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Just installed a new Linux distro? You might wonder how to find files and directories on your new system.

There are a few different ways you can find files and directories on a Linux PC. You can use Linux commands via the terminal, such as find, to help you. Alternatively, you can use the built-in file management tool provided by your Linux distro.

Table of Contents

If you want to find files and directories on Linux, follow the steps below.

Using the Find Command

The find command is one of the most powerful and versatile tools for finding files and directories by name in Linux. It can search your folders for various criteria, such as the filename, owner, file permissions, file type, size, or date.

Find can also perform actions on the matched files, such as deleting, moving, or executing commands on them. The basic syntax of the find command is:

find [options] [path] [expression]

Options controls how the command behaves, path specifies the starting directory or directories to search, while expression consists of additional options or actions that you can use (separated by operators).

For example, to find all files with the .txt extension in the current directory and its subdirectories, you can use this command:

find . -type f -name “*.txt”

The dot (.) after find indicates the current directory. The -type f option specifies that you’re searching for regular files. The -name “*.txt” option matches files that end with .txt.

You can also use the -iname option instead of -name if you want to perform a case-insensitive search. For example:

find . -type f -iname “*.txt”

This will match files that end with .txt, .TXT, .Txt, etc.

The find command has a number of useful features and settings that you can explore by reading its manual page via the terminal (man find). Some of the most useful ones are:

-not

: Negates the following expression. For example,

-not -name “*.txt”

matches files that don’t end with .txt.

-size

: Matches files by size. For example,

-size +1M

matches files that are larger than 1 megabyte.

-mtime

: Matches files by modification time. For example, –

mtime -1

matches files that were modified within the last 24 hours.

-exec

: Executes a command on each matched file. For example,

-exec rm {} ;

deletes each matched file.

Using the Locate Command

The locate command is another way to find files and directories in Linux. Locate is faster than the find command because it uses a previously built database of file names and locations. However, it may not be as up-to-date as the find command because the database is updated periodically by a cron job.

The basic syntax of the locate command is:

locate [options] pattern

The pattern is a string of characters that you want to search for in the file names. The locate command will return all file names that contain the pattern as a substring.

For example, to find all files that contain the word “yes” in their names, you can use this command: locate yes.

If you’ve recently updated a large number of files and you want to update the database manually before using the locate command, you can run this command via the terminal:

sudo updatedb

You may need to enter your password to run the command.

Like find, you can check for additional options for locate using the manual page via the terminal (man locate). These include:

-i

: Ignores case when matching patterns. For example,

-i linux

matches Linux, LINUX, linux, etc.

-c

: Counts the number of matching files instead of displaying them. For example,

-c linux

shows how many files contain linux in their names.

-l

: Limits the number of matching files to a specified number. For example,

-l 10 linux

shows only the first 10 files that contain linux in their names.

Using the GUI File Management App

If you prefer a graphical interface for finding files and directories in Linux, you can use the file management app that’s included with your Linux distribution. This might be called Nautilus, Files, or File Manager, depending on whether you’re using Ubuntu or another Linux distribution.

These apps allow you to browse and search your files and directories using a familiar window-based interface. You can navigate through your file system using the sidebar, toolbar, or breadcrumbs. You can also use keyboard shortcuts or drag-and-drop to perform various actions on your files and directories.

To search for files and directories using the common file app, you can use the search box in the toolbar or press Ctrl+F. This will open a search panel where you can enter your search criteria.

You’ll also be able to filter the results by type, size, or date. In Files on Ubuntu, press the downwards arrow next to the search results to choose your search criteria.

Managing Files on Linux

Finding files and directories in Linux can be a daunting task for beginners. By using the find and locate Linux commands, or by using your Linux system’s file management tool, you can search for files and directories by various criteria and perform actions on them. For instance, you can delete files on your Linux PC that you don’t need.

Another task you could try is renaming your files and folders on Linux to make it easier to locate your most important files.

