Trending December 2023 # How To Detect And Clean Malware From A Linux Server With Maldet # Suggested January 2024 # Top 17 Popular

You are reading the article How To Detect And Clean Malware From A Linux Server With Maldet updated in December 2023 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 How To Detect And Clean Malware From A Linux Server With Maldet

Malware is a malicious software whose goal is to disrupt the smooth and normal operation of a computer system or server, collect private information or just gain unauthorized access to the system/server. Linux systems are known to have few malicious software compared to Windows, but that doesn’t mean Linux users should be at ease.

Most attacks on Linux are aimed at exploiting bugs in services like java containers and browsers, and its main aim is to change how the targeted service works and sometimes shut it completely.

One of the most dangerous attacks on a Linux system is when an attacker tries to get a user’s login credentials. When this is successful, the hacker can run anything they want and have access to confidential data. They can also attack other machines connected to the Linux server. To combat this, users can use Maldet to detect and clean malware from Linux and keep their systems clean.

Linux Malware Detect

Maldet is also known as the Linux Malware Detect (LMD). It is a Linux malware scanner that was developed to handle threats that are common with shared hosted environments. It uses threat data from network edge intrusion detection systems to extract malware that is actively being used in attacks and generates signatures for detection. While it sounds complicated, it is easy to use.

Installing Maldet

Open a terminal and run the command below to download the application:

Unpack the downloaded archive file using the command below:



chúng tôi the active folder to the folder containing the extracted maldetect file:



“x.y” is the version number of the application. In this folder there is the “” script. The next step is to run the script using the following command:

If the installation is successful, you will be notified. You will also be told where Maldet was installed. In my case it was installed as “/usr/local/maldetect.”


After Maldet is installed, a configuration file is created in the Maldet directory called “conf.maldet.” To edit it, open it using a text editor.

gksu gedit









Or you can use “nano” or “vi” to edit it in the terminal:











Below is an example of options that may be set:

Email notification

Receive an email notification when malware is detected.

Set “email_alert” to 1.

Add your email address to the “email_addr” option.

Change the “email_ignore_clean” to 1. This is used to ignore alerts being sent to you when malware is automatically cleaned.

Quarantine options

Actions to be taken when malware is detected:

Set the “quarantine_hits” to 1 for the affected files to be automatically quarantined.

Set the “quarantine_clean” to 1 to automatically clean the affected files. Setting this to 0 allows you to first inspect the files before cleaning them.

Setting “quarantine_suspend_user” to 1 will suspend users whose accounts are affected, while the “quarantine_suspend_user_minuid” sets the minimum user id to be suspended. This is set to 500 by default but can be changed.

There are many other configuration options that you can go through and make the necessary changes. Once you are done with configuration, save and close the file.

Scanning Malware

You can run a basic scan manually or automate a scan to take place periodically.

To run a scan, run the following command:

When this command is run, a list of files is built from the directories in the path and scanning of the files starts. Change the file path “/folders/to/scan” to the directory where you want Maldet to scan. After scanning, a report is generated and you can then see which files are affected.

How to Quarantine Affected Files

If you set the “quarantine_hits” to 1, Maldet will automatically move the affected files to quarantine. When it is set to 0, the generated report shows you the location of the affected files. You can then inspect the files and decide whether to clean them or not.

Restoring a File

Sometimes you might have a false positive leading to a file being quarantined for the wrong reason. To restore such a file, run the following command:


maldet –restore FILENAME Automatic Scan

During the installation of Maldet, a cronjob feature is also installed at “/etc/cron.daily/maldet.” This will scan the home directories as well as any files/folders that were recently changed on a daily basis. It will always notify you of any malware through the email address in the configuration file.


Many people are saying that Linux systems are immune to malware, but that is not true. You can be tricked into installing malicious software, or malware can even be spread through emails, and this would cause damage to your system. There are also many other vulnerabilities where hackers try to gain unauthorized access, making the system insecure. To stay safe, you can use Maldet to keep your system clean. Other measures that you can take include setting up network monitoring and firewall rules among others.

Jackson Mwendwa

I am an intelligent and presentable individual with a degree in Computer Science and over four years experience in Management, Software Development, Information Technology Support and Tech article/tutorial writing. I possess a fresh, modern approach to the industry, employing creative and enthusiastic methods to problem-solving and would like to realize my full potential through practice, effectiveness, and innovation.

