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FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another over a TCP-based network, such as Internet. An FTP server allows users to upload and download files over network, and it is an essential tool for file sharing and remote file access. In this article, we will guide you through process of installing an FTP server on Ubuntu with vsftpd, one of most popular FTP servers available.Step 1: Install VSFTPD
The first step in installing an FTP server on Ubuntu is to install vsftpd package. You can do this by running following command in your terminal −sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install vsftpd
This will download and install vsftpd package along with any necessary dependencies.Step 2: Configure VSFTPD
After installing vsftpd, you need to configure it to suit your needs. configuration file for vsftpd is located at /etc/vsftpd.conf. To edit file, open it in your favorite text editor with root privileges, like this −sudo nano /etc/vsftpd.conf
This will open configuration file in Nano text editor. You can make any necessary changes to file to configure FTP server as you wish. For example, you may want to set FTP server to run in standalone mode, enable anonymous FTP access, or limit number of concurrent connections.Step 3: Start FTP Service
Once you have configured vsftpd, you need to start FTP service. You can do this by running following command in your terminal −sudo systemctl start vsftpd
This will start vsftpd service and enable it to accept incoming connections. You can verify that service is running by checking its status with following command −sudo systemctl status vsftpd
If everything is working correctly, you should see a message indicating that service is active and running.Step 4: Configure Firewall Rules
By default, Ubuntu comes with a firewall called UFW (Uncomplicated Firewall) that can be used to manage network traffic. If you have UFW enabled on your system, you need to allow FTP traffic through firewall. You can do this by running following command −sudo ufw allow ftp
This will allow incoming FTP traffic on default FTP port, which is port 21.Step 5: Test FTP Server
Once you have completed installation and configuration of your FTP server, you can test it by connecting to it from another machine. You can use any FTP client of your choice, such as FileZilla or WinSCP, to connect to FTP server. To connect to server, you will need to know its IP address and username and password that you set up during configuration process.Step 6: Configure SSL/TLS Encryption
FTP by default is not a secure protocol, and all data transfers are sent in plain text. To improve security of your FTP server, you can configure SSL/TLS encryption to encrypt all data transfers between server and clients. This can be done by obtaining an SSL/TLS certificate and configuring chúng tôi file to use it.Step 7: Set Up User Accounts And Permissions
By default, vsftpd allows anonymous FTP access, which means anyone can connect to your FTP server without a username or password. However, this can pose a security risk, and it is recommended to disable anonymous access and set up user accounts with proper permissions instead. You can create user accounts and set their permissions by using command-line tool “adduser” and “chmod” respectively.Step 8: Monitor FTP Server Logs
It is a good practice to monitor your FTP server logs regularly to detect any suspicious activity or unauthorized access attempts. You can view vsftpd logs at “/var/log/vsftpd.log” by using “tail” command, which shows last few lines of file in real-time.Step 9: Use SFTP Instead of FTP
FTP is an old protocol and has some security vulnerabilities. If possible, consider using SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol) instead, which is a more secure and modern protocol that uses encryption and secure shell (SSH) to transfer files. SFTP uses same SSH port (22) as SSH and can be enabled on same SSH server.Step 10: Use Passive FTP Mode
FTP uses two modes, active and passive, to transfer files between server and clients. In active mode, server initiates data connection, and client listens for incoming connections, while in passive mode, client initiates both control and data connections. Passive mode is more firewall-friendly and allows clients to connect to FTP server even if they are behind a NAT (Network Address Translation) or firewall. To enable passive mode in vsftpd, you can add following lines to chúng tôi file −pasv_enable=YES pasv_min_port=1024 pasv_max_port=1048
These lines will enable passive mode and specify range of passive ports that vsftpd will use for data transfers.Step 11: Limit FTP User Sessions
To prevent overloading your FTP server and ensure better performance, you can limit number of concurrent FTP user sessions that are allowed to connect to your server. You can do this by adding following line to chúng tôi file −max_clients=50
This line will limit number of concurrent FTP user sessions to 50, and you can adjust this number to suit your needs.Step 12: Use a Dedicated FTP Client Step 13: Automate FTP Transfers With Cron Jobs
If you need to transfer files regularly between your FTP server and other machines, you can automate process by using cron jobs. A cron job is a Linux command that runs automatically at specified intervals, such as daily, weekly, or monthly. You can set up a cron job to run an FTP script that transfers files to or from your FTP server automatically, without requiring any manual intervention.Step 14: Use Chroot Jail
