8 460.0 215 3.00 5.424 17.82 0 0 3 4 Three Chrysler Imperial               14.7 8 440.0 230 3.23 5.345 17.42 0 0 3 4 Three Toyota Corona                   21.5 4 120.1 97 3.70 2.465 20.01 1 0 3 1 Three Dodge Challenger                15.5 8 318.0 150 2.76 3.520 16.87 0 0 3 2 Three AMC Javelin                     15.2 8 304.0 150 3.15 3.435 17.30 0 0 3 2 Three Camaro Z28                      13.3 8 350.0 245 3.73 3.840 15.41 0 0 3 4 Three Pontiac Firebird                19.2 8 400.0 175 3.08 3.845 17.05 0 0 3 2 Three Mazda RX4                       21.0 6 160.0 110 3.90 2.620 16.46 0 1 4 4 Four Mazda RX4 Wag                   21.0 6 160.0 110 3.90 2.875 17.02 0 1 4 4 Four Datsun 710                      22.8 4 108.0 93 3.85 2.320 18.61 1 1 4 1 Four Merc 240D                       24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.190 20.00 1 0 4 2 Four Merc 230                        22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.150 22.90 1 0 4 2 Four Merc 280                        19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.440 18.30 1 0 4 4 Four Merc 280C                       17.8 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.440 18.90 1 0 4 4 Four Fiat 128                        32.4 4 78.7 66 4.08 2.200 19.47 1 1 4 1 Four Honda Civic                     30.4 4 75.7 52 4.93 1.615 18.52 1 1 4 2 Four Toyota Corolla                  33.9 4 71.1 65 4.22 1.835 19.90 1 1 4 1 Four Fiat X1-9                       27.3 4 79.0 66 4.08 1.935 18.90 1 1 4 1 Four Volvo 142E                      21.4 4 121.0 109 4.11 2.780 18.60 1 1 4 2 Four Porsche 914-2                   26.0 4 120.3 91 4.43 2.140 16.70 0 1 5 2 Five Lotus Europa                    30.4 4 95.1 113 3.77 1.513 16.90 1 1 5 2 Five Ford Pantera L                  15.8 8 351.0 264 4.22 3.170 14.50 0 1 5 4 Five Ferrari Dino                    19.7 6 145.0 175 3.62 2.770 15.50 0 1 5 6 Five Maserati Bora                   15.0 8 301.0 335 3.54 3.570 14.60 0 1 5 8 Five

You're reading How To Convert Numeric Levels Of A Factor Into String In R Data Frame?

How To Convert A Numerical Column Into Factor Column In R?

Often, we find that the values that represent factor levels are recorded as numerical values, therefore, we need to convert those numerical values to factor. In this way, we can use the factor column properly in our analysis otherwise R program will treat the factors as numerical values and the analysis output will be incorrect.

Example

 Live Demo

data(mtcars) str(mtcars) Output 'data.frame': 32 obs. of 11 variables: $ mpg : num 21 21 22.8 21.4 18.7 18.1 14.3 24.4 22.8 19.2 ... $ cyl : num 6 6 4 6 8 6 8 4 4 6 ... $ disp: num 160 160 108 258 360 ... $ hp : num 110 110 93 110 175 105 245 62 95 123 ... $ drat: num 3.9 3.9 3.85 3.08 3.15 2.76 3.21 3.69 3.92 3.92 ... $ wt : num 2.62 2.88 2.32 3.21 3.44 ... $ qsec: num 16.5 17 18.6 19.4 17 ... $ vs : num 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 ... $ am : num 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... $ gear: num 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 ... $ carb: num 4 4 1 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 ... mtcars$cyl<-as.factor(mtcars$cyl) str(mtcars) 'data.frame': 32 obs. of 11 variables: $ mpg : num 21 21 22.8 21.4 18.7 18.1 14.3 24.4 22.8 19.2 ... $ cyl : Factor w/ 3 levels "4","6","8": 2 2 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 ... $ disp: num 160 160 108 258 360 ... $ hp : num 110 110 93 110 175 105 245 62 95 123 ... $ drat: num 3.9 3.9 3.85 3.08 3.15 2.76 3.21 3.69 3.92 3.92 ... $ wt : num 2.62 2.88 2.32 3.21 3.44 ... $ qsec: num 16.5 17 18.6 19.4 17 ... $ vs : num 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 ... $ am : num 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... $ gear: num 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 ... $ carb: num 4 4 1 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 ... Example

