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Some teachers are just born controllers. They’re the ones who can turn a raucous classroom into a silent one with the bat of an eyelash. They demand attention and respect by just being there. How do these teachers do it? What’s the trick? And how can the rest of us emulate these natural class constables?

Turn to classroom-management strategies. Classroom management refers to all the things an adult does to organize students, space, time, and materials so that instruction and student learning can take place. Through basic techniques — such as assigning roles and setting procedures — you can encourage positive behavior and order in the classroom.

  Assigning Classroom Roles

Understanding student behavior is beyond the means of this tutorial. But you don’t have to be an expert in human development to identify a restless, unmotivated, or shy kid. Educators often use role assignment to thwart or to encourage certain behaviors. By assigning roles in the classroom, you give students an added sense of ownership and responsibility.

The following is a list of role assignments you can give students based on their traits and their behavior. When assigning roles, try to highlight to the class each role’s importance in establishing community.

Download the Roles and Responsibilities Chart (504KB)

Roles and Responsibilities

Agenda Master

What the student does in the role: posts the agenda, crosses off an activity when finished, and throws away agendas.

Whom to assign it to: a restless student, one who gets out of his or her chair frequently.

Time Keeper

What the student does in the role: makes sure the team is on time (using the agenda as a guide).

Whom to assign it to: someone with a short attention span and who easily gets off task.

Master of Supplies

What the student does in the role: carries the mentor’s equipment and passes out supplies.

Whom to assign it to: someone who needs a little extra attention.

Collection Master

What the student does in the role: passes out and collects papers.

Whom to assign it to: someone who needs a little extra attention and who needs to feel special.

Ritual Starter

What the student does in the role: Initiates the ritual by passing out supplies or props, setting up, and reminding others about what to do.

Whom to assign it to: someone who needs to experience positive reinforcement and needs to be settled down.

Clean-Up Captain

What the student does in the role: makes sure the room is back in order.

Whom to assign it to: someone who finishes work early.

Chart Keeper

What the student does in the role: keeps track of everyone’s progress.

Whom to assign it to: someone who is unmotivated.

Don’t see all the roles you’d like to see on the chart? Feel free to make up roles specific to a task, particular subject, or assignment. And reassign roles as you see fit.

Establishing Procedures

Kids need routine for discipline and security. Set up a routine at the beginning of your apprenticeship by establishing and communicating classroom procedures.

Here are some examples:

Use a ritual when entering the learning space.

Start work immediately during homework or project time.

Hand out passes when a student is tardy.

Ask students to raise their hands to ask questions.

Introduce all classroom visitors.

Ask students to read silently when they finish early.

Handle problems at the conference corner.

  Concluding Stats on Misbehavior

Often, just knowing why students misbehave can give you ideas to help remedy the problem. Take a look at some of these causes of misbehavior to help you curb the problem in the future. About 90 percent of student misbehavior is due to one or more of the following issues:

Poor general management

Inappropriate work that is above, below, or unrelated to a student’s learning style

Boring instruction

Confusing instruction

Unclear expectations and consequences

A feeling of powerlessness

The physical environment (the room is too hot, too cold, too crowded, and so on)

Value clashes

Heavy emotional baggage

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Pov: A Lesson From Bu’s 150Th Commencement

POV: A Lesson from BU’s 150th Commencement

Voices & Opinion

POV: A Lesson from BU’s 150th Commencement President Brown writes: “Our students were not picking a fight. They were attempting to implement the cancel culture”

On May 21 I officiated at my 18th and final Commencement ceremony as president of Boston University. It was an unruly affair. David Zaslav, president and CEO of Warner Bros. Discovery and our alumnus, was our Commencement speaker and an honorary degree recipient, invited long before the ongoing strike by the Writers Guild of America (WGA) began on May 2. Not surprisingly, there were protesters