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Introduction to Encapsulation Benefits

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Benefits of Encapsulation

Now let’s see what the benefits of encapsulation are in various programming languages as follows.

In C++, we can use encapsulation and hiding of data by using user-defined data types that we normally call class. Class is used to merge the information and function into a single entity, and the class contains the different members as follows.

Public: In which all objects of the class are able to access the information or, we can say, data.

Protected: This type of access is limited to some members of a class, or we can say that descendant.

Private: In this type of member, access is limited means within a class or function.

Internal: In which that access is limited.

Protected Internal: In this type, access is limited for the current class.

So these are some parameters we use in encapsulation to now let’s see actual benefits of encapsulation.

The main benefit of encapsulation is that we can hide the information from the user. That means we provide security to our data or information by using the above member function. Furthermore, by using encapsulation, we can give access to a specified level without any complexity. Therefore, we can easily handle the application and understand the application.

By keeping information hidden, or we can say that it is private in programming language and offering public obvious assistance techniques, the part of the object turns out to be obvious to different objects. This builds ease of use. Different objects know about the configuration to send messages into the object by using the public service. This is basically an agreement between the two objects. The invoker is consenting to send the message in the particular structure, including passing any of the necessary boundary data. The conjured object is consenting to handle the message and, if essential, return worth in the predetermined structure.

By using encapsulation, we can create classes in different modes such as read-only and write-only mode. Another benefit of encapsulation is that we reduce human error because we write code in a proper manner and suitable.

Let’s consider a simple example of a washing machine; in this scenario, we just switch on the machine’s power button, and the machine gets started, and after some time, we switch off the power button of the machine, then the machine stops. The final conclusion of this scenario is that we don’t know what happens inside the washing machine or what type of mechanism is used. Notice here we see this is a very simple mechanism to wash the cloth just by pressing the power button, but inside the washing machine, a different element or we can say that object works together to wash the cloth. This mechanism is called encapsulation; see here, there is no complexity to handle the washing machine in a similar way. Therefore, when we use encapsulation in programming, it minimizes the complexity of the program, avoids human error, and protects the information.

When we talk about a java programming language, the encapsulation provides some different benefits as follows.

The Java programming language provides the setter and getter methods to make classes read-only and write-only. It also provides the control functionality over the data, which means we can provide the logic inside the method per our requirement.

Examples of Encapsulation Benefits

Now let’s see the example of encapsulation in C++ to better understand the benefits of encapsulation as follows.

}

Explanation

By using the above program, we try to implement the encapsulation in C++. First, we create the class name as Encapsulation_Benefits after that, inside the class, we create a private member function with variable y. Then we set the value to that variable by using a public member function. Then we just call the class by using objects as shown in the above program. The final out of the above program we illustrate by using the following screenshot.

Conclusion

We hope from this article you learn the Encapsulation benefits. From the above article, we have learned the basic theory of Encapsulation, and we also see examples of Encapsulation. From this article, we learned the benefits of Encapsulation as well as how and when we use Encapsulation.

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Weighing The Benefits And Costs Of Police Body Cameras

Suppose a picture really is worth a thousand words. What is it worth, then, when every police officer on the streets wears a camera and can capture every moment of a crime scene, and every frame of a suspicious activity in motion?

Apparently those pictures are worth a lot. As of spring 2024, the use of data from police body cameras had been approved in six states, with another 34 states taking legislation into consideration, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. President Barack Obama also created a program that would invest $75 million in federal funds to help equip 50,000 local police officers with body cameras.

Federal law enforcement is following suit, as 99 percent of federal government officials surveyed believe that video surveillance will factor into their ability prevent crime over the next five years, according to a 2024 report from the research firm Meritalk.

But the move to use data from body cameras is not without its challenges. Police departments, already stretched thin financially, could face a high hurdle in adopting the technology. It’s also unclear how video evidence would be managed, and some worry that rampant videotaping by police could compromise citizen privacy.