You're reading How To Find Files And Directories In Linux

How To Bulk Rename Files In Linux With Thunar’s Bulk Rename Tool

One of the most powerful file managers in Linux, Thunar is simple to use and provides all the essential tools a user needs to manage their files. Among them is a quite powerful renaming tool. Thunar Bulk Rename specializes, as its name suggests, in renaming groups of files and allows doing it in different ways. You can replace parts of a filenames and add numbers or dates. In other words, it’s one of the best aids for those who work most of every day with large sets of files and often need to modify their names.

Installation

If your Linux distribution doesn’t come with Thunar, it can be easily found in your distribution’s App Store / Software Center. If you prefer the terminal, for distributions based on Debian / Ubuntu, you can install it with the command:

File selection

Type of renaming

Notice the pulldown menu at the bottom left of the list. From this, you can choose between different types of file renaming. Those allow actions like modifying part of the files’ names or adding a date.

Depending on what you choose in this menu, the rest of the available options will change accordingly.

Element positioning

Although each type of renaming may come with different parameters, they share some options between them. Among them, the way you specify “the location” of anything you add to a filename.

This is defined by the “From the …” (front / back) and “At position” (+/-) options. The default values “At position: 0” and “From the front (left)” specify that in the case of a date, it will be placed “in front” of the existing filename. If the second option were changed to “From the back (right),” the date would be placed at the end of each filename. “At position” allows you to “move” the new item, in this case the date, by a specific number of letters, counting from either the left or right as defined by the other available option. For example, placing the date after the second letter of each name or five letters before its end.

Time and date

The “Format” field doesn’t have to contain only specific codes that the application recognizes (e.g., “% d% m% Y” for the day-month-year of a date). You can type whatever you want in it, and it will be included with the codes in the filename.

In this image you can see that we have inserted two underscores before the date so that it’s not displayed right next to the original name of each file, rendering the result more readable.

Easy numbering

Thunar’s Bulk Rename allows you to add numbering to the selected set of files and provides different options and parameters for how to accomplish this. You can choose between different types of numbering, whether to keep the existing name or replace everything with the new numbers, specify how many digits to include (e.g., 1-2-3 or 01-02-03), and add some custom text next to them.

Removing characters

A handy feature – but be careful how you use it – allows the deletion of characters. Selecting “Remove Characters” will enable you to set a “character range for deletion” out of the existing filenames. “Remove from Position” sets the starting point and “To Position” the end of that range.

Be sure to check out the preview in the New Name list to be sure the results will be what you want since it’s easy to delete the entire filenames and be left with a bunch of unrecognizable files.

Replacing strings

Equally useful is the ability to replace a set of characters, accessible through “Search & Replace.” In “Search For:” you set the string of characters you want to replace, and in “Replace With:” what you want to replace the characters with.

As you can see in the image, we replaced the word “screenshot” in our original filenames with “MakeTechEasier.”

These are the basics – we don’t think we need to go on with separate extended descriptions of how, exactly, each type of renaming works in Thunar Bulk Rename, since they all follow the same logic more or less. Experiment with them yourself, but make sure to always check out the preview before committing to any changes. And it’s probably also a good idea to have a backup of everything available – or, at least, the files you decide “to play with.”

Odysseas Kourafalos

OK’s real life started at around 10, when he got his first computer – a Commodore 128. Since then, he’s been melting keycaps by typing 24/7, trying to spread The Word Of Tech to anyone interested enough to listen. Or, rather, read.

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How To Unlock “In Use” Files In Windows

Let’s say you want to edit a file. You may want to give it a different name, move it somewhere else, or delete it altogether. There’s a problem, however; when you go to edit the file, Windows will tell you that another process has “locked” the file. As such, you’re not allowed to edit it. What’s going on?

Windows will naturally stop you from editing a file that’s already opened somewhere else. This is to protect it from being edited while another process is currently using it. For instance, if you open a Word document in Microsoft Word, Windows won’t allow you to delete the document while it’s open. Given how Microsoft Word is currently using the document, editing the file outside of Word may cause strange things to occur!

