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This Google Sheets tutorial will help take you from an absolute beginner, or basic user, through to a confident, competent, intermediate-level user.

Google Sheets is a hugely powerful tool, for everything from digital marketing to finance modeling, from project management to statistical analysis, in fact, just about any activity involving the recording and analysis of data.

And if you’re (relatively) new, it really pays dividends to learn how to use Google Sheets correctly. This tutorial will help you transition from newbie to ninja in short order!

If you’re new to Google Sheets, then I recommend you start from the beginning of this article.

However, if you’ve used Sheets before, feel free to skip sections 1 and 2, and begin with the Data and basic formulas section.

A template is available for copying to your Drive, to accompany this tutorial:

Contents 1. How to use Google Sheets What is Google Sheets? How is it different to Excel?

With the risk of getting into an opinionated debate about the strengths/weaknesses of each platform, here are a few key differences:

Collaboration is baked into Sheets, so it works extremely well. Excel is still trying to play catch up here.

Both have charting tools and Pivot Table tools for data analysis, although Excel’s are more powerful in both cases.

Excel can handle much bigger datasets than Sheets, which has a limit of 10 million cells.

Being a cloud-based program, Google Sheets integrates really well with other online Google services and third-party sites.

Both have scripting languages to extend their functionality and build custom tools. Google Sheets uses Apps Script (a variant of Javascript) and Excel uses VBA.

For the material we’ll cover in this article, there’s very little difference between the programs, however.

Why use Google Sheets?

How’s this for starters:

It’s free!

It has enough features to do complex analysis, but…

…it’s also really easy to use.

Need more convincing? Here are 5 more reasons from Google themselves.

Absolutely! You can build dashboards, write formulas that make your head spin and even build applications to automate your job. The sky’s the limit!

Ok, where do I get it? How to create your first Google Sheet

If this is your first time with Sheets, head over to the Google Sheets homepage:

Opening your first Google Sheet from Drive

When you create a new Google Sheet, it’ll be created in your main Drive folder (your root folder):

(Note: Don’t panic if you don’t see the Sheet yet, it may not show up until you’ve renamed it. See next step on how to do this.)

The Google Sheet editing window

This is what your blank Google Sheet will look like:

There are two menu rows above your Sheet, of which we’ll see more further on in this tutorial.

The main window consists of a grid of cells. An individual cell is a single rectangle, at the intersection of one column and one row, and it’ll hold a single piece of data.

The columns are vertical ranges of cells, labeled by letters running across the top of the Sheet.

Rows are horizontal ranges of cells, labeled by numbers running down the left side of your Sheet.

In the example above, I highlighted column E and row 10.

Column E and row 10 intersect at one cell, and one cell only. Thus we can combine the column letter and row number to create a unique reference to this cell, E10. Now when we want to refer to this cell, for example to access data in this cell, we use the address E10 to do that.

Entering, selecting, deleting and moving data

Now the fun really starts! Let’s start using this new blank sheet we’ve created.

Then you can simply start typing and you’ll see the data being entered into that cell:

It’s worth pointing out an important nuance here:

If you find yourself stuck inside a cell, you can press the ESCAPE key to deselect the contents and go up a level, to just having the cell selected.

First of all, don’t panic!

Google Sheets saves every step of your work so you can always go back a step (or two) if needed.

Press Cmd + Z if you’re on a Mac, or Ctrl + Z if you’re on a PC and you’ll undo your previous step. Keep pressing and you’ll simply go further back through your changes. (Pressing Cmd + Y on a Mac, or Ctrl + Y on a PC moves your forwards, to redo your last step.)

You can also undo using the Undo arrow on the menu:

Creating a basic table

Right, with all that in mind, it’s time for a quick exercise.

See if you can create the following table for our fictitious gym membership site, by entering the data into the correct cells (there is no formatting or other tricks used at this stage):

Feel free to use your own data if you wish. Also note that the dates entered above are in US format, with the Month first, so don’t worry if your table has the Day first.

Changing the size, inserting, deleting, hiding/unhiding of columns and rows

To change the width of a column, or height of a row, hover your cursor over the grey line denoting the edge of the column or row, until your cursor changes to look like this:

Adding extra rows and columns at end

If you reach the outer edges of a Google Sheet, you’ll notice the rows and/or columns stop. But don’t worry, you can add more.

If you’ve scrolled all the way to the bottom of your Sheet (or added that much data), you’ll notice that you’re given 1,000 rows by default. There’s a button to add more rows if you need, either 1,000 as shown, or any number you wish (up to a limit, more on that below).

Data Limit: Finally, keep in mind that each Google Sheet is limited to 10 million cells, which sounds like a lot but soon fills up. Anyway, you’ll find Sheets slows down considerably before reaching that limit. Most people report a slight slow down with tens of thousands of rows of data and complex formulas and models.

Adding/removing multiple sheets, renaming them

Super easy!