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Create Your Own Live Video Streaming Server With Linux

There are those who enjoy the ability to stream live, but don’t have a need to have their videos be available to the masses. Instead, they’d prefer to have more control over their stream and the content they produce. Open-source software, like Linux, is the best answer to this obstacle.

Table of Contents

Thinking Ahead

Before you begin setting up your own personal streaming server, you should ask yourself a few questions. First, what quality of stream are you looking for? Next, how many viewers do you expect to pull in? Where will you store all of your streamed content? Who will have access to that content?

System requirements can also be seen as a concern. However, there are no set rules on exactly what you’ll need in this regard, so do yourself a favor and experiment to see what works best for your goals.

You’ll need to figure out which protocol will handle the audio and video portion of the streaming. Real-Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) is a great choice but there are others, such as WebRTC, that might fare better in your situation. RTMP has broad support so we’ll focus on that for this article.

Linux Server Setup

Ubuntu Linux is my personal favorite, so that will be the version of choice here. For those who prefer a GUI option, Ubuntu Desktop is available. 

Fire up the Ubuntu installer and choose the settings that best fit your needs. You’ll probably want to set some static network settings since this is going to be used as a server.

Reboot the system after installation if it doesn’t do so automatically. Once the Ubuntu system boots up, install any updates that are available:

sudo apt update sudo apt upgrade

We’ll be using Nginx web server for this streaming server. Install it:

sudo apt install nginx

Procure the RTMP module so Nginx can handle your media stream:

sudo add-apt-repository universe sudo apt install libnginx-mod-rtmp

Adjust Nginx’s configuration so that it can accept and deliver your media stream.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

Add the following code to the bottom of the config file:

Save the config file as we’ll be using it later to create a working streaming server.

Restart Nginx with its new configuration:

sudo systemctl restart nginx Streaming Software Setup

The server is ready, so now it’s time to set up your streaming software. Let’s use Open Broadcaster Software (OBS) in this run-through. 

In the Stream section, select set Stream Type to Custom… and enter the following URL into the Server field:


In place of IPaddress, enter the IP address of your streaming server.

Now create your own Stream Key and enter it into the Stream key box. Make it something you’ll remember and write it down. For added security, check the Use authentication box and add your preferred credentials.

Finish with Apply followed by the OK button.

Everything should now be configured for streaming. To begin your first stream, hit the Stream Now chúng tôi button will change to Stop Streaming so long as everything was done correctly. Your stream’s bandwidth metrics will appear at the bottom of the OBS window.

Be Your First Viewer

Got your Stream Key handy? Type the path to your stream, and include the Stream Key you set up earlier, to the end of it. Should look like:

rtmp://IPaddress/live/SecretKey Additional Measures

Now that the basics have been achieved, limiting access to your streaming server and being able to record and save your videos are two other factors you may be interested in.

By default, anyone can view your stream. This may go against the purpose of creating the server in the first place. You’ll want to set up limited access using a Linux firewall, .htaccess file, or the built-in access controls in the RTMP module. This choice is left up to you.

The Nginx configuration provided here will only enable you to stream videos, but not save them. To add a storage option, in the Nginx config, just below the RTMP section, you can set up the stream recording options and provide a location to where you want your content saved and stored. 

Set an existing path in order to allow Nginx to write to it. Enter the following:

How To Download Official Windows 11 Iso And Perform A Clean Install

At times, even after following appropriate fixes, some issues don’t get resolved on Windows. For example, if you are facing the no sound issue on Windows 11, it’s likely you need to download Windows 11 and perform a clean install to fix the problem. Along the same lines, the black screen issue on Windows 11 is a frustrating snag that repeats after every update. To resolve all these problems, it’s better to start from a clean slate. So in this guide, we bring you a simple tutorial on how to download Windows 11 from Microsoft’s official website and also, clean install Windows 11 on any PC. So without wasting any time, let’s jump to the steps.

We have explained the steps to download Windows 11 from Microsoft’s official website. In addition, we have added detailed steps on how to clean install Windows 11 on your PC right away. You can move to the relevant section from the table below.

Download Windows 11 From the Official Microsoft Website

1. First of all, open Microsoft’s official page to download Windows 11. Once here, scroll down and move to the “Download Windows 11 Disk Image (ISO) for x64 devices” section.

How to Perform a Clean Install of Windows 11

1. Go ahead and download Rufus from here. It’s a free and open-source program that lets you quickly create an installation media. Now, insert a USB thumb drive into your PC and launch Rufus. It will automatically detect the USB drive.