A chroot jail is a security feature that restricts users to a specific directory and prevents them from accessing other parts of file system. By using a chroot jail, you can enhance security of your FTP server and limit damage that can be caused by a compromised user account. To set up a chroot jail for vsftpd, you can add following line to chúng tôi file −chroot_local_user=YES
This line will restrict users to their home directory and prevent them from navigating to other directories.Step 15: Enable IPv6 listen_ipv6=YES
This line will enable vsftpd to listen on IPv6 addresses.Step 16: Backup FTP Server Data
Like any other data storage system, an FTP server can be susceptible to data loss due to hardware failure, system crashes, or other unforeseen events. To prevent data loss, it is essential to regularly backup your FTP server data. You can use tools like Rsync or SCP to transfer files to a remote location, or use cloud-based backup services like Amazon S3 or Google Drive.Step 17: Harden Your FTP Server
To enhance security of your FTP server, you can implement several security measures, such as −
Disable root login
Enable SSH access
Use a firewall to block unauthorized access
Implement password policies
Install security updates regularly
Use intrusion detection and prevention systems
By following these security measures, you can protect your FTP server from security threats and ensure that your data remains safe and secure.Conclusion
In this article, we have shown you how to install and configure an FTP server on Ubuntu with vsftpd. With this setup, you can easily share files between computers on your network or remotely access files from anywhere in world. By following these steps, you should now have a working FTP server that you can use for your file sharing and remote file access needs.
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Sublime Text is one of the most popular text/code editors, and for good reason: you can extend its functionality by using hundreds of plug-ins. Let’s see how you can install Sublime Text on your Ubuntu-based distribution, enable Package Control, and install packages for your development needs.Install Sublime Text on Ubuntu
In the past, to install Sublime Text, you had to download its package from its official site and install it the manual way. Unfortunately, this meant that whenever there was an update available, you had to repeat the process.
You might notice that this uses snap instead of apt. If you prefer to use the terminal, just enter the following command to install the Sublime Text snap package.
If you prefer “apt,” you will first have to add its repositories and security key:
The developer version demands this license from the get-go, so, as we said, don’t choose it if you neither have a specific need for it nor have bought a license for the application.
If you have paid for it and have no problem with unforeseen consequences, due to the somewhat unstable nature of the developer version, choose it with:
Finally, install the program itself with:
After its installation completes, you can now find Sublime Text in your Applications menu.Installing Packages in Sublime Text
After it’s installed, visit Sublime Text’s “Command Palette.” To do that, use the Ctrl + Shift + P shortcut on your keyboard.
Now you’re ready to start installing extra packages to extend Sublime Text’s functionality. Start by typing “install” in the command palette.
Choose “Package Control: Install Package” from the list of available options. After that, select the package you wish from the hundreds available and press Enter.
The Command Palette allows you to filter down the package list as well to help in pinpointing the ones you want. For example, if you type “HTML,” the package list will show only packages with that term in their name.
After a package is installed, if it needs to inform you about something or allows you to tweak some options, a new “Package Control Messages” document might pop up in Sublime Text’s main interface. In most cases, if you don’t care about being informed of every aspect of the software you use and don’t want to get too granular with its configuration, you can safely ignore them.
There are so many packages available that we couldn’t realistically list all of them. This also means that whatever you need, it will be there available for you to install and use. This is what makes Sublime Text so useful.
Are you using Sublime Text? If not, what alternative did you choose and why? Do you have any suggestions for other plug-ins we missed?
OK’s real life started at around 10, when he got his first computer – a Commodore 128. Since then, he’s been melting keycaps by typing 24/7, trying to spread The Word Of Tech to anyone interested enough to listen. Or, rather, read.
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Are you trying to install a printer on your Ubuntu system? Luckily, Ubuntu now recognizes most printer brands and will automatically install the related drivers when connected.
Many printer manufacturers such as Brother and HP support Linux distributions and release their own printer drivers. But before installing a printer from another brand, you should look at their website to see if they support Linux.
Table of Contents
Keep in mind that your desktop environment is what dictates the configuration tool you need to use to set up your printer, not the Linux distribution.Is It Already There?