Why use multiple tabs within your Google Sheet?

Well, like a book with chapters on different topics, it can help separate different data and keep your Sheet organized.

For example, you might have a Sheet solely to record your global settings (any variables like name, email, tax rate, headcount…) and another for transactional data, and yet another for the analysis and charts.

The button with the three bars, next to the plus, is your index button, listing all of the tabs in your Google Sheet. This is super useful when you start having a lot of different tabs to manage.

For naming, I try to indicate what’s in that tab, so use names like Settings, Dashboard, Charts, Raw Data.

Formatting

You’ll find all of the formatting options on the top toolbar, so you can center your headings, make them bold, format numbers as currency etc. You may find them all on one single row, or you may find some under the More button, as shown in this image:

They’re similar to a word processor and pretty self-explanatory. You can always hit undo if you make a mistake (Cmd + Z on Mac, or Ctrl + Z on PC).

Try the following to format our basic table:

> Add a border around the whole table.

Here’s a GIF to guide you:

(Note, you can also find the formatting options under the Format menu, between the Insert and Data menu options.)

Alternating colors

Let me show you the option to add alternating row colors (banding) to your tables.

Let’s apply it to our basic table, by highlighting the table and then from the menu:

as shown here:

Remember, a little bit of formatting goes a long way. If you Sheet is more readable and tidy, people will be more likely to understand it and absorb the information.

Removing formatting

This is my number 1 productivity tip in Google Sheets.

To remove all formatting from a cell (or range of cells), hit Cmd + on a Mac or Ctrl + on a PC.

This will save you so much time when you’re wanting to remove formatting that isn’t yours or that you no longer want or need.

Advanced Resource: Read more on formatting

Different types of data

You’ve already seen different data types in Google Sheets in our basic table.

For example, suppose a cell contained:

$2.00

In each case the underlying data is the number 2, but with a different format applied each time. If we add 2 to each of these cells we get back the number 4 in every case (with formatting applied).

You’ll notice that currency data, percentage data and even dates are actually just numbers under the hood (dates? Really? Yes, they are, but that’s a discussion for another day). They’re all right-aligned, hanging out on the right edge of their cell.

Text is left-aligned by default.

If you want to force something to be stored as text, you can prepend a single quote, ' before the cell contents. So typing in '0123 will show as 0123 in your cell and be left-aligned. If you omit the single quote mark, then it’ll be stored as a number and show up as 123 without the 0.

Doing math on numbers

Easy-peasy, just like you do on a calculator.

Notice how calculation will show in the formula bar (1) as well as in the cell (2).

You’ll notice that you get a preview of the answer (in this case, 25) above the formula.

Starting with functions: COUNT, SUM, AVERAGE

Technically you’ve already written your first formula in the section above on math calculations, but really, your formula career begins when you start using the built-in functions (of which there are hundreds!).

Returning to our basic table, let’s count how many members we have, what the total monthly fees are and what the average monthly fees are.

COUNT

Next you’ll see the formula helper window show up, which tells you about the formula syntax and how to fill it in correctly:

In this case, the COUNT function is expecting a list of numeric values.

Then, close the function with a closing bracket “)”:

=COUNT(

B4:B7

)

Note: COUNT is used to count numbers. If you want to count text (for example the names) then COUNT won’t work (it’ll give you a 0). Instead use COUNTA (with an A at the end), otherwise the method is the same.

SUM

Your turn! Try creating a total for the membership fees in cell D8. Follow the same process as the count function, except use SUM and highlight the values in column D.

=SUM(

D4:D7

)

AVERAGE

You’re on a roll, so go ahead and calculate the average of the membership fees. Use the AVERAGE function in cell D9.

=AVERAGE(

D4:D7

)

Psst, you’ll notice that Google even helps you out sometimes and suggests the exact formula you were after:

Here you go:

If you make a mistake with your formula, you’ll see an errors message, probably something like #N/A, #REF!, #DIV/0 etc.

You’ll need to re-enter your formula and correct it before proceeding. These error messages do give a lot of context though, so they’re worth understanding.

Advanced Resource: Learn more about formula errors

What’s the difference between a function and a formula?

Well, both are used interchangeably and rather loosely so I wouldn’t get hung up on it.

For the pedantic, a function refers to the single method word (e.g. SUM) whereas a formula refers to the whole operation after the equals sign, often consisting of multiple functions.

Separating data with the Text to columns feature

Let’s suppose you wanted First Name and Last Name, rather than just simply Name as we have in our dead famous authors membership table. How do we go about doing that?

Back to our basic table, create a new column to the right of Name before the Tier column, i.e. create a new, blank column B.

On the sub-menu that shows up choose SPACE and marvel at how Google Sheets separates the full name into a first and last name. Feel free to rename the columns First Name and Last Name too.

Combining cells

Oh, blast I hear you say! You meant to keep hold of that full Name column as well.