4. After the flashing process is done, close Rufus and restart your computer. As your PC boots up, start pressing the boot key continuously.

Note: On HP laptops, pressing the “Esc” key during startup brings up the Startup menu. For other laptops and desktops, you will have to look for the boot key on the Internet. It should be one of these: F12, F9, F10, etc.

5. Now, select the USB drive on which you flashed Windows 11 and hit Enter.

8. And that’s it. A fresh copy of Windows 11 will now be installed on your PC. If you face any error here, you can follow our guide and bypass Windows 11’s requirements including CPU, TPM, Secure Boot, and more.

9. After the installation, when the computer restarts, unplug the USB thumb drive, and you will boot right into Windows 11’s onboarding (OOBE) setup. Now, go ahead and set up Windows 11. In case, you want to create a local account on Windows 11 during setup, follow our tried-and-tested methods from the linked article.

10. And there you have it! Windows 11 clean installed on your PC.

Download and Clean Install Windows 11 on Your PC

Clean The Crud From Your Pc

Mysterious PC Slowdowns: Possible Hardware Culprits

Sometimes a PC will start to crawl without warning, and the reason isn’t always obvious. Although the focus of this article is on cleaning and preventing operating-system gunk, it’s worthwhile to touch briefly on a few hardware problems that can cause sudden slowdowns.

Vanishing Memory

If you built your system yourself, the BIOS may on occasion reset itself without your knowledge. This can happen during a power failure, or if you shut down the system during the POST process. During such a reset, the memory speeds may revert to something more conservative. You’ll notice performance issues only when running memory-intensive apps.

Another possibility is that the apparent amount of memory might shrink. For example, on recent motherboards built with Intel’s P55 and X58 chipsets, a heat sink that’s too tightly mounted can bend memory circuit traces on the board. The net result is that one memory module becomes invisible to the system, potentially reducing the amount of memory available to Windows by one-third or one-half. That hampers your system, particularly when apps and data are swapped to virtual memory on your hard drive.


Modern Intel and AMD CPUs will automatically throttle down if they get too hot, which can happen if your system’s CPU and case cooling fans become coated with dust and start slowing down. Be sure to check the system temperature in the BIOS, or with any utilities that may have shipped with your motherboard.

Imminent Hard-Drive Failure

As hard drives begin to develop bad sectors, they try to copy data to safe sectors. Ordinarily this occurs rarely–but when a drive starts to fail, the behavior could become more frequent. The net result is constant disk use, as the system attempts to find free, good sectors. If you suspect such activity, turn on the SMART feature in your PC’s BIOS, which will pull diagnostic information from the drive and warn you if failure seems imminent.

Windows Entropy: Why Windows Gets Slower with Use

Windows slowdown has three main causes: The Windows Registry gets bigger, DLLs and other junk are needlessly duplicated, and hard drives become fragmented. One other cause on machines that have a lot of programs installed is that a lot of background services and applications can be running, without your knowledge.

The Windows Registry

Windows maintains configuration settings, application install settings, and options in a database called the Windows Registry. As you install and uninstall applications or make changes to Windows, the Registry tends to grow larger and larger. For example, the Registry on my production PC, which has a ton of apps installed, is about 384MB–and that’s just a backup.

The other culprit behind Registry bloat is incomplete uninstalls. Most users install or uninstall only a few applications per year, but some people (gamers and power users come to mind) tend to install and remove many programs.

Incomplete uninstalls leave residue in the Registry, which adds to its size. Windows 7 and its program uninstaller is much improved in this respect, but still not perfect.

As it turns out, however, Registry cleaners aren’t really the way to go. More on that later.

Associated Application Crud

See all those separately installed copies of the Microsoft Visual C++ redistributable? You really need only the latest version. If you’re running the 64-bit version, you might need two copies, one for 32-bit (labeled “x86”) and one for 64-bit (x64).

This is just one example of the kind of junk that can get installed on a system. It’s hard to stop and track down, and determining whether removing it might break something is often difficult.

Unneeded Background Services and Tasks

The more stuff you install, the more the programs seem to install some kind of service in the background. Maybe that service will speed up an application launch. Maybe it’s a control-panel applet for a high-end gaming mouse.

Do I really need Impulse Now running all the time? I use it only when I’m running a game downloaded from Stardock’s Impulse digital-delivery system, or when I’m buying a game from there. I certainly don’t need it. And I rarely use Microsoft OneNote, so that doesn’t have to run either.