Understanding the Costs Involved

There is good reason to believe that police body cameras work. They may cut use of force by police officers in half, and pare back complaints by 90 percent, according to a study in the Journal of Quantitative Criminology.

The financial cost of these benefits can run high, however. While the price of a body camera may not be prohibitive — it’s typically $300 to $1,000 per device — data storage costs can take a bite out of a police department’s budget, especially for small cities.

For instance, Duluth, Minnesota, purchased 84 cameras for less than $5,000, but its three-year contract for data storage came in around $78,000, according to a 2024 article in The Pew Charitable Trusts. Likewise, New Orleans police are anticipating $1.2 million in expenses over five years to support data storage for only 350 body cameras.

The expense of data management is driven by a number of variables that may be within the control of police departments. Storage costs will depend on the volume of data, as well as on duration. Many police departments are determining how long video content should be stored. While police departments may have ideas about how to handle this, policy often will be set by a combination of legislation and community consensus.

Providing the Necessary Storage Space

Experts say the most likely solution to the cost of video storage will come via the cloud. When volume outstrips the local police department servers, many will turn to commercial cloud solutions as a means of keeping data over time.

Vendors recognize the possibility and are taking steps to offer full-service solutions. Taser, a manufacturer of body cameras, pairs its body-worn camera system with chúng tôi its own private cloud service.

As with many new technologies, every answer raises new questions. The cloud may solve storage issues, but what about so-called “chain of custody?” How can law enforcement officials be certain video content is safe and undisturbed once they hand it over to an outside provider? Solid contracts and good security practices should provide assurance, but courts still will have to be convinced that the chain of evidence is unbroken.

Addressing Privacy Concerns with Body-Worn Cameras

Body-worn cameras also raise issues of privacy. Unlike vehicle-mounted cameras used in traffic stops, body cameras can come into a person’s home and can record personal activity. Body cameras also can record individuals in the background who, while not part of a crime, may nonetheless be identified for other purposes further down the road.

Suppose a citizen were to request a specific video through the Freedom of Information Act, arguing that it is part of the public record. Would police have to blur the faces of all bystanders unrelated to the event? In that case, the cost of labor could be staggering.

Clearly the rapid adoption of body cameras, while a boon to law enforcement, brings with it a range of technological and social challenges. The answers likely will lie in a combination of police policy, citizen expectation and legal and legislative actions. All this will take time. Just as the courts took a while to understand fingerprints, and later to accept DNA evidence, the role of body cameras likely will take some time to become established.

Another technology trend gaining traction in the law enforcement sector is wearables, which can boost police productivity without weighing them down with equipment.

Highlighting The Benefits Of Being Bilingual

Three years ago, I had a hardworking student in my class whom I’ll call Jose. As I connected with him, I was glad to learn more about his past and found out that he had immigrated with his family to the United States from Mexico a couple of years prior. At parents’ night, Jose’s mother spoke to him in Spanish, which surprised me as he never spoke Spanish at school and had previously told me that he only spoke English.

The next day, I pulled Jose aside and asked him about his speaking Spanish with his mother. With his head hung low, he explained that he was ashamed of speaking Spanish because he wanted to be “more American.” My heart broke for him, and throughout the course of that year, it became one of my teacher missions to show Jose that the ability to speak two languages is a great asset.

Sadly, Jose’s story is not unique. As educators, it’s our responsibility to show bilingual students that the ability to speak two languages is a great gift. Bilingualism is an incredible skill—it can lead to stronger brain functioning, higher incomes, and positive health impacts. In many ways, bilingualism is a superpower. There’s so much research showing the significant benefits of speaking two languages, and it’s important to empower students by sharing this information with them.

Benefits of Bilingualism

Bilingualism makes executive functioning skills stronger. Researchers at Vita-Salute San Raffaele University in Milan studied brain scans of bilingual and monolingual individuals. They found that people who are bilingual have significantly more gray matter in the portion of their brain called the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The ACC is one of the portions of the brain involved in executive functioning. 