No problem, let’s learn how to combine text so we can rebuild it.

Insert a new blank column between B and C (between Last name and Tier) and call it Full Name, in cell C3.

Add this formula in cell C4:

=

A4

&

B4

That’s A4, Ampersand, B4.

What it does is combine the data in cell A4 with the data in cell B4 and output it in cell C4.

Hmm, but this gives an output like this:

CharlesDickens

That’s obviously not good enough! We need a space between the names!

=

A4

&

" "

&

B4

Here we’ve told Google Sheets to add a space into the mix, and the output now will be:

Charles Dickens

Voilà, that’s better!

Your formula is sitting pretty in cell C4, but how do you get it to work for the other rows?

Copy it!

iii) drag the formula down by holding the little blue box at the bottom right corner of the blue highlighting around the original cell.

The neat thing is that as you copy this formula down, the cell references will change from row 4 to row 5, row 5 to row 6, etc., automatically! How cool is that!

(This is what’s known as relative references. More on that in section 5 below.)

Here’s a GIF to show this technique in action:

Let’s see some of the unique, powerful features that Google Sheets has, as a cloud-based piece of software.

Comments (and Notes)

Want to add some context to numbers in the cells of your Sheets, without having to add extra columns or mess up your formatting?

You can also add simple notes to cells as well if you wish.

Comments and Notes can also be deleted when not required anymore.

You can reach and control all the Comments in your Sheet from the big Comments button in the top right of the screen, next to the blue Share button.

Share your sheets

You can share your Google Sheets with other people. Since it’s on the cloud, they can access your Sheet and see the same, live Sheet that you’re in.

In other words if you make changes, they will show up automatically and in near real-time for everybody viewing the Sheet.

You can have multiple people viewing and working on the same Sheet.

Essentially you have three options to share you Sheet with:

The Advanced sharing settings window:

Here you can:

> Confirm when you’re finished (6)

I’ve used the link from the sharing settings to share the template for this tutorial with you!

Real-time Collaboration

Ok, so you’ve shared your Sheet with someone. If they open it whilst you’re still working in the Sheet you’ll see their cursor show up on whatever cell (or range) they’ve selected. It’ll be a different color, for example green to your blue.

If they enter data or delete data you’ll see it happening in real-time!

In this case my active cell is the blue-outlined cell. I see somebody else, denoted by the green-outlined cell, show up in this Sheet and enter data into a few cells before deleting it.

Magic!

Freeze panes

This is one of the most useful tricks you can learn in Google Sheets, which is why I’m recommending you learn it today.

Sooner or later you’ll work with a table of data that continues beyond the area you see on the screen (right now for example, I can see as far as row 26, but it depends on your screen size and other factors).

When you scroll down to look at data further down in your table, you lose the column headings off the top of your screen, and therefore can’t see the context of your columns.

Have a look at this data table showing the tallest buildings in the world, which extends below the bottom of what you can see on a single screen in Sheets. Scrolling results in the heading row disappearing, so you no longer know which columns are which:

What you need to do is freeze the heading rows.

Thankfully it’s super easy.

Now your headings will stay in place. Ah, that’s much better!

Relative/Absolute references

Suppose you have some data in cell A1 and you enter the following formula into cell B1:

=

A1

This formula will retrieve whatever data is in cell A1 and show it in cell B1.

Now copy the formula (Cmd + C on a Mac, or Ctrl + C on a PC) and paste it (Cmd + V on a Mac, or Ctrl + V on a PC) somewhere else on your Sheet, for example cell D5.

Nothing will show up in D5. In fact you may be wondering whether your copy-paste worked. Have a look in the formula bar and you should now see this however:

=

C5

The formula is there, but it points to a different cell, not A1, so does not show the data from A1.

But it still points to the cell that is ONE TO THE LEFT AND ON THE SAME ROW as the original formula.

Ah ha! Eureka!

The formula copied perfectly, keeping the same structure, pointing to the cell on the left.

This amazing property is called a relative reference, meaning it’s in relation to the cell where the formula is (e.g. one to the left).

That’s why you can drag formulas down columns and they’ll change automatically to calculate with data from their row.

Got that?

Now then, if you want to fix your formula (for example so it always point to cell A1) then you’ll want to use what’s called Absolute Referencing.

We lock the cell reference in the formula, so Google Sheets knows to not move the reference when the formula is moved.

The syntax uses a dollar sign, $, in front of the column reference and in front of the row reference to lock them each respectively, like so:

=

$A$1

Now, wherever you copy this formula, the output will always point to cell A1 and return you the data from cell A1.

Note, you can just lock the column or just lock the row reference, and leave the other part as a relative reference, but that is beyond the scope of this tutorial.

Working with formulas across sheets

Sticking with the topic of referencing other cells for the moment, how does one go about linking to data on a different Sheet?