 Live Demo

data(ToothGrowth) str(ToothGrowth) Output 'data.frame': 60 obs. of 3 variables: $ len : num 4.2 11.5 7.3 5.8 6.4 10 11.2 11.2 5.2 7 ... $ supp: Factor w/ 2 levels "OJ","VC": 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ... $ dose: num 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 ... Example

 Live Demo

head(ToothGrowth,20) Output    len    supp  dose 1   4.2   VC    0.5 2  11.5   VC    0.5 3  7.3   VC     0.5 4  5.8   VC     0.5 5  6.4   VC     0.5 6  10.0  VC     0.5 7  11.2  VC     0.5 8 11.2   VC     0.5 9  5.2   VC     0.5 10 7.0   VC     0.5 11 16.5  VC     1.0 12 16.5  VC     1.0 13 15.2  VC    1.0 14 17.3  VC    1.0 15 22.5  VC    1.0 16 17.3  VC    1.0 17 13.6  VC    1.0 18 14.5  VC    1.0 19 18.8  VC    1.0 20 15.5  VC    1.0 ToothGrowth$dose<-as.factor(ToothGrowth$dose)  str(ToothGrowth) 'data.frame': 60 obs. of 3 variables: $ len : num 4.2 11.5 7.3 5.8 6.4 10 11.2 11.2 5.2 7 ... $ supp: Factor w/ 2 levels "OJ","VC": 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ... $ dose: Factor w/ 3 levels "0.5","1","2": 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ... Example

 Live Demo

data(morley) str(morley) Output 'data.frame': 100 obs. of 3 variables: $ Expt : int 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ... $ Run : int 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ... $ Speed: int 850 740 900 1070 930 850 950 980 980 880 ... Example

 Live Demo

morley$Expt<-as.factor(morley$Expt) str(morley) Output 'data.frame': 100 obs. of 3 variables: $ Expt : Factor w/ 5 levels "1","2","3","4",..: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ... $ Run : int 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ... $ Speed: int 850 740 900 1070 930 850 950 980 980 880 ... Example

 Live Demo

x1<-sample(1:4,20,replace=TRUE) x2<-rnorm(20,2,3) df<-data.frame(x1,x2) str(df) Output 'data.frame':20 obs. of 2 variables: $ x1: int 1 4 1 2 3 1 4 1 4 2 ... $ x2: num 1.56 1.64 2.83 2.2 4.23 ... Example df$x1<-as.factor(df$x1) str(df) Output 'data.frame': 20 obs. of 2 variables: $ x1: Factor w/ 4 levels "1","2","3","4": 4 3 2 2 4 4 1 2 4 2 ... $ x2: num 3.82 1.13 2.99 5.8 3.3 ... Example

 Live Demo

data(BOD) str(BOD) ' Output data.frame': 6 obs. of 2 variables: $ Time : num 1 2 3 4 5 7 $ demand: num 8.3 10.3 19 16 15.6 19.8 - attr(*, "reference")= chr "A1.4, p. 270" Example

 Live Demo

BOD$Time<-as.factor(BOD$Time) str(BOD) Output 'data.frame': 6 obs. of 2 variables: $ Time : Factor w/ 6 levels "1","2","3","4",..: 1 2 3 4 5 6 $ demand: num 8.3 10.3 19 16 15.6 19.8 - attr(*, "reference")= chr "A1.4, p. 270"

How To Convert A String Vector Into An Integer Vector In R?