Hard-Drive Issues

A machine’s file system will become fragmented eventually. Windows 7 tries to minimize that by running the defragger in the background when the PC is idle. But if you frequently create and delete files (or use applications that create and delete files regularly), the file system is bound to become fragmented.

System-performance issues can also crop up if the drive gets too full. If a drive is more than 90 percent full, swapping from main memory to the drive becomes very slow, which can drag down the system as a whole. It may be time to clean out your drive–or buy a bigger one.

Incomplete Uninstalls

Next: Diagnostic Tools

You’ll need some tools to help you unearth the excess files and other crud that may be clogging up your system. Here are a few.


Benchmarks help you determine your system performance. It’s worthwhile to run a systemwide benchmark, such as WorldBench or PCMark Vantage, when you first build or buy your system. Save the results, and then run the benchmarks again every few months. If the results decrease by more than about 10 percent, you may want to clean out your PC.

Useful Widgets

Not enough? Grab some third-party system-monitoring gadgets from Microsoft’s site.

Windows Resource Monitor

For monitoring system-slowdown issues, you can always just watch the actual system-performance monitor. Perhaps more useful, though, is the memory monitor, which tracks memory usage. It even shows you, in a more granular fashion than Task Manager does, how a particular app or service is consuming memory.

Windows Reliability Monitor System-Boot Diagnostics

It’s amazing how many applications, tools, and utilities attempt to preload something or another during boot. At one point I had a high-performance Windows XP desktop system that would take 15 minutes before the mouse would become responsive.

Windows 7 has fixed many slow-boot problems, but even so I’ve seen supposedly high-end systems take nearly 5 minutes to fully boot up.

One third-party program that’s useful for assessing boot problems is Soluto, which is both a diagnostic program and a utility that can fix slow-boot issues. I’ll talk about it at length on the next page, in the section on cleaning tools.

Cleaning Out the Crud: Multiple Options

You can, of course, manually clean out a lot of the junk on your system. Here are some ways to tackle the job.

Disk Cleanup

You can manually clean out old system files, as well–but that can be perilous, so delete such files with care. Also, Disk Cleanup allows you (under the More Options tab) to delete all but the most recent System Restore and Shadow Copy files. I recommend avoiding that–you never know if you’ll need an older restore point to get a usable machine back if you run into problems.

Defrag Your Drive System Configuration Utility

This tool is more commonly referred to as Msconfig. You launch it by typing msconfig in the Run bar.

The Startup tab is more useful. The caution here, though, is that if you disable everything willy-nilly, some of your applications (such as your antivirus software) may not work. Still, stuff like the QuickTime Helper app and the Adobe Acrobat helper can be safely disabled.

Registry Editor

This screenshot of the Registry Editor shows only the first-level view; on lower levels the typical Registry contains many thousands of entries, often with arcane names such as HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWARE{9F5FBC24-EFE2-4f90-B498-EC0FB7D47D15}. Understanding what to delete and what to keep can be fraught with peril.

If you’re trying to root out Registry entries for an incompletely uninstalled piece of software, the editor does allow you to search. If you do this, be very specific with the search string. The application name is much better than, say, the company name. Searching for “Zune,” for instance, will likely yield much safer results than searching for “Microsoft.”

Although you’ll find plenty of useful third-party tools out there, don’t go near anything called a “Registry-cleaning tool.” The Windows Registry is an insanely complex database, and no Registry cleaner can know every Registry key that an application may touch. I’ve had to help users who have run Registry cleaners that have rendered their applications unusable and unable to reinstall. That said, some Registry-related tools are useful.

Soluto Revo Uninstaller Pro

This handy utility is a little more complex than Soluto. Revo Uninstaller tries to be a more complete uninstaller, and generally it works pretty well for that purpose. It also has an autorun (startup) manager, but Soluto is probably better for that task. Similarly, Revo Uninstaller can act as a backup manager, browser cleaner, and evidence remover, but I’ll focus here on its main use.

For uninstalling one or two apps, you can download Revo Uninstaller for free, but the full version costs $40 for a single license or $80 for four computers. Revo Uninstaller helped me out with a pesky iTunes 10 installation problem–I kept getting errors that prevented iTunes from completely installing. Revo Uninstaller managed to remove all the Apple residue, and a complete iTunes install was possible after that.