Returning once again to our basic gym membership table for dead famous authors, in Sheet 1, let’s retrieve the table heading and print it out in Sheet 2 with this formula, entered into cell A1 on Sheet 2:

=

Sheet1!A1

Note the exclamation point at the end of the reference to Sheet1, i.e. Sheet1!

Now let’s do a simple sum of data on Sheet 1, but show our answer on Sheet 2.

In cell A3 in Sheet 2, enter the following formula:

= SUM(

Sheet1!F4:F7

)

This will return the sum of the range of cells F4 to F7 in Sheet 1 and print out the answer in Sheet 2.

Basic conditional formatting

Conditional formatting is a powerful technique to apply different formats (for example background shading) to cells based on some conditions.

Let’s see an example of conditional formatting, that is, formatting based on variable conditions.

For example, in a financial model, you might show positive asset growth with a green font color and a light green background, whilst negative growth might be shown with red lettering on a light red background. This gives extra context to your numbers, and pre-attentive attributes (the colors) help to convey the message more efficiently.

Taking the plain copy of the membership table (hit Cmd + Z on a Mac, or Ctrl + Z on a PC to go back if you need), highlight the final column of the membership fee, then from the menu:

Here you can choose a rule, for example, values less than $100 and highlight them red:

Notice the range is shown (1), then a drop-down menu to choose a rule (2) and then the formatting option (3), which is default red in this case, although you can go completely custom if you choose.

The power of conditional formatting is to highlight data dynamically. The formatting is based on a rule, so if another value should drop below the threshold ($100 in this case), it will trigger the formatting rule and be highlighted red.

Advanced Resource: Conditional formatting to show % change

Sorting data

Sorting your data is a common request, for example to show transactions from highest revenue to lowest revenue, or customers with the greatest number to least number of purchases. Or to show suppliers in alphabetical order. You get the idea.

So let’s sort the dead famous authors gym membership table, from earliest members to most recent members, i.e. we’ll sort our table based on the date column.

Highlight the whole table, including the header row. Then from the menu:

and be sure to check the “Data has header row” option. Then you can select the column you want to sort by, and sort option from A to Z, or Z to A.

This re-sorts the table, showing the earliest members first:

Filtering data

The next step after sorting your data is to filter it to hide the stuff you don’t want to see. Then you can just look at the data that is relevant to the problem at hand.

Taking the world’s tallest buildings data again, let’s apply a filter to only show skyscrapers built before the 2000s.

You’ll notice a light green shading applied to row and column headings of your filtered table, and also a green border around your table. Most importantly though, you’ll now have little green filter buttons in each of your heading cells.

You’ll notice you can manually select or de-select items to show. Let’s create a rule this time though.

Under the “Filter by condition” section, choose “Less than” and enter 2000 into the value box:

Hit OK.

Ta-da!

You’ll see a reduced table with just 9 results. The 9 skyscrapers built before the year 2000:

There’s also a native FILTER function, by which you can formulaically filter your data.

Advanced Resource: How to use the FILTER function

Adding Charts

As a final exercise with the tallest building data, let’s draw a chart to show the buildings built by year, so we can see the trend graphically.

Then highlight this single column called Built and from the menu:

This creates a default chart in your window and opens the chart editing tool in a sidebar.

Using the Explore feature

The robots are coming!

Soon we won’t have to create complex formulas or charts ourselves. We’ll simply ask our Sheet to do it for us. Sound far-fetched?

Well, you can do that now! The future is here.

(Soon we won’t have to open Google Sheets at all, we’ll simply type, or more likely speak, our data questions into a dashboard console, and out will pop the answers, but I digress.)

Google Sheets has a feature called Explore, powered by Machine Learning/AI/Deep Learning/Neural Network sorcery, that will ingest your data, analyze it and show you some common answers (like the SUM, COUNTs etc. we’ve seen so far) and basic charts:

52 buildings in my set. The earliest tower on the list was built in 1931 (the venerable Empire State Building!) and the most recent was built in 2023. The average of all the years built is 2007.

I mentioned charts, so let’s see an example of that with the Height (ft) column. Google Sheets Explore creates a Histogram for us, showing the distribution of tower heights:

We also get this interesting and insightful summary:

“Ranges from 1,148 to 2,717, but 80% of values are less than or equal to 1,480.”

Wow! At a glance, we have the min and max heights, but more impressive, we know that 80% are under 1,480ft tall.

Not all of the “insights” are useful, and I don’t use this feature much myself yet, but it shows a glimpse of how we’ll all work with Sheets in the future.

If you’re still not worried about AI taking over your job (whether that’s data analysis work or something else) in the next 10 to 50 years, then have a read of this article.

BONUS: VLOOKUP

No “How to use Google Sheets” article would be complete without at least a quick look at the VLOOKUP function.

Why?

What does it do then?

It’s used to search for a term and return information about that term from a different table.