So let’s say there’s a file on your computer you want to edit, but Windows won’t let you. What do you do now?

What Does “Locked” Mean?

To clear things up; when we talk about a “locked” file in this article, we mean a file that is currently in use in another process. This then creates a “locked” file which you can’t edit outside of the process  currently using the file. This isn’t about files with a password lock on them or folders that deny you access due to insufficient security rights; these are different ways files can be “locked!”

If You Know the Process Locking the File Close the App Locking the File

If you’re lucky, Windows will let you know what app has locked the file. For instance, the above image shows a document locked in WPS Writer. If Windows tells you the process’ name, then it’s a simple case of finding the process in question and shutting it down. The solution in the above example is to find the WPS Writer window with this document open and shut it down. This then releases the lock on the file.

If You Don’t Know the Process

Unfortunately, sometimes Windows will claim the file is locked, but it won’t tell you what, exactly, is locking the file. This is especially infuriating, as there’s no obvious way to fix the issue. How can you shut down the process if Windows won’t tell you which one is the culprit? Thankfully, we don’t have to give up hope just yet; there’s still a few more tricks we can try.

Restart the PC

As a simple solution, restarting the PC also restarts all the processes on your computer. This means any process that’s currently hogging your file will be restarted and will hopefully relinquish its grip on your file. It’s not a fantastic solution as it does involve shutting everything down just to unlock a single file. As a quick and easy solution, however, restarting the PC will work the majority of the time.

Use LockHunter

If restarting your PC sounds like a hassle, don’t give up hope just yet! There are third-party tools you can use to unlock your files instead of having to restart every time. An easy-to-use solution is LockHunter which helps identify what is locking your files and unlocks them for you to edit.

LockHunter will then pop up and inform you of the process locking the file. You can then unlock the file if you’d like, but LockHunter also natively supports deleting and renaming the file through the app for an easier time.

Taking Back Control

When you want to edit or delete a file, it’s annoying to discover it’s currently being used by a process. Simply closing the process works most of the time, but when things get a little trickier, restarting the PC or using a third-party app can help.

Have you ever been plagued with locked files? Let us know below!

Simon Batt

Simon Batt is a Computer Science graduate with a passion for cybersecurity.

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How To Show Hidden Files And Folders In Windows 11/10

In this post, we will see how to show Hidden Files, Folders & Drives along with Protected operating system files in Windows 11/10/8/7, via File Explorer Options in the Control Panel or by using the Command Prompt and PowerShell.

On most days, you would not want to be bothered by the hidden Windows files on your computer. After all, the last thing that an average Windows user needs is some more data to deal with. On some rare instances though, or if you know what you’re getting yourself into, you may need access to these hidden files to make changes to Windows apps or system settings. These hidden files aren’t readily viewable when you open their parent folder(s) in the File Explorer. Ee will walk you through the steps needed to be taken to show hidden files and folders using the Explorer Options,  Windows Command Prompt and the PowerShell, two of the strongest methods for the purpose.

Show Hidden Files & Folders in Windows 11/10 via Explorer Options

You will have to open the Control Panel and then select the File Explorer Options in Windows 11/10. File Explorer Options is referred to as Folder Options in Windows 8.1/7.

To show Hidden Files, Folders & Drives on your Windows 11/10 computer:

Open File Explorer Options

Locate Hidden Files & Folders

Select the Show Hidden Files, Folders and Drives option

You can also open File Explorer Options in Windows 11 as follows:

1] Launch File Explorer on Windows 11.

Alternative method via Explorer Menu bar

In Windows 10, open Explorer, select the View tab and toggle the Hidden items checkbox to short or hide files and folders.

For your information, you can also access the Change folder and search options box from here.

Unhide Protected operating system files

Show hidden files using Command prompt

The process here is pretty simple. Here are the steps you have to follow:

Open the start command and search for Command Prompt. Select to run it as administrator.