Many modern printers have powerful network capabilities. What this means is that when you go the add printer area, your printer will already be listed.
How can you find out if it is? Note that you will need administrative privileges on the system to set the default printer.
Type Printers in the Activities overview. Moving your mouse to the top-left corner of your screen will show Activities.
Or you can press the Super key on your keyboard. The super key is the one that looks like the Windows logo on most computers.
Go to system settings. You can find it on your toolbar or Ubuntu dock.Your Printer Is Listed
As you can see in the image above, you can:
Change the name of the printer.
Print a test page to make sure it is working properly.
Troubleshoot your issues if you have a problem.
You should also check the Printer Options to make sure the default settings are consistent with the capabilities and features of your printer.
Keep in mind that every printer is going to be slightly different. However, the main principles are the same across all printers.
Pay attention to the Output Mode in the image above. If you are looking to save money because print cartridges can be expensive, you might want to only use Color when necessary.
When you don’t need a color copy, you can change that option to Black and White or Grayscale.What If Your Printer Is Not Listed?
There will be times when your Ubuntu OS won’t find a connected printer. There are various reasons for this that range from simple to complex.
You can either look at the printer manufacturer documentation or follow the steps below.Check Your Printer Hardware
One of the simplest things to check is the connection. Did you properly connect the power cables and USB (if the printer is not using wireless)?
If you have an older printer or have moved it from one location to another, you could have a loose connection. Check both ends of the USB cable to make sure the connection is secure.Ubuntu Drivers
Some older printers were not designed to work with the open-source operating system or the latest version of Ubuntu.
Alternatively, if your printer is very new, it might not have been added yet to Ubuntu’s database. So, what can you do?Download Your Driver
You can go to the printer manufacturer’s official website to find and download the appropriate driver based on the model number.
Each printer’s brand installation will vary so be sure to follow the directions carefully.Use The “Additional Drivers” Tool
Some printer manufacturers have their own proprietary and closed-source drivers. This means that that Linux distributions won’t be able to automatically enable them for you.
Ubuntu-based distributions have an Additional Drivers tool to enable you to install proprietary drivers. First, open your dash.
Then do a search for Additional Drivers and launch it.
Your system will detect the proprietary drivers you need for your printer and let you install them.Configure Manually Using CUPS (Common Unix Printing System)
Developed by Apple, CUPS enables your system to detect your printer if it isn’t automatically found. You can use it with a single computer or a group of networked computers.
If you don’t already have CUPS installed, you can install from Terminal with the following command:sudo apt install cups
Now you need to enable CUPS:sudo systemctl enable cups
Use the following command to start CUPS:sudo systemctl start cups
After you authenticate with your user password, the CUPS server will start automatically.
Now that you have enabled and started the CUPS service, exit Terminal. Launch into CUPS in local host:CUPS Setup - localhost:631
Add your printer from the CUPS for Administrators.
Find your printer from the locally installed printer.
Keep in mind that CUPS is specifically for printing and not scanning or other functions some printers might perform.
To learn more about CUPS, visit the official page.
Output: Executing: chúng tôi — –recv-key– E298A3A825C0D65DFD57CBB651716619E084DAB9 gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: imported: 1 (RSA: 1)
Once the trusted key is to install on the server database, we can add the repository to the machine with the below command.