Generally, it’s used when you have two tables that share some common attribute (e.g. a name, ID number, or email), but otherwise, store different information. Suppose you want to bring this information together though. Well, you can, and you link the information via that common attribute.

One table might have details an employee’s name and address, and the other table might have their name and work details like title and salary. You can use the VLOOKUP function to bring these bits of data together in a single table.

The syntax is as follows:

= VLOOKUP(

search_term

,

table_to_search

,

column_number

,

FALSE

)

In words: you select a search term that you search for in the first column of the search table. If you find it, you return a piece of information from the search table that relates to the search term (because it’s on the same row). The column number refers to which column of the search table you return the data from (1 being the column you searched in, so typically this number is 2 or greater).

Let’s see an example, by adding addresses to the dead famous authors’ gym membership table.

I’ve added a second table to Sheet 1, showing the addresses of our dead famous authors. What I’d like to do is add that data to the original gym table.

I want to do it efficiently with the VLOOKUP formula, rather than adding them manually. Not only is it much, much faster with larger tables (imagine ten thousand rows of data), but it’s also less error-prone.

The address table is in columns I and J, with the names in column I and addresses in column J.

So I’ll search for my author name in column I and return the address from column J, and print the output into whichever cell I created my formula in.

The formula is:

= VLOOKUP(

C4

,

$I$3:$J$7

,

2

,

FALSE

)

And this is what’s happening:

I search for the name (1) in the search table (2) and return the data from column 2 of the search table (3).

I don’t expect you to understand all of this immediately (and there’s a lot more to this formula than what I’ve shown here), but if you try it out and persevere, you’ll get there and realize it’s actually not too difficult.

(The FALSE argument, the final piece of information in the VLOOKUP formula means you want to do an exact match. 99.9% of the time you use a VLOOKUP, you’ll want to use FALSE.)

Advanced Resource: Dynamic charts with VLOOKUP

Keep up-to-date with new articles, course launches and exclusive offers, by signing up for my Google Sheets newsletter, and get my free Google Sheets ebook with 100 tips.

Check out my Google Sheets Essentials course for beginners.

Check out my free Advanced Formulas 30 Day Challenge course.

If all else fails, ask for help on the Google Sheets forum.

Looking for a Google Sheets expert to help with your next project? Schedule a consult today with a Ben-approved Google Sheets expert.

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Understanding Average In Google Sheets With The World’s Richest Person

This is a story about a bar, 10 regular folks, and the world’s richest man, to explore different measures of average in Google Sheets.

Somewhere along the way, we’ll seek to demonstrate the robustness of the different average measures, but more on that in a minute.

I want you to picture your favourite bar or pub.

For me, it might be a pint of ale at The Dickens Inn, near the River Thames in London:

I should just finish this blog post here, and we could all spend the rest of the day in happy reverie, supping our favourite tipple.

Alas, that won’t do! We have work to do and things to learn, so let’s get started.

The dataset

Imagine ten friends, all regular folks, sitting at the bar, eating and drinking, chatting and laughing. A most convivial scene. The beer tastes delicious of course, the floor is dappled with sunlight and the comforting aroma of Pie & Mash wafts by their nostrils. Anyway, I digress.

Let us play a little game. Our subjects don’t mind because they’re fictional.

We ask them all to write down their salaries in our Google Sheet, so we have the following results:

Good. That’s our dataset.

Calculating the average in Google Sheets

You can use formulas or pivot tables to calculate averages. In this post, I’ll show the method using formulas, since it makes it easier to focus on what’s happening with the average measures.

We then calculate the “average” salary, using the three different measures we know:

Mean Average in Google Sheets

Using the formula

= average(

B2:B11

)

we calculate the mean — the classic average — of our data. This calculation is the total of all the values divided by the count of how many there are.

The mean of this dataset is $66,170

It’s the measure of “middle-ness” or “central-ness” that we’re perhaps most familiar with.

However, there are two other common average measures:

Median Average in Google Sheets

Using the formula

= median(

B2:B11

)

we calculate the median, or middle value, of our data.

If we have an odd number of values, this value is just the middle value that bisects our data into two evenly numbered groups.

If we have an even number of values, as we do in this example with 10 people, then the median is the mean of the middle two values.

In our case, the middle two values, when the data is sorted, are $64,500 and $66,400. We add these two together, which is $130,900, and divide them by two to give us the median value.

The median of this dataset is $65,450

Mode Average in Google Sheets

Using the formula

= mode(

B2:B11

)

we calculate the mode — the most frequent value — in our our data.

The mode of this dataset is $67,000

Note: if none of the values in your dataset occur more than once, then no mode can be calculated and the Google Sheets function will produce an error:

So far so good.

This is where we introduce the world’s richest man.

His name is Jeff Bezos and he’s worth approximately $120bn, that’s right 120 BILLION DOLLARS. It’s hard to fathom how much money that is, but suffice to say that quitting his lucrative Wall Street job to found Amazon 23 years ago has paid off handsomely.