Make a note of the folder in which you want to look for hidden files. For the purposes of this article, we will be using the C:/ drive. Access your drive by using the change directory command cd. Our first command line will look something like

cd C:

Now, type out the following command line which will show you all the hidden files in the location that you’ve chose

dir /adh

This will show to you all the hidden files, in this case, in the C:/ drive. There are some other keywords that you can use with the dir command if there is some specific information you are looking for. They’re all to be used in a similar manner:

/a – this will show you only the hidden folders.

/a:d – this will show you all the directories.

/a:h – this will show only the hidden files.

/adh – (The one we’ve used) Gives you all the above information combined.

Let’s now talk about PowerShell and how this process can be replicated there.

Show hidden files using PowerShell

Open the Start Menu and search for PowerShell, run it as administrator. (You can do the same via the Power User Menu too.)

The process here is quite similar. Access the location of your choice with the change directory keyword cd. It is used the same way as it was in the Command Prompt.

Once you’re into the location, type the following command line which will display to you all the hidden files inside it.

dir -Force

You can browse through the hidden files in a folder inside the drive’s root folder by adding that folder’s name to the cd command. Eg., cd C:Program Files.

Once you’re inside this particular folder, type/copy the following command and press enter:

There is a strong chance that the above command line may return a very high number of hidden files and folders, making it impossible for you to actually read through them.

TIP: There is another way! You can use chúng tôi to change File Attributes, and/or show the hidden files.

This post will show you how to make a File or Folder Hidden or Read Only.

If you wish to, you can also list all the hidden files & folders on your Windows computer.

BONUS TIP:

If you find that the Show Hidden Files, Folders and Drives option is missing, then this registry tweak is sure to help you.

Alternatively, you could use our freeware FixWin to fix this problem. You will find the fix under its Explorer section.

How To Convert Audio Files In Ubuntu

You finally decided to upgrade your old car audio system to one that also supports MP3s. But as an audio connoisseur, you have your music in FLAC format and maybe some AAC or AC3 files. Thankfully, you don’t have to recompress them one by one or overthink their format: SoundConverter supports many audio formats as input and can re-encode all of them to MP3s, OGGs or AACs in one go! Let’s see how you can easily convert audio files in Ubuntu.

Installation

SoundConverter’s popularity almost guarantees you’ll meet it in your distribution’s software center.

Seek it with its name and install it from there, or jump to a terminal and enter:

sudo

apt

install

soundconverter

After the installation, launch it and let it idle on your desktop while you proceed to the next step.

Converting your audio files

1. Run your favorite file manager. It’s easier to use drag-and-drop with SoundConverter for batch conversions. Point it to the directory with your “source” files – the ones you want to convert to MP3s (or some other format supported by SoundConverter).

2. Select all the files from your source directory and drop them in SoundConverter’s window.

You can also drag-and-drop directories – SoundConverter will “parse” them and add their contents to its queue. And you can repeat the procedure with more directories and files in different paths. You can include as many files-to-be-converted as you please to the program’s queue.

4. The options in the “How to name files?” pull-down menu offer some basic renaming functionality.

If dealing with large numbers of files, and not, for example, a single album from a specific artist, we recommend you use the “same as input, but replacing the suffix.” This way it will be easy to identify which file came from which source.

If your files contain strange characters apart from alphanumerics, enable “Replace all messy characters” to enhance compatibility with standalone devices, like the car audio system of our intro. Some standalone players can’t even read characters outside of what you’d use in an old DOS filename.

5. Use the “Format” pull-down menu in the “Type of result?” section to select your output files’ encoding.

6. Each format comes with some basic settings you can tweak. For all, you’ll have a quality option that also affects their file size: higher quality equals larger file sizes.

Some formats may come with extra options you can tweak. For example, for Ogg Vorbis files, you can use the “oga” extension instead of the default “ogg.” MP3s allow you to choose variable or constant bitrate, and so on. If you don’t know what each option does, we suggest you only tweak the quality to what you’d like and leave all else as is.