Bilingualism makes people better at multitasking. People who are bilingual are multitasking without thinking about it. As a person’s brain transitions from one language to another, they are processing information and shifting between languages at the same time. 

Research shows that the ability to multitask linguistically translates to an ability to multitask in other areas of a person’s life because it strengthens the executive functioning skills in the brain. Researchers conducted a study looking at whether or not elementary school students could multitask; in this study, researchers had students perform multiple different types of tasks, and they found that bilingual students outperformed monolingual students on tasks that required students to multitask.

Bilingualism can increase math and reading performance. Several studies have shown a correlation between bilingualism and stronger mathematical abilities in students. In a large study of pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, and first-grade students, bilingual students outperformed monolingual students in mathematical reasoning, mathematical skills on word problems, and early number awareness skills. 

Along with increased math performance, there is also conjecture that bilingualism can increase students’ reading abilities. 

American University conducted a four-year study of Portland Public School students, comparing the academics of students enrolled in dual-language programs with those of students enrolled in traditional public schools. Students were enrolled into these two types of programs at random, and it was found that by the end of middle school, students in dual-language programs were performing one grade level higher on reading assessments than their peers who were not enrolled in these programs. 

Bilingualism increases earning potential and job opportunities. Research shows that employers from all career fields prefer to hire bilingual employees. Research also shows that among the millennial generation, bilingual employees earn more on average than their monolingual counterparts. It’s been reported that bilingual employees earn on average between 5 percent and 20 percent more than their monolingual peers.

Bilingualism can prevent negative effects of disease and brain injury. In recent years, a number of studies have been published looking at the impacts of bilingualism on human health. Many of these studies have surprising results showing the protection that bilingualism can provide to the brain. 

A study from York University found that people who are bilingual have delayed symptoms after a diagnosis of dementia; while bilingualism didn’t stop a person’s dementia, people who were bilingual exhibited symptoms approximately four years later than people who were monolingual with the same disease pathology. Another study that specifically looked at the impact of bilingualism on Alzheimer’s disease found that bilingual people with the disease had symptom onset four to five years later than people who were monolingual.

Another research study examined stroke patients and looked at the different outcomes for bilingual and monolingual patients. The study found that people who were bilingual were more than twice as likely to recover their cognitive functioning skills as people who spoke only one language.

Three weeks ago, I saw Jose in the hallway at school. He was giving a campus tour to a new student who had just immigrated from Oaxaca, Mexico. Jose was speaking with the other student in Spanish as he explained where the new student’s classrooms were located. I am proud to share that today he’s embracing his Spanish language skills and serves as a mentor for others. He now knows that bilingualism is one of his many superpowers.

Learn The Role And Basic Features Of Scrum Software

Introduction to Scrum Software

Scrum is the widely used methodology in the agile framework, and the main aim is to reduce the workload and distribute the work between the team members so that work should be completed on time. The other feature of this method is concerned has more pros than cons, which we will discuss further. Now if we talk about the scrum software which is the essential part of this method and used at large in the industries which work on the agile framework, the scrum software is a set of instruction which help the scrum master as well as the whole team to reduce the time of work and also help to increase the quality of work, so this whole collectively defines the scrum software by and large. So now we will discuss the other aspect of the scrum software.

Roles of Scrum Software

Scrum software is a tool that we can say is the panacea in the field of agile. As far as the role of scrum software is concerned, it plays a vital role by helping the entire team provide easy tools and an interface compatible with work.

The main problem of scrum master, which is handling of the entire process, is also sorted out with this particular software. With the help of this software, one can easily handle on or more than one process at one time, and also team management and allotment of work is also very easy. So, by and large, it has a very crucial role in the work.

Basic Features of Scrum

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Scrum provides the facility of multiuser, so a total of 12 Users may access the scrum software as a whole.

If we talk about the storage of the scrum software, so it comes with the storage of 5-10GB, which is partially the online storage and internal storage.