For the sake of this exercise, we’re going to assume Jeff has an annual salary of $10 million dollars (the majority of his $120bn wealth is his ownership stake in Amazon).

Now, suppose Jeff has just finished some stressful meetings in London and decides to avail himself of a pint of beer. He just happens to choose the same pub as our 10 friends from earlier.

After the awkward ensuing silence and subsequent predictable astonished whispers (“He looks like… Is that…? Wait, is it really…?”), normal service resumes and Jeff pulls up a stool at the end of the bar.

He is subject number 11 in our dataset, which, if we include Jeff’s salary, now looks like this:

Whew, that’s an outlier if ever I saw one.

And it has a HUGE impact on one of our averages, but which one?

The effect of outliers on mean, median and mode

Taking our new dataset of 11 values above, let’s calculate the mean, median and mode again.

The new mean is $969,245

The new median is $66,400

The new mode is $67,000

Wow! Look at that mean value now.

It’s jumped from $66,170 to $969,245. Now, if we were to say the average salary of all the folks in this room was almost 1 million dollars, you’d jump to all sorts of wrong conclusions.

The mean has been skewed so dramatically by the outlier, that it’s become a rather meaningless number now. It’s highly sensitive to outliers.

However, look at the median, which has barely changed, and the mode, which hasn’t changed at all. The median and the mode are what we call robust statistics. They have not been skewed, or unduly affected, by the new outlier.

Average Conclusion

We’ve seen how the mean is sensitive to outliers, and this is its principal drawback. It’s not a robust statistic. As we saw in our example, it was skewed so much that the result was essentially meaningless.

The median, being the middle value that bisects the dataset, is less affected by outliers, so is a better measure of central tendency when the data has outliers or is not symmetrical.

It’s also possible to have no mode (no values occur more than once, which can happen with continuous data), two modes (bimodal distribution), or even many modes (multi-modal).

How To Use Google Messages On Desktop

Google Messages is the default text messaging and SMS app on many Android phones these days. It’s a powerful tool that has many tricks up its sleeve and allows users to answer their phone’s text messages from their computer.

Sure, apps like WhatsApp, Signal and Telegram offer the same functionality, but if you’d rather use Google Messages for your texting needs, this article demonstrates how you can use Messages on your desktop computer.

Before We Get Started

We should note one thing before we get down to business. You won’t be able to use Google Messages on your desktop computer without having the Google Messages app installed on your Android device.

If your phone doesn’t come with the app, no problem. You can download it from the Play Store, then set it as your default messaging app on your device.

How to Get Started Using Google Messages on Your Desktop

To begin using Google Messages on your PC, you will have to access this page in your browser.

Once the Google Messages web page is loaded in your browser, you’ll see a few instructions appear on the screen.

The first thing you need to do is go back to your phone and open the Google Messages app. Tap on the three vertical dots in the upper-right corner and select the “Messages for web” option. Tap on the blue “QR code scanner” button to proceed.

This will open a QR code scanner on your phone. Aim your mobile device at the computer screen to scan the code displayed there. Messages for web should immediately load in your window.

Messages will ask you whether to remember this computer so that you can log in to your account instantly after visiting the Google Messages web page in your browser. You can do so if you want, although this is not such a good idea if you’re sharing the computer with someone else.

Now you can access your Google Messages on your PC and send and respond to text messages while you’re busy working on your computer without picking up your phone.

What Google Messages for Web Can and Can’t Do

Obviously, Google Messages for web doesn’t offer all the features that its mobile version does. For starters, you can’t place phone calls form within the web client like you can from your phone. You can, however, make video calls using both versions, as Google Messages will revert to Google Duo to provide this capability.

Other functions are inaccessible as well. For instance, you won’t be able to rely on Google Assistant to do stuff for you when using the service on your desktop. You can’t schedule messages either like you can with the mobile app.

However, other features, such as dark mode, group messaging, the ability to send emoji, GIFs and stickers, and lots others, are still onboard.

Wrapping Up

If you like chatting with people using Google Messages but aren’t a big fan of typing your messages using a tiny virtual keyboard, you can easily move all your texting to your PC. It’s extremely easy and convenient to do so.

Speaking of virtual keyboards, perhaps it’s time to upgrade yours. Check out our list of the seven best Gboard alternatives for Android users. Also;, learn how to fix issues with an Android phone not receiving text messages.

Alexandra Arici

Alexandra is passionate about mobile tech and can be often found fiddling with a smartphone from some obscure company. She kick-started her career in tech journalism in 2013, after working a few years as a middle-school teacher. Constantly driven by curiosity, Alexandra likes to know how things work and to share that knowledge with everyone.

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How To Use Google Docs File Offline

How To Use Google Docs File Offline

Also, if you are working on the Docs and lose internet connection, then you will not be able to work further on the Docs until the internet connection is available again.