Once the repository is added, we will now update the machine with the below command$ sudo apt-get update Output: Reading package lists... Done Output: Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required: linux-headers-4.4.0-21 linux-headers-4.4.0-21-generic linux-image-4.4.0-21-generic linux-image-extra-4.4.0-21-generic Use 'sudo apt autoremove' to remove them. The following additional packages will be installed: bzip2-doc cdbs cpp-5 dh-translations fontconfig fontconfig-config fonts-dejavu-core g++-5 gcc-5 gcc-5-base gfortran gfortran-5 icu-devtools intltool libasan2 libatomic1 libauthen-sasl-perl libblas-common libblas-dev libblas3 libbz2-dev libcairo2 libcc1-0 libcilkrts5 libcurl3 libdatrie1 libdrm-amdgpu1 libdrm-intel1 libdrm-nouveau2 libdrm-radeon1 libelf1 libencode-locale-perl libfont-afm-perl libfontconfig1 libfontenc1 libgcc-5-dev libgfortran-5-dev libgfortran3 libgl1-mesa-dri libgl1-mesa-glx libglapi-mesa libgomp1 libgraphite2-3 libharfbuzz0b libhtml-form-perl libio-html-perl libio-socket-ssl-perl libipc-system-simple-perl libitm1 libjbig0 libjpeg-dev libjpeg-turbo8 libjpeg-turbo8-dev libjpeg8 libjpeg8-dev liblapack-dev liblapack3 libllvm3.8 liblsan0 … … … Creating config file /etc/R/Renviron with new version Setting up r-cran-boot (1.3-18-1cran1xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-cluster (2.0.5-1xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-foreign (0.8.67-1xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-mass (7.3-45-1xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-kernsmooth (2.23-15-2xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-lattice (0.20-34-1xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-nlme (3.1.128-2xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-matrix (1.2-7.1-1xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-mgcv (1.8-15-1cran1xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-survival (2.39-4-2xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-rpart (4.1-10-1) ... Setting up r-cran-class (7.3-14-1xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-nnet (7.3-12-1xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-spatial (7.3-11-1xenial0) ... Setting up r-cran-codetools (0.2-15-1cran1xenial0) ... Setting up r-recommended (3.3.2-1xenial0) ... Setting up r-base (3.3.2-1xenial0) ... Setting up liblzma-dev:amd64 (5.1.1alpha+20120614-2ubuntu2) ... Setting up r-doc-html (3.3.2-1xenial0) ... Setting up x11-utils (7.7+3) ... Setting up x11-xserver-utils (7.7+7) ... Setting up libauthen-sasl-perl (2.1600-1) ... Setting up r-base-html (3.3.2-1xenial0) ... Setting up libwww-perl (6.15-1) ... Setting up libxml-parser-perl (2.44-1build1) ... Setting up intltool (0.51.0-2) ... Setting up dh-translations (129) ... Setting up cdbs (0.4.130ubuntu2) ... Setting up libxml-twig-perl (1:3.48-1) ... Setting up libnet-dbus-perl (1.1.0-3build1) ... Setting up r-base-dev (3.3.2-1xenial0) ... Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.23-0ubuntu3) ... Processing triggers for systemd (229-4ubuntu10) ... Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-19) ...
Once the package is installed, we can verify the packages using the below command$ sudo -i R Output: R version 3.3.2 (2024-10-31) -- "Sincere Pumpkin Patch" Copyright (C) 2024 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing Platform: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu (64-bit) R is free software and comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. You are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Type 'license()' or 'licence()' for distribution details. Natural language support but running in an English locale R is a collaborative project with many contributors. Type 'contributors()' for more information and 'citation()' on how to cite R or R packages in publications. Type 'demo()' for some demos, 'help()' for on-line help, or 'help.start()' for an HTML browser interface to help. Type 'q()' to quit R. > Install the additional R Packages from CRAN Repository
As R has a lot of packages or add-on, where here in the demo we will install the txtplot which is an ASCII graph package which also includes the scatterplot, below is the command to be run from the R console.> install.packages('txtplot') Output: Installing package into ‘/usr/local/lib/R/site-library’ (as ‘lib’ is unspecified) --- Please select a CRAN mirror for use in this session --- HTTPS CRAN mirror 53: (HTTP mirrors) Selection:1 Content type 'application/x-gzip' length 6152 bytes ================================================== downloaded 6152 bytes * installing *source* package ‘txtplot’ ... ** package ‘txtplot’ successfully unpacked and MD5 sums checked ** R ** preparing package for lazy loading ** help *** installing help indices ** building package indices ** testing if installed package can be loaded * DONE (txtplot) The downloaded source packages are in Output: 120 + * + | | d 100 + * + s 80 + * * + a 60 + * * * * * + c 40 + * * * * * * * + 20 + * * * * * + | * * * | 5 10 15 20 25 speed >
In the above article we have installed R uses the CRAN repository which is an open-source from RStudio Server as we have completed the server side installation and test some sample date with graphs.
Samba is not installed by default. Open a terminal and type the following command:
Alternatively, you can install Samba via the Ubuntu Software Center.Configuring Samba
To get Samba to work the way we want it to work, we have to make some changes to its configuration file.
In the terminal,gksu gedit
This will open the config file in Gedit.