Scrum also provides the facility of multitasking; with this, a person can access or work on two or more tasks at one time, which eventually saves time and as well as resources.

It comes with a very good feature called the employee workload management tool, which is nothing but a tool that helps the scrum master keep vigil over the team and help him check the work status of the team members.

A tool which is a Task report, from time to time, update the user that how much work is completed and also shows the time required to complete the residue work.

Pros and Cons of Software

Below are some of the pros and cons of the scrum software, which are as follows:

Pros:

Scrum software puts more emphasis on the workload, and the management tools of this software are quite work-centric and bind the user to work effectively.

The work distribution method and team management are two basic pros of the scrum software; these two tools make the work effective and also enhance the quality of work and reduce the time for work as actual required.

Scrum software comes with many updates, and also, if one wants to increase the storage capacity and user limit, he can easily subscribe to this facility by paying a nominal amount.

Team management and workload are the biggest challenges every manager faces, so this software eliminates this problem and provides an enhanced experience.

If we talk about productivity, it is more than good, and also, eventually, it helps the company to increase its profit.

Cons:

The upper version of the scrum software comes with less user facility and less storage, so the user has to pay extra to enhance the user capacity and increase the storage of this software.

The facility of the auto tool is there, but the productivity goes decreases when the user uses this tool for some time. So this is not a good tool to use.

Every upgraded software comes with a debugging facility, but this particular software is the one that did not have this facility, which put the data under the threat of spying and Phishing.

The bundle of tools available in the software sometimes confused the user that which tool is to use or not to. So this basically is a negative thing for the work.

If we talk about the resolution and other display aspects, it is not as good as one expects per se.

List of Some Effective Tools

Now we will see some of the tools which are used in the scrum software and are very effective from the work perspective, so some tools are given below:

2. Jira: This tool is used basically for the debugging process and also tracks the bugs in the process so that the project should be saved from theft and spying.

3. nTask: This is a very effective tool in the scrum software, which is basically used to manage tasks; with the help of this tool, users can manage the no. Of task at one time and devote this time to other essential work.

5. Quick scrum: Quick scrum is the tool that helps the user find the effective tool for the process because due to lots of tools, users get confused, so mainly it enhances the efficiency of work.

Conclusion – Scrum Software

As we discuss above, Scrum software is very important software and helps a lot of the industries earn profit by quickly completing the projects. The market of scrum software is a very wide market, and the developers who create this software are really genius because it is very hard to arrange so many programs and algorithms to build Software. Also, it is not exaggerated that scrum software nowadays is the backbone of the industries and companies that rely on it.

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Learn The Examples Of The Load() Method

Introduction to jQuery load()

The load() method of jQuery is used to get data from the server and place the HTML or text response in an element in the DOM. So, basically, it is a combination of two conventional methods of most scripting languages – the global get method and the respective methods to get the element in DOM and set their contents. If the element selector does not correspond to any element in the DOM, the load method is not called.

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NOTE: Prior to jQuery v3.0, there was an event handler in jQuery by the name of the load. Whether the event handler would be invoked or the method was determined at run time based on the number of arguments passed. Post jQuery v3.0, the event handler has been deprecated, and we now only have the load() method to get data from the server and modify the contents of DOM elements with the response.

Syntax of load() Method

The syntax of the load() method has three variants based on the number of optional parameters passed to the method.

The basic and the most elementary syntax is as follows:

Here data is sent along with the request object to the server. This is useful in cases when your server expects some data or some parameters along with the request object. A simple example would be the id of the person whose details are requested from the server.

Then there is the third syntax which includes a callback function:

Here complete is the callback function, which is called when the request to the server is completed. A request to the server is considered complete post the receipt of the response and the DOM manipulation of the element. A very important point to note here is that this callback function is called once for every element in the selector.

NOTE: If data is sent along with the request, the POST method is used by jQuery. If not, the GET method is assumed.