> x1

Output [1] "3" "2" "1" "2" "1" "1" "1" "1" "1" "1" "3" "3" "3" "1" "2" "1" "1" "2" [19] "2" "3" "3" "3" "3" "2" "3" "3" "3" "2" "1" "2" "3" "3" "2" "1" "2" "2" [37] "3" "3" "3" "2" "3" "2" "2" "1" "3" "3" "2" "2" "2" "1" "2" "3" "1" "3" [55] "3" "2" "1" "2" "2" "1" "2" "1" "1" "2" "2" "2" "3" "1" "3" "3" "1" "3" [73] "1" "1" "2" "2" "1" "3" "2" "3" "2" "2" "2" "2" "1" "3" "2" "1" "3" "3" [91] "3" "3" "1" "1" "1" "2" "2" "2" "2" "3" "1" "2" "2" "1" "3" "2" "2" "2" [109] "1" "1" "2" "3" "2" "2" "1" "1" "2" "2" "3" "2" "3" "2" "3" "2" "3" "2" [127] "2" "2" "2" "1" "1" "2" "1" "2" "2" "3" "3" "2" "2" "2" "3" "3" "2" "2" > x1 Output [1] 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 1 2 2 3 [38] 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 3 3 1 3 1 1 [75] 2 2 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 3 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 [112] 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 > x2 Output [1] "19" "1" "19" "1" "13" "7" "11" "1" "13" "3" "19" "7" "3" "11" "7" [16] "3" "5" "1" "3" "11" "3" "2" "3" "5" "7" "7" "19" "7" "11" "7" [31] "7" "5" "17" "11" "7" "17" "2" "5" "5" "5" "5" "1" "13" "13" "5" [46] "19" "1" "13" "3" "3" "3" "19" "7" "7" "2" "3" "5" "1" "2" "5" [61] "3" "17" "11" "1" "13" "1" "1" "19" "17" "2" "17" "17" "11" "17" "13" [76] "2" "5" "2" "1" "17" "5" "5" "1" "13" "2" "13" "2" "2" "13" "19" [91] "3" "2" "1" "2" "11" "11" "13" "17" "19" "11" "19" "11" "1" "5" "19" [106] "7" "13" "19" "13" "11" "17" "11" "19" "2" "7" "19" "5" "17" "17" "5" [121] "1" "1" "7" "5" "11" "5" "7" "17" "13" "5" "1" "17" "13" "3" "1" [136] "17" "5" "5" "1" "2" "19" "11" "11" "7" "1" "5" "7" "13" "3" "2" > x2 Output [1] 19 1 19 1 13 7 11 1 13 3 19 7 3 11 7 3 5 1 3 11 3 2 3 5 7 [26] 7 19 7 11 7 7 5 17 11 7 17 2 5 5 5 5 1 13 13 5 19 1 13 3 3 [51] 3 19 7 7 2 3 5 1 2 5 3 17 11 1 13 1 1 19 17 2 17 17 11 17 13 [76] 2 5 2 1 17 5 5 1 13 2 13 2 2 13 19 3 2 1 2 11 11 13 17 19 11 [101] 19 11 1 5 19 7 13 19 13 11 17 11 19 2 7 19 5 17 17 5 1 1 7 5 11 [126] 5 7 17 13 5 1 17 13 3 1 17 5 5 1 2 19 11 11 7 1 5 7 13 3 2 > x3 Output [1] "5" "10" "20" "15" "5" "15" "5" "5" "20" "20" "10" "10" "5" "5" "5" [16] "15" "5" "5" "15" "10" "10" "20" "20" "10" "20" "10" "5" "5" "15" "15" [31] "15" "15" "5" "10" "20" "15" "20" "5" "15" "20" "5" "20" "5" "20" "20" [46] "15" "15" "20" "5" "5" "10" "15" "15" "20" "20" "5" "5" "15" "20" "20" [61] "10" "10" "15" "10" "20" "5" "5" "15" "20" "5" "20" "20" "20" "5" "20" [76] "20" "15" "15" "15" "20" "10" "10" "15" "10" "10" "5" "5" "20" "20" "5" [91] "5" "10" "15" "15" "15" "10" "15" "20" "10" "20" "5" "10" "10" "15" "15" [106] "5" "15" "15" "10" "10" "20" "5" "20" "15" "10" "15" "15" "20" "20" "15" [121] "20" "20" "5" "5" "5" "5" "10" "20" "20" "10" "20" "5" "5" "20" "10" [136] "5" "5" "15" "10" "15" "10" "20" "20" "10" "20" "10" "20" "10" "15" "5" > x3 Output [1] 5 10 20 15 5 15 5 5 20 20 10 10 5 5 5 15 5 5 15 10 10 20 20 10 20 [26] 10 5 5 15 15 15 15 5 10 20 15 20 5 15 20 5 20 5 20 20 15 15 20 5 5 [51] 10 15 15 20 20 5 5 15 20 20 10 10 15 10 20 5 5 15 20 5 20 20 20 5 20 [76] 20 15 15 15 20 10 10 15 10 10 5 5 20 20 5 5 10 15 15 15 10 15 20 10 20 [101] 5 10 10 15 15 5 15 15 10 10 20 5 20 15 10 15 15 20 20 15 20 20 5 5 5 [126] 5 10 20 20 10 20 5 5 20 10 5 5 15 10 15 10 20 20 10 20 10 20 10 15 5 > x4 Output [1] "501" "515" "515" "501" "515" "525" "501" "515" "515" "520" "525" "520" [13] "515" "501" "501" "525" "520" "515" "525" "525" "525" "525" "515" "515" [25] "515" "525" "520" "520" "525" "501" "520" "525" "520" "520" "501" "515" [37] "525" "520" "501" "501" "515" "520" "515" "520" "520" "520" "515" "501" [49] "515" "501" "520" "501" "525" "501" "501" "501" "525" "520" "520" "525" [61] "520" "501" "525" "520" "515" "520" "520" "525" "515" "515" "520" "520" [73] "520" "515" "515" "501" "525" "525" "501" "515" "525" "520" "515" "520" [85] "525" "525" "501" "501" "525" "515" "501" "525" "520" "501" "501" "501" [97] "501" "525" "501" "520" "520" "515" "501" "515" "515" "501" "520" "501" [109] "525" "525" "520" "515" "501" "520" "520" "515" "515" "501" "501" "520" [121] "515" "525" "501" "515" "501" "515" "515" "501" "520" "515" "501" "520" [133] "515" "520" "520" "515" "525" "515" "525" "515" "525" "520" "520" "515" > x4 Output [1] 501 515 515 501 515 525 501 515 515 520 525 520 515 501 501 525 520 515 [19] 525 525 525 525 515 515 515 525 520 520 525 501 520 525 520 520 501 515 [37] 525 520 501 501 515 520 515 520 520 520 515 501 515 501 520 501 525 501 [55] 501 501 525 520 520 525 520 501 525 520 515 520 520 525 515 515 520 520 [73] 520 515 515 501 525 525 501 515 525 520 515 520 525 525 501 501 525 515 [91] 501 525 520 501 501 501 501 525 501 520 520 515 501 515 515 501 520 501 [109] 525 525 520 515 501 520 520 515 515 501 501 520 515 525 501 515 501 515 [127] 515 501 520 515 501 520 515 520 520 515 525 515 525 515 525 520 520 515 [145] 515 520 501 515 525 520