Therefore, to cope with this situation, Google has provided an option where we can work on Google Docs without an internet connection, let’s read about this feature and know to use it.

Google has come up with a solution where you can work on Docs with offline mode. This offline mode will let you work on Docs without an internet connection.

Note: To enable this feature you have to be online.

To enable Google Docs offline mode, you have to follow the simple steps below:

1 Open Google Docs.

4 Enable the toggle button in front of Offline.

Note: It makes take some time to fully set up the Google Docs offline mode.

Once the Google Docs is set up you can work on your documents without an internet connection. In the offline mode you won’t be able to see thumbnails of your docs, they will appear as a list in the Docs.

Note: If some of your docs are faded then it means you cannot open them because they are in view-only mode or they are not synced.

Secondary method to enable Google Docs offline mode:

There is another option which lets you enable Google Docs offline mode. If you are working on some doc and internet connection gets disconnected, then you will get the notification to turn on offline sync and Turn on button.

After turning on offline sync, offline mode will be activated automatically once you get connected to the internet again.

Offline mode works on Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides. This is a great feature for those who have trouble connecting to the internet.

Now you have learned how to enable offline mode in Google Docs, let’s learn about the benefits of enabling it in the first place.

1 You can continue to work on your doc even if the internet gets disconnected.

2 You can manually turn off the internet to save battery on your mobile devices.

3 Share documents using external storage devices.

4 Complete your work anywhere at any time.

5 No need to check for the internet before start working.

Google Docs is one of the best online word processors you can find. You can create, edit and format doc on it. Google Docs offline mode is the great add on feature, which let the users work on it even without an internet connection.

Next Read: Troubleshooting Data Connection Problem In Android Mobile

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About the author

Kunal Sharma

Google Cloud Print – A Complete Guide

If you haven’t heard of Google Cloud Print, that’s not totally surprising. Even though it’s been around since 2011, it hasn’t become widely used. However, that is something that might change over the next year or so. Unlike some Google services that get canned during Spring cleaning, Google Cloud Print has been getting more and more features added to it.

So first of all, what is Google Cloud Print? It’s basically a way for users to connect their printers (wired or wireless) to the Internet and have the ability to print from any device (web, desktop, mobile) from anywhere in the world. What’s nice about Google Cloud Print is that you can print from a device without needing to install any printer drivers on the system. This can save an enormous amount of time and energy.

Table of Contents

For example, if you bought a new Windows PC and connected it to your network, you normally would have to find the drivers for your current printers, load the software and go through all the steps to get it installed on that PC. Now only does that take time and a lot of troubleshooting usually, it also slows down your system with a lot of extra printer software/tools you don’t need. From here on out, I will refer to it as GCP.

With GCP, you just install the Google Cloud Printer Driver on your Windows machine and you can now print from any program directly to any printer you have added in GCP. So is GCP is the greatest thing in the world? Well, there are a few caveats and limitations that I will explain below.

Where Can I Print From?

GCP sounds great, but you might be asking from where can I actually print from? Well, that’s where GCP has been making big leaps in the last year. At first, you could only print from Chrome OS, Google Chrome on any platform and Gmail and Google Docs on your mobile. The first increase to this list was the Cloud Print app in the Google Play Store for Android devices.

On July 23rd, 2013, Google really made GCP a lot more useful by introducing the Google Cloud Print Driver. You can install this on any Windows machine and it will allow you to choose Google Cloud Printer when printing from any Windows application.

They also released Google Cloud Print Service in addition to Print Driver. Cloud Print Service will run as a Windows service and can be used to connect older legacy printers to GCP. The Print Service is more geared towards businesses and schools.

Lastly, there is a short list of apps that work with GCP and allow you to print from them. For example, on iOS, you can download PrintCentral Pro, which will let you print emails, contacts, text messages, etc from an iOS device to GCP. At this time, Google hasn’t released a Print Driver for Mac, but you can download an app called Cloud Printer which does pretty much the same thing.

Now that you understand where you can currently print from, let’s take a look at connecting printers to GCP.

Cloud Print Ready vs Classic Printers

The main thing to understand about GCP is how you connect the printers to the actual service. There are two types of printers in the GCP world: Cloud Ready and Classic Printers. Cloud Ready printers are those that already come with the GCP service installed and configured. This is by far the best way to use GCP because the printer will actually register itself with the GCP service over your network and will always be available for printing.

The other great thing about Cloud Ready printers is that they will automatically update their firmware and drivers over the Internet, so you don’t even have to worry about it. Unfortunately, there aren’t a lot of printers out there yet that support GCP. You can see the entire list of Cloud Ready Printers here:

Next up are Classic Printers. Classic Printers are what most people will be using when setting up GCP. Classic Printers are either printers that are directly connected to your computer via a cable or wireless printers installed on your machine. Any printer that you can print to from your computer can be added to GCP regardless of how it is connected.