7. You can further minimize the size of the recompressed files and save more storage space by resampling them.

Most consumer audio equipment has 44kHz as a ceiling. So why leave your files at 48kHz and waste more space when re-encoding them? The produced files will be of somewhat lesser quality, but it’s not like you could tell if you aren’t using high-end gear – and that includes the device that will play the files and your speakers or headphones.

8. If you have an older CPU and are converting a lot of files at once, you’ll want to turn your attention to “Limit number of parallel jobs,” the last option.

Enable and set it to the number of cores of your CPU minus one or two. This way, you ensure that the encoding procedure won’t take up all resources, causing delays to other running software – except if you have no problem with that and don’t plan to multitask while your files are re-encoded.

CPUs have gotten good at compressing audio, so if you bought your CPU during the last decade, and it has more than a single core, SoundConverter should have your results ready in mere minutes, if not seconds.

Not for everything

As a closing point, nothing’s perfect, including SoundConverter. Sometimes an incompatible file can break a conversion.

In our case, we included a video file in WMV format to see if SoundConverter could extract and re-encode its audio. It didn’t. The whole process failed, and the program crashed.

If you meet similar problems, check your original files and encode them in groups until you find the culprit that breaks the conversion.

Odysseas Kourafalos

OK’s real life started at around 10, when he got his first computer – a Commodore 128. Since then, he’s been melting keycaps by typing 24/7, trying to spread The Word Of Tech to anyone interested enough to listen. Or, rather, read.

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By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy and European users agree to the data transfer policy. We will not share your data and you can unsubscribe at any time.

How To Run Webos Emulator In Linux

Installation

Note: Before we proceed to install WebOS SDK, you need to have Virtualbox and Java running in your machine.

If you are using a 64-bit machine, you will need to install the “ia32-libs” package too.

sudo

apt-get install

ia32-libs

To install the SDK, first download the deb packages from the site here. You will have to download and install the package “palm-novacom” and “palm-sdk”.

Usage

For the emulator to work, you will need the “novacomd” to be active. If it is not done by default, you can launch it via

sudo

/

opt

/

Palm

/

novacom

/

novacomd

You can then call the emulator:

palm-emulator

The SDK will then ask which version you want to launch.

By default, if you just installed the packages mentioned above, the only version you have is the latest 3.0.5. The emulator will then launch VirtualBox.

And after a few minutes waiting, the welcome screen will be displayed.

However, since WebOS is designed for tactile devices, you should know a few shortcuts in order to operate the OS properly.

The “Home” key will bring you back to the main screen.

Alt will display the keyboard and the search page.

Escape is for showing the notifications.

The right and left keys can be used to switch between opened applications.

So you can now play with this OS for a little while.

If you want to go deeper and maybe use it to develop some apps, you may want to open a terminal. For that, you can use the command:

novaterm

from any shell. This terminal will help you explore the device, but also simulate incoming calls or texts.

To create an incoming call, the syntax from a novaterm terminal is:

And for a text, the code is really similar:

Another interesting application for the emulator is the possibility to install third party applications. From your computer shell, you can use the command

palm-install

[

path to .ipk package to

install

]

to find third-party applications, you can query with your favorite search engine or start from here (requires an inscription in order to download applications).

Finally, like a lot of other mobile devices, you can transfer files to it via SSH connection. By default, the SDK uses the port 5522 to receive, so you can do something like:

scp

-P

5522

[

file

to transfer

]

root

@

localhost:

/

media

/

internal Conclusion

While the apps catalog is not as furnished as Android’s Play Store or the iOS AppStore, WebOS remains an interesting system for mobile devices. I don’t know about developing on it, but testing it is definitively an interesting experience. For all the TouchPad users, we can only hope that the open version will survive and expand.

Adrien

Adrien is a young but passionate Linux aficionado. Command line, encryption, obscure distributions… you name it, he tried it. Always improving his system, he encountered multiple tricks and hacks and is ready to share them. Best things in the world? Math, computers and peanut butter!

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