Maintaining a Clean System: Steps to Take

Once you’ve cleaned out the crud, how do you keep your Windows system relatively clean? Here are several pointers.

If a window pops up in your browser asking you to install something, make sure you know what it is. It may just be a simple tool to help your browsing, or it may install something that runs at startup and saps your system resources. (Weatherbug, anyone?) In the worst-case scenario, it will install malware.

Use tools such as Soluto and Msconfig frequently to make sure useless junk isn’t running at startup.

Clean your drive frequently, particularly temporary Internet and temporary installation files.

It takes only a few minutes a week to keep your system relatively clean, and if you do that, you’ll likely be able to postpone the dreaded reformat and reinstall for a very long time.

How Does Turnitin Detect Chatgpt?

Turnitin is a well-known tool used by educators to check for plagiarism in student papers. The program scans submitted papers and compares them to its extensive database of existing content to determine if any passages match, flagging these areas as potential plagiarism. Recently, Turnitin has added “AI detection capabilities” to its repertoire, which allows it to identify the use of AI writing tools with a high degree of accuracy. This development is significant because it means that educators can now detect if students are using AI-powered writing tools, such as ChatGPT, to complete assignments.

Turnitin can now detect AI-generated writing, including that created with tools like ChatGPT, with 98% accuracy. While ChatGPT is meant to mimic human conversation, Turnitin’s technology can distinguish unique AI-generated patterns. However, there are conflicting reports about the accuracy of Turnitin’s detection of ChatGPT online.

ChatGPT, an AI language model, is one such tool that has gained popularity in recent years due to its ability to generate high-quality text. ChatGPT uses a machine learning algorithm that has been trained on massive amounts of data to predict and generate text based on the patterns it has learned. This technology can be helpful for students to gain insights, inspiration, and ideas when writing papers. However, when used improperly, it can lead to plagiarism issues.

See More: How to Write Your Cover Letter Using ChatGPT

The addition of AI detection capabilities by Turnitin is a crucial development in the field of education. The AI detector can evaluate the number of sentences in a written submission that may have been generated by AI writing tools such as ChatGPT, with a high degree of accuracy, making it a valuable tool for educators to check the authenticity of student work. While anecdotal evidence on social media platforms suggests that Turnitin’s AI detector has mixed results in identifying ChatGPT-generated content, it is essential to recognize that AI technology is continually evolving and improving, and its detection capabilities will only get better over time.

It is also crucial to note that while AI-powered writing tools can provide valuable insights and perspectives to students, they should not be relied upon solely for writing assignments. Students should continue to learn and develop their own writing skills, use AI writing tools as a supplement, and give proper attribution for any ideas or information they have gathered from external sources.

Turnitin’s AI detection capabilities can detect AI-assisted writing and AI writing generated by tools such as ChatGPT[1]. The AI writing indicator added to the Similarity Report shows an overall percentage of the document that may have been AI-generated with 98% confidence based on data collected and verified in Turnitin’s AI Innovation Lab. The AI writing report contains the overall percentage of prose sentences contained in a long-form writing format within the submitted document that Turnitin’s model determines was generated by AI, and these sentences are highlighted in blue on the submission text in the AI writing report. Turnitin’s technology has high accuracy and low false positive rates when detecting AI-generated text in student writing.

In conclusion, Turnitin’s AI detection capabilities have significantly improved its ability to identify the use of AI writing tools, including ChatGPT, in student papers. While there may be limitations to its effectiveness, it is still an important tool for educators to ensure academic integrity and prevent plagiarism. Students should continue to develop their writing skills, use AI writing tools responsibly, and give proper attribution when using external sources to avoid potential plagiarism issues.

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How To Setup Your Own Cloud Server With Nextcloud

This article will show you how to setup your own NextCloud server on Ubuntu 16.04. You can set it up at your home, office or even make it available over the Internet.

Right off the bat, with a Pi you’re running NextCloud on a low power consumption device. Also great is the fact that the hardware is decent enough to power NextCloud despite the Pi’s low power footprint. The only downside I see to using a Pi is that your storage is running through USB ports to a secondary device. In some cases this can bottleneck a bit when sharing resources to other USB devices. For most people this is a moot issue, however I’d suggest that you’d want to limit your Pi to images and documents only.

What about NAS (Network Attached Storage) or exposing a PC to the Internet? As a standalone type of thing, I think that running a NAS is overkill. That said, it would be doable to do so with the NAS running other tasks like Plex, etc.