Now the major difference between a Cloud Ready and a Classic printer is that in order to print to any Classic printers, the computer that has the printers installed has to be on and you have to be logged into Google Chrome. If you turn off the computer or log out of Chrome and try to print to GCP, the print job will simply be added to the print queue. When the computer turns back on and you log into Chrome, the print job will then be printed.

Adding a Classic Printer

You can also choose to automatically register new printers when you connect them to your computer. That’s all there is to adding printers to GCP. Now it will take you to the GCP management console where you should see your printers listed.

Uploading Files to Print

I uploaded an Excel file and it printed just fine. From what I can tell, it seems like you can print any kind of file. I was able to even print an Adobe Photoshop file. So far, I haven’t been able to NOT print something, so that’s pretty great.

Sharing Printers

One neat feature of GCP is the ability to share a printer with someone else that has a Google account. It’s got to be one of the best features of GCP. Last week my parents came into town and they needed to print a boarding pass for the return flight. Normally, they just use my computer and print it from there, but this time I decided to give GCP a bit of a test.

Then I just typed in the email address and chose the Can Print permission.

In her Google account, she received an email with a link to add the printer.

Conclusion

By using Google Cloud Print, you can also consolidate all of your printers into one place. For example, if you have wireless printer installed on one machine, but have a second printer connected by cable to a second machine, you can add both printers to Google Cloud Print and print to either print from any computer or any mobile device.

In addition, you can print any file to Google Drive or directly to a FedEx Office. The ability to save to Google Drive kind of makes GCP like Evernote. You can print a webpage for later viewing straight to Google Drive.

Overall, Google Cloud Print has become a lot more useful over the year. Google will continue adding more features to GCP, which will make it a great way for consumers to print easily from anywhere and any device. Enjoy!

How To Use Google Webmaster Tools For Seo

Google Webmaster Tools – A guide for marketers and site owners What is Google Webmaster tools (GWT)

Google Webmaster Tools is a system built by Google that gives you feedback on your website from how Google sees it. It shows everything from phrases used to find your site through to pages it can”€™t distinguish or access through internal and external links.

Why is it important?

With Google accounting for over 90% of searches in the UK and many other European countries, any  insights that Google provides about the effectiveness of your website are worth reviewing. Google Webmaster Tools alerts you to how Google sees your website & alerts you to problems it finds..

Online businesses often overlook the basic aspects of natural search management, but with this simple interface you can quickly see if you are ticking all the boxes.

About this marketers guide

SEO specialists will be aware of these features in Google Webmaster Tools and others beside – please let us know what you see as important!

In this guide we”€™ll show you how to get the most from it in these ten steps. For full details, examples and screengrabs download the PDF at the end of the 10 steps.

Step 1. Setup and verification.

A necessary evil for gaining access to the insights that Google Webmaster tools offer. We have put together a simple guide to help you through the process. Google offer a similar one too!

You can remove Sitelinks if you don’t like an individual one at this stage – which is often handy!

Step 2. Review current keyphrase ranking Step 3. Site indexing effectiveness audit including: Step 4. Sitemaps Step 5. Robots.txt

It may be a little ‘old school’ but the chúng tôi file and be your friend as much as it can be your enemy. Is your file working hard for you and your website by allowing search engines to focus on the content that is most relevant to it. In this section we cover the tools Google have gifted us to test & create chúng tôi file as well as things to consider to improve your use of chúng tôi for your business.

Step 6. Crawl errors

Technology often lets us down and websites are no different. As sites develop and grow you tend to find broken links, pages that display errors etc. Especially for bigger sites this can become difficult to manage. In this section we introduce Google’s tool whch displays and informs you of errors they encountered on your website. While its better to be proactive than reactive this tool can help you stay on-top of what can be a tiresome task.

Step 7. Three Ws (canonical URLs)

Canonical URL’s were an appreciated gift from Google. With various content management systems that are widely available are extremely good (for all the right reasons) at creating duplicate content on your behalf. In this section we cover tools that allow you to manage duplicate content on a website level as well as a page by page.

Step 8. Site performance

As the speed of the internet has evolved so have websites, more images, videos etc etc has meant slow loading pages and frustrating experiences for all of us at some point. In this section we look at how your site performs and how you can use Google Webmaster tools to identify issues and move forwards with solutions.

Step 9. Inbound Link Analysis

A crucial part of any natural search strategy. This section covers Google’s insights into the links into your website including things like where the links come from & the anchor text of your links.

Step 10. HTML Suggestions

One of the lesser used sections of Google Webmaster tools this area allows you to manage basic on-page optimisation tactics as it gives you data surrounding missing / duplicate title & description tags. A key part to your on-page natural search efforts.

You can download the guide here or view it in Scribd below.

SEO Back to Basics : Google Webmaster Tools

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