How To Delete A Row From An R Data Frame?

> x1<-rnorm(20) > x2<-rnorm(20,0.1) > x3<-rnorm(20,0.2) > x4<-rnorm(20,0.5) > x5<-rnorm(20,1) > df<-data.frame(x1,x2,x3,x4,x5) > df x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 1 0.2139625022 1.19892152 0.33297863 0.33708211 1.03661152 2 0.4796581346 0.85251346 -1.47926432 0.38578484 1.28852606 3 0.0878287050 0.04058331 -0.07847958 0.05534064 -0.10597134 4 0.4438585075 -0.24456879 -1.35241100 0.75695917 1.89223849 5 -0.3628379205 0.32266830 -1.17969925 -0.60013713 2.18146915 6 0.1226740295 0.65178634 -1.15705659 -0.83657589 1.35116793 7 -0.8638451881 0.78364282 -0.72113718 0.70489861 1.06300672 8 0.4896242667 -0.44587940 -0.66681774 0.53528735 2.39426172 9 -0.3641169125 -1.26743616 1.85664439 0.06108749 0.98749208 10 -1.2942420067 1.50005184 0.04492028 0.90040586 1.67807643 11 -0.7457690454 1.47305395 -1.37655243 1.08517131 0.94385342 12 0.9215503620 0.55025656 0.82408260 0.98212854 1.13599383 13 0.7500543504 -0.04629386 0.53022068 -0.30483385 2.86457602 14 -2.5085540159 0.22809724 -0.19812226 0.80307719 2.14870835 15 -3.0409340953 -2.19472095 -0.88139693 -0.32617573 0.06001394 16 0.0002658005 -1.26656892 0.12307794 0.64142892 0.93811373 17 -0.3940189942 -0.09747955 -0.32553662 1.24035721 0.62390950 18 -1.7450276608 0.16808578 0.59128965 1.88504655 1.20968885 19 0.4986314508 0.19050341 -0.48045326 -0.13357748 1.70545858 > df             x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 2   0.4796581346  0.85251346  -1.47926432  0.38578484  1.28852606 3   0.0878287050  0.04058331  -0.07847958  0.05534064 -0.10597134 4   0.4438585075 -0.24456879  -1.35241100  0.75695917  1.89223849 5  -0.3628379205  0.32266830  -1.17969925 -0.60013713  2.18146915 6   0.1226740295  0.65178634  -1.15705659 -0.83657589  1.35116793 7  -0.8638451881  0.78364282  -0.72113718  0.70489861  1.06300672 8   0.4896242667 -0.44587940  -0.66681774  0.53528735  2.39426172 9 – 0.3641169125 -1.26743616   1.85664439  0.06108749  0.98749208 10 -1.2942420067  1.50005184   0.04492028  0.90040586  1.67807643 11 -0.7457690454  1.47305395 – 1.37655243  1.08517131  0.94385342 12  0.9215503620  0.55025656   0.82408260  0.98212854  1.13599383 13  0.7500543504 -0.04629386   0.53022068 -0.30483385  2.86457602 14 -2.5085540159  0.22809724  -0.19812226  0.80307719  2.14870835 15 -3.0409340953 -2.19472095  -0.88139693 -0.32617573  0.06001394 16  0.0002658005 -1.26656892   0.12307794  0.64142892  0.93811373 17 -0.3940189942 -0.09747955  -0.32553662  1.24035721  0.62390950 18 -1.7450276608  0.16808578   0.59128965  1.88504655  1.20968885 19  0.4986314508  0.19050341  -0.48045326 -0.13357748  1.70545858 > df x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 4 0.4438585075 -0.24456879 -1.35241100 0.75695917 1.89223849 5 -0.3628379205 0.32266830 -1.17969925 -0.60013713 2.18146915 6 0.1226740295 0.65178634 -1.15705659 -0.83657589 1.35116793 7 -0.8638451881 0.78364282 -0.72113718 0.70489861 1.06300672 8 0.4896242667 -0.44587940 -0.66681774 0.53528735 2.39426172 9 -0.3641169125 -1.26743616 1.85664439 0.06108749 0.98749208 10 -1.2942420067 1.50005184 0.04492028 0.90040586 1.67807643 11 -0.7457690454 1.47305395 -1.37655243 1.08517131 0.94385342 12 0.9215503620 0.55025656 0.82408260 0.98212854 1.13599383 13 0.7500543504 -0.04629386 0.53022068 -0.30483385 2.86457602 14 -2.5085540159 0.22809724 -0.19812226 0.80307719 2.14870835 15 -3.0409340953 -2.19472095 -0.88139693  -0.32617573 0.06001394 16  0.0002658005 -1.26656892  0.12307794   0.64142892  0.93811373 17 -0.3940189942 -0.09747955 -0.32553662   1.24035721  0.62390950 18 -1.7450276608  0.16808578  0.59128965   1.88504655  1.20968885 19  0.4986314508  0.19050341 -0.48045326  -0.13357748  1.70545858 > df x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 5 -0.3628379205 0.32266830 -1.17969925 -0.60013713 2.18146915 7 -0.8638451881 0.78364282 -0.72113718 0.70489861 1.06300672 8 0.4896242667 -0.44587940 -0.66681774 0.53528735 2.39426172 9 -0.3641169125 -1.26743616 1.85664439 0.06108749 0.98749208 10 -1.2942420067 1.50005184 0.04492028 0.90040586 1.67807643 11 -0.7457690454 1.47305395 -1.37655243 1.08517131 0.94385342 12 0.9215503620 0.55025656 0.82408260 0.98212854 1.13599383 13 0.7500543504 -0.04629386 0.53022068 -0.30483385 2.86457602 14 -2.5085540159 0.22809724 -0.19812226 0.80307719 2.14870835 15 -3.0409340953 -2.19472095 -0.88139693 -0.32617573 0.06001394 16 0.0002658005 -1.26656892 0.12307794 0.64142892 0.93811373 17 -0.3940189942 -0.09747955 -0.32553662 1.24035721 0.62390950 18 -1.7450276608 0.16808578 0.59128965 1.88504655 1.20968885 19 0.4986314508 0.19050341 -0.48045326 -0.13357748 1.70545858 20 0.2709537888 0.42275997 -0.54869693 0.73858864 1.65208847

How To Turn Your Google Or Amazon Display Into A Digital Photo Frame

Standalone digital photo frames made a major splash years ago as a great way to showcase your memories from days gone by. But did you know you could turn your smart display into a digital photo frame?

These devices let you decide which images to show versus just the random slideshow categories you usually see. The only difficult part is choosing which photos you want to use.

Which Devices Can I Turn Into Digital Photo Frames?