By now, I assume you’ve settled on the destination for your NextCloud instance. The next step is to begin the installation process.

Before we do anything, we need to make sure you’re ready to run what’s called a LAMP stack. This is Linux, Apache, MariaDB and PHP.

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

Then install the LAMP stack:

sudo apt-get install apache2 apache2-utils

Now let’s enable Apache.

sudo systemctl restart apache2

If for some reason this gives you an error, try this after checking the journalctl for errors…

sudo systemctl restart apache2.service

I prefer to use restart vs start as it saves us the extra hassle of checking for its status first. But, that’s just my preferred approach to handling services. Now let’s make sure Apache runs on each reboot.

sudo systemctl enable apache2.service

Now browse to your PC’s LAN address and make sure you see the Apache welcome default page. This is how you know things are working.

Now that we have Apache setup, we need to make sure the directory where you’ll house your NextCloud configuration has the right permissions.

sudo systemctl restart mysql.service

Then make sure its enabled so it starts after a reboot.

sudo mysql_secure_installation

From this point forward, the script is going to prompt you along. You’ll be asked to setup a root password unique to MariaDB(MySQL), disallow remote root access, remove the test database and so on. Once you’ve hit enter for each option, you’ll see “Thanks for using MariaDB!”

With our database software installed, we need to install the last component – PHP. So let’s start off by installing PHP7.

sudo apt-get install php7.0-fpm php7.0-mysql php7.0-common php7.0-gd php7.0-json php7.0-cli php7.0-curl libapache2-mod-php7.0

Once installed, we need to make sure Apache’s PHP is enabled.

sudo touch /var/www/html/test.php

And then…

If you’re looking at a neatly formatted page containing your PHP configuration, you’re all set.

At this stage, you’re ready to download the latest release of NextCloud. I recommend manually getting the latest release link from this link. For those of you doing this on a “headless server”, you could do the following (making sure your link is up to date first).

With the zipped folder containing NextCloud downloaded, you’re free to unzip its contents. Pro tip: make sure you have unzip installed first via your package manager.

sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/nextcloud/ -R

This is the point where you’re actually moving past initial server setup and into actually configuring your NextBox installation itself.

Now it’s time to set up your NextBox database in MariaDB.

First login to your MariaDB root password:

mysql -u root -p

Once logged into the MySQL prompt, you’ll want to create your NextCloud database (remember you can choose the database name):

create database YourCreatedDatabaseName;

Next, we want to create a non-root user for this database (You can create any username you wish):

create user UserNameForDatabase@localhost identified by 'YourPassword';

Now we’re ready to setup the proper database permissions for this NextCloud installation:

grant all privileges on YourCreatedDatabaseName.* to UserNameForDatabase@localhost identified by 'YourPassword';

With your database created and configured, we’re ready to flush the privileges:

flush privileges;

And finally, we exit the MySQL prompt:

sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/nextcloud.conf

The contents of the conf file will be as follows:

virtualhost :80="" DocumentRoot "/var/www/nextcloud" ServerName YourSelectedDomain.Whatever ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined directory var="" www="" nextcloud="" Options +FollowSymlinks AllowOverride All ifmodule mod_dav="" c="" Dav off /ifmodule SetEnv HOME /var/www/nextcloud SetEnv HTTP_HOME /var/www/nextcloud Satisfy Any directory /virtualhost

If you’re unsure about the domain for the servername for a LAN installation, you can use the IP address. If this is for a server on a VPS or similar, the same applies.

With the VirtualHost set up and ready to go, we need to move it from available to enabled status.

sudo a2enmod rewrite headers env dir mime setenvif

And then:

sudo systemctl restart apache2

Now we’re done and ready to browse to the NextCloud instance from a web browser. You can browse to the instance with either the IP address or if you setup your VirtualHost for it, you can use a domain name instead. Browse to the instance and you’ll be asked to create an admin account. Also make sure your data folder looks right from what we setup earlier in the article.

Still in the browser, we’ll also be asked to enter the database user, database password and database name that we setup earlier. Remember this isn’t the MySQL root info, this is the database info we setup specifically for NextCloud.

If these steps seem a bit overwhelming for you, I would suggest the following – use VirtualBox. By setting up a VirtualBox VM with a bridged network adapter, you’re able to test out a local configuration without needing to worry about messing up a server configuration. Once you feel comfortable with your skills in VirtualBox, you’re then ready to try out NextCloud on an actual PC, Pi or server.

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