How does the load Method Work?

Let’s see behind the scenes of the load method.

Step 1 – It begins with finding the element in the DOM.

Step 2 – If the element is found, the next step is to send an AJAX request to the server at the specified url. An AJAX is an Asynchronous JavaScript and XML call. Since they are asynchronous, they do need a page refresh.

Step 3 – Once the response is received from the server, the next step is to insert the DOM element’s response. jQuery uses the browser’s innerHTML property to manipulate the contents of the element.

Step 4 – Now is the time to execute any callback functions, if present.

Examples of jQuery load()

Let us look at some of the examples of the load() method.

NOTE: Throughout the examples in this article, we would be using the browsers’ developer console. Simply open the browser developer tools (Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + C) and go to the Console tab in the developer tools window.

It looks like this in Chrome:

This is the playground for most of the jQuery related concepts. We would be using this playground throughout this article.

Next, we identify the element we would like to modify the contents of. Let’s modify the complete body of the page. From the Elements tab in the developer window, you would see that the element is this:

This element is uniquely defined through an id attribute bodyContent. We would use this id as a selector.

NOTE: Keep in mind that the attribute values are case sensitive – bodyContent is not the same as bodycontent.

Now, we would fetch data from Wikipedia’s JavaScript page and insert it into the jQuery page’s content. Go to the console tab and type the following command:

As you press enter, notice that the jQuery page’s entire content now has JavaScript page’s content.

Ignore the error – this is because our experiment resulted in implementing one object model more than once, which caused Wikipedia’s code to throw an error. Next, go back to the Elements tab and search for the bodyContent element again.

Notice the change in the entire HTML content of the element. It now looks like this:

You could also display an alert when the entire operation is successful through the load method’s complete function parameter. Go back to the console tab and type the following command:

alert(“Okay!!!”); }); Elements of load Method

The load() method of jQuery fetches HTML from the URL and uses the returned HTML to fill the selected elements; let’s look at a few elements.

Loading Page Fragments

The load() method also allows us to load a fragment of the content instead of the entire content. Let’s see how to do this.

Go ahead and give it a try to see the results for yourself. Also, go to the JavaScript page and search for the element by the id History. Verify whether the results are indeed accurate.

So what happened here? jQuery did load the entire contents of the url but parsed it to find the element suffixing the url and inserted only the element’s innerHTML contents into the destination element in the DOM.

Executing Scripts

There is a fundamental difference between when jQuery implements the load method with a selector appended to the url and without a selector appended to the url.

In the former case, the scripts from the url are executed. Whereas in the latter case, the scripts are omitted. Thus,

Conclusion – jQuery load()

So, we have covered the load() function of jQuery in this article. We have understood how the load method works behind the scenes and in-depth as well. It is recommended to practice the method more with different kinds of data. This will help you get a better understanding of how the function works.

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Learn The Examples Of Typescript Regex

Introduction to TypeScript RegEx

TypeScript RegEx is a Regular Expression object for matching text with some pattern. As TypeScript is also a part of JavaScript, similarly regular expressions are also the objects. TypeScript RegEx is the pattern matching standard for replacement and string parsing. These RegEx are used on various platforms and other programming environments. Since RegEx are language-independent, here, we will be discussing TypeScript RegEx. However, these Regular Expressions are now available for most of the Visual Basic and Visual Basic for Applications versions. Regular Expressions are used to find strings and replace them in a defined format. TypeScript Regular Expressions are also used to parse dates, email addresses, and urls, config files, log files, programming, or command-line scripts.

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In TypeScript, Regular Expressions or RegEx object can be done in 2 ways:

Using/ Calling a Constructor function of the Regular Expression Object.

Using a Regular Expression Literals.

Syntax:

Here in TypeScript, we use a Constructor function of the Regular Expression Object.

let regex = new  RegEx('bc*d')

Parameter: A pattern string is to be passed to the RegEx constructor object.