Let’s start with Google: both the Google Nest Hub and Google Nest Hub Max let you create photo slideshows. Originally, only the Amazon Echo Show 15 had this functionality built in. But, as of August 2023, all Echo Show displays have this feature. If your Echo display doesn’t, you may want to check for a software update, which should have happened automatically back in August or early September.

Image source: Amazon

Essentially, if you have a Google or Amazon smart display, you should be able to turn it into a digital photo frame.

Currently, you can only set up this feature on Echo Show devices in the US, UK, Canada, Italy, France, Spain, Germany, and Australia.

Turning Your Amazon Echo Show Into a Digital Photo Frame

Before you start, you’ll need to make sure you have a photo source ready. Choose between Amazon Photos, Facebook, or your uploaded photos from the Alexa app on your phone or tablet. During the setup process, you’ll choose your desired source, including which albums you want to display.

If you want to use Amazon Photos, you can install the app on your phone or tablet and upload pictures to Amazon Photos. This works similarly to Google Photos. If you’re an Amazon Prime member, you get free unlimited full-resolution photo storage, along with 5 GB of video storage. If you’re not a Prime member, you get 5 GB of free storage and can upgrade to 100 GB for $19.99/year.

Say “Alexa, start Photo Frame” to start your new digital photo frame on your Echo. It will run for three hours unless you give Alexa another command.

If you’re using Amazon Photos, you can ask Alexa to show you specific albums or dates, such as “Alexa, show photos from last winter.”

The only downside to the Echo Show is that photos only display for three hours before you have to ask Alexa to show photos again. This can get tedious, but hopefully Amazon will fix this in future updates to function more like Google Nest’s continuous photo rotation.

Not sure which Amazon Echo to get? Check out our comparison guide to find the most suitable Amazon Echo.

Turning Your Google Nest Display Into a Digital Photo Frame

Image source: Google

Just like with Amazon, you’ll need to first set up a photo source before your Google Nest display can become a digital photo frame. Obviously, as a Google product, Google prefers that you use Google Photos.

You’ll need to download the Google Photos app to your phone or tablet and add the photos you want to use. Divide them into albums or libraries to make it easier to see only the photos you want.

With Google Photos, you get 15 GB of free photo (and any other files) storage. Plans start at $1.99/month for 100 GB and go up to $9.99/month for 2 TB.

Tip: you can also use Google Nest to find your phone or create reminders.

There are two ways to set up the Photo Frame feature on a Google Nest display. The first is via the Google Home app.

Open your Google Home app on your phone or tablet.

Select your Nest device.

Open Settings (the gear icon).

Tap “Picture Frame” and choose the photos/libraries you want to use.

The second method is via the display itself.

Swipe up from the bottom of your Nest display.

Tap “Settings.”

Tap “Picture Frame” and select the content you want to use.

Alternately, you can simply say “Hey Google, change Picture Frame” to open the Picture Frame settings.

You can let Google Photos create live albums or create your own. Either way, you can have up to 20,000 photos in a single album. This should continue to give you something new to see each time you look at your Nest display.

Frequently Asked Questions Will I still get notifications when using my display as a digital photo frame?

Yes. But, on Echo Show devices, you won’t see the notifications displayed on the screen as normally would. However, you’ll still hear them. You can also swipe down on the screen at any time to check for notifications.

Can I remove individual photos from my displays?

Yes. Simply remove the photo from the album linked to your photo frame. In Google Photos, you can archive the photo or tell Google to remove it (which archives it). You can also move photos that you know you don’t want to see on your display into a separate album or library. Don’t include that particular album in the content you want to see when setting up your digital photo frame, and you’re good to go.

For Google Photos, you can also create a Locked Folder, which hides your photos behind your phone or account’s password. Even if you share your Photos with someone else, they can’t see the Locked Folder.

Can I interact with photos on my display?

Absolutely! Want to know more details about a photo? Simply ask Google or Alexa to tell you when or where the photo was taken. This is a great way to check the date on any photo, though the dates may display at the bottom of the photo anyway.

Image credit: Google

Crystal Crowder

Crystal Crowder has spent over 15 years working in the tech industry, first as an IT technician and then as a writer. She works to help teach others how to get the most from their devices, systems, and apps. She stays on top of the latest trends and is always finding solutions to common tech problems.

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How To Convert A Live Photo Into A Video On Iphone And Mac

Live Photo compatibility is pretty much non-existent outside the Apple ecosystem. That’s why the iPhone and Mac auto-converts live images into JPEGs while sharing them via apps such as Mail. 