Scroll down the page until you see the line:workgroup = WORKGROUP
This is the identifier of your PC. You can keep it as the default, but it is best to change it to something more meaningful, like “HOME-DESKTOP”.
Next, scroll down further till you reach the “Authentication” section. You should see the line:
#security = user
Remove the “#” at the front of the line.
Continue to scroll down further until you reach the “Share Definitions” section. This is where you configure the files/folders that you want to share with others.
The last line valid users = %S means that only you, or anyone with your login account, can connect to your own Home folder via Samba.
To add additional file sharing path, add the following lines to the end of the file:
/folder browsable =
yesguest ok =
readonly = no create mask = 0755
Change the name of this share configuration and change the path to the folder you want to share.
You can change the “guest ok=yes” line to “guest ok=no” if you want the share path only available for logged in users.
Lastly, save and exit the file.Setting Samba user password
To add yourself to the Samba user list, you just have to type the following command:
Alternatively, you can also create a new user account and add this user to the Samba user list
To create a user account, use the following command:
That’s it. You should be able to connect to this PC from another PC.More Samba Tips
If you are looking for an easier way to configure the Samba settings, you can install “Samba Server Configuration” GUI.
Damien Oh started writing tech articles since 2007 and has over 10 years of experience in the tech industry. He is proficient in Windows, Linux, Mac, Android and iOS, and worked as a part time WordPress Developer. He is currently the owner and Editor-in-Chief of Make Tech Easier.
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If you’ve ever paid attention to the market share statistics for desktop operating systems you probably know that Linux is most frequently pegged at about one percent.
Functionally this works just fine for users. The problem is that it makes it too easy for software and hardware vendors, makers of device drivers, and critics of all kinds to discount Linux’s importance in the marketplace. That, in turn, makes it less likely that new software will be ported to Linux, for example, or that key drivers will be created for the operating system; in short, it slows Linux’s growth.
What can you do about it? Well, if you use Linux already, you can make it known at DudaLibre, which maintains its “We are more than one percent” Linux counter to prove that the operating system accounts for more than the standard estimates suggest.
Next time you’re in the market for a new machine for your business, however, another way to help prove Linux’s market worth is by buying the distribution you choose preloaded. Not only will it save you the trouble of installing it yourself, but it can also help make sure everything “just works” out of the box, with support for any glitches that may arise.
Perhaps even more important, though, is that since there is a vendor keeping count, your purchase is sure to be included in the next batch of market data.
There are a number of very good vendors that will preload a computer with Ubuntu or other Linux distributions. Here are some of the best Linux-friendly vendors to check out.
Specializing in Ubuntu-powered laptops, desktops and servers, Colorado-based System76 is particularly notable because its success has just recently prompted it to start serving the United Kingdom as well. With a commitment to the ideals of open source software, System76 aims to help make it easy for consumers, businesses, schools and governments to make the transition to the world of open source software through world-class hardware, software and support. System76 ships to the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
California-based ZaReason will install a variety of free and open source operating systems on its laptops, desktops and servers, including not just Ubuntu but several of its derivatives along with Debian and Fedora. International shipping is available.
Based in Atlanta, EmperorLinux has been supplying Linux laptops since 1999 to corporate, government, academic, and individual users. Customers can choose the hardware, the Linux distribution, and even the partition setup on their machine, which will be ready to use out of the box with full hardware support under Linux. International shipping is available.
Also specializing in laptops, California-based LinuxCertified offers a variety of installation, customization and training services as well, with support for a variety of Linux distributions including Ubuntu, Fedora, and openSUSE. International shipping is available.
Los Alamos Computers
With a long list of high-profile customers, New Mexico-based Los Alamos Computers offers both workstations and laptops with the customer’s Linux distribution of choice preinstalled, though it recommends Ubuntu, Debian, and gNewSense in particular. International service is available.
Though it has a somewhat mixed history with regard to Linux, it would be remiss not to mention Texas-based Dell, which has been offering Ubuntu preloaded on select machines since 2007. As of this writing, one minitower and one Inspiron laptop are listed on the company’s U.S. site preinstalled with Ubuntu.
Wherever you end up, though, know that your purchase will not only get you a powerful machine loaded with what’s arguably the best operating system on earth; it will also help create some long-overdue realistic market statistics.
Follow Katherine Noyes on Twitter: @Noyesk.
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