We can also use Literals for Regular Expressions,

let regex: RegEx = /bc*d/;

This syntax consists of any string pattern inside slashed.

Examples of TypeScript RegEx

Here are the following examples mention below

Example #1

RegEx using literals

Code:

let sampleRegEx: RegExp = /^[+ 0-9]{7}$/; console.log(sampleRegEx.test('732g')) console.log(sampleRegEx.test('453gh67')) console.log(sampleRegEx.test('2355575')) console.log(sampleRegEx.test('7878734')) console.log(sampleRegEx.test('423%^')) console.log(sampleRegEx.test('abcdefg')) console.log(sampleRegEx.test('@#$$#%5'))

Output:

Expression pattern [0-9] represents that the matching string should only contain numbers from 0 to 9 and only 7 digits are to be present in the string. Based on these conditions, the string checks with the expression and returns a Boolean value as true or false.

Example #2

RegEx matching for Email Address using RegEx constructor Object.

Code:

Output:

Example #3

Replacing string value with TypeScript RegEx

Code:

var regex = /apple/gi; var regexStr = "oranges are jucier than apple"; var newStr = regexStr.replace(regex, "mosambi");

Output:

Here, regex has a pattern ‘apple’. TypeScript Regex searches for the string ‘apple’ and replaces it with ‘mosambi’ using the string replace method and prints the complete string.

Let us get deeper on how to actually write a Regular Expression,

A TypeScript Regular Expression consists of simple characters as such, inside slashes / /. Expression such as /abcd/ or something which involves combination of special characters like /ab+c/ or complex expressions like /[a-z]+.%$d*/.

Simple patterns are constructed of characters to find a match directly. In example 3, we had directly searched for the word ‘apple’ and replaced using the word ‘mosambi’. Such matches will be useful to search for a word, replace it, or search for a substring. Even ‘space’ counts here. There is a lot of difference between the word ‘EducbaWebsite’ and ‘Educba Website’ if we search for the expression ‘ba W’.

Coming to Special characters, when a user searches for something more than a direct match like finding more than one g’s or finding digit 5 or any special character in the pattern. For example, Finding a single r followed by zero or more a followed by a digit, the pattern looks something like this; /ra*5/ Here * refers to zero or more a’s i.e the preceding item in the pattern.

Escaping: Used for Special Characters, If the user wants to have any kind of special characters in his pattern, the user needs to escape it by using a backslash in front of a special character. For example, to search for r followed by ^ and then at, backslash ‘’ will be used to ‘escape’ ‘^’ making it a literal instead of a special character. Pattern looks as, /r^t/

There is one more method to discuss in TypeScript RegEx, which is exec, this is used to search for a match in the specific string, returning the result of an array or a null. TypeScript RegEx objects are stateful when expressions have a global or a sticky flag set. Using exec, the user can loop over multiple matches in the input text.

Syntactically written as, regex.exec(string)

The string is the parameter passed to match the mentioned Regular Expression or the pattern. If there is a match found, exec() is a method that returns an array along with the index and the input text by further updating the last index of the object. If the matched text fails, the exec() returns null and the last index of the object is set to 0.

Example #4

TypeScript RegEx.exec()

Code:

const regexExec = RegExp('edu*', 'g'); const string = 'tutorial from educba, in the hindu education'; let arr; while ((arr = regexExec.exec(string)) !== null) { console.log(`Found ${arr[0]}, indexed at ${regexExec.lastIndex}.`); }

Output:

Here we searched for string ‘edu’ globally in the string above. Have declared a while condition saying if .exec(string) is not null, then return the index of the pattern found and set the last index.

Conclusion

With this, we conclude our topic ‘TypeScript RegEx’. We have seen what is TypeScript RegEx or also known as Regular Expression. We have seen how the syntax is and how it works, pulled out a few examples using both the literal method and the constructor object method in a way that will be understandable to all of you. Also have seen what are the types of expressions, Special character escaping, global object, and many more. Thanks! Happy Learning!!

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