But one way to preserve a Live Photo’s dynamic nature and improve compatibility is by converting photos to a video. That also helps retain audio, which is not possible when turning Live Photos into GIFs.

Table of Contents

Convert Live Photos to Video on iPhone Using the Photos App

If you want to convert a Live Photo into a GIF on the iPhone, you can use nothing but the native Photos app for that.  However, the option that lets you do that is tucked away inside its Share Sheet and is easy to miss.

1. Open the Photos app on your iPhone.

2. Switch to the Albums tab and tap Live Photos (under the Media Types section) to bring up a list of all Live Photos on your iPhone.

3. Select the Live Photo you want to convert. 

4. Tap the Share button in the lower-left corner of the screen.

5. Scroll down the Share Sheet and tap the option labeled Save as Video. The Photos app should save the Live Photo as a video instantly.

5. Open the Recents album on your iPhone or tap Videos under Media Types to locate the converted video.

6. Repeat for any other Live Photos you want to convert.

The Photos app converts Live Photos to videos using the HEVC (High-Efficiency Video Coding) standard. You can check that by swiping it up to view the video’s metadata. Since HEVC encoded videos tend to lack support on non-Apple devices, the Photos app auto-encodes them in the H.264 format to improve compatibility while sharing.

You can also use the Photos app to convert multiple Live Photos. However, that results in a single continuous video instead of individual photo files. If that’s not what you want, use a shortcut instead (check the next section).

Convert Live Photos to Video on iPhone Using the Shortcuts App

Alternatively, you can use a shortcut to convert Live Photos to videos on the iPhone. You need to have the Shortcuts app for that. If you can’t locate it, you can get it off the App Store.

The Shortcut app’s Gallery does not include a native shortcut that converts Live Photos to video. However, you can use an external shortcut that supports the functionality. Just add our pre-made shortcut, and you should be good to go.

3. Use the Photos selector to select the Live Photo or Photos you want to convert. To access your Live Photos only, switch to the Album tap and select Live Photos.

4. Tap Add.

5. Pick an album to save the converted videos. You should see a notification once the shortcut finishes performing the conversion from Live Photo to video.

Rather than downloading a shortcut, you can create your own shortcut featuring similar functionality. Tap the Add icon at the top-left corner of the Shortcuts app, search for and add the following actions, and modify them accordingly.

Select Photos – To set up the shortcut to pick multiple Live Photos, expand the action and enable Select Multiple.

Encode Media – You don’t have to modify this action.

Save to Photo Album – To receive a prompt to pick a save destination each time you perform a conversion, tap the Recents variable and select Ask Each Time.

Show Notification – Add an appropriate confirmation message—e.g., Done.

Follow that by specifying an icon and a name from the top of the shortcut creation screen. Then, tap Done. You can then start using the shortcut immediately.

Convert Live Photos to Video on Mac Using the Photos App

On the Mac, you can use the Photos app’s Export function to turn a Live Photo into a video.

1. Open the Photos app on your Mac.

2. Expand the Media Types category on the sidebar and select Live Photos to bring up a list of all Live Photos in your photo library.

3. Select the Live Photo or Photos you want to convert (hold down the Command key while selecting multiple items).

5. Check the box next to Include IPTC as XMP (if you want to include the image’s metadata in a sidecar XMP file) and select Export.

6. Specify a location to export the image and select Export Originals.

You should see a still image and a video file for each live photo within the exported folder. You can delete the image files if you want.

To ensure compatibility on non-Apple devices, import them into the Photos app first. Videos that you then share will be auto-encoded in H.264.

Convert Live Photos to Video on Mac Using the Shortcuts App

If you’re running macOS 12 Monterey or later on your Mac, you can use the same shortcut you learned about for the iPhone to convert Live Photos to video.

2. Select All Shortcuts on the sidebar and run the Convert Live Photos to Video shortcut.

3. Switch to the Albums tab and select Live Photos.

4. Pick the Live Photos you want to convert and select Add. 

5. Pick an album to save the videos and select Done.

6. You’ll receive a notification once the shortcut finishes converting the images.

Like the iPhone, sharing converted videos directly from the Mac’s Photos app changes the default encoding from HEVC to H.264. That ensures compatibility on devices that don’t feature support for HEVC encoded videos.

Start Converting Live Photos to Video on iPhone and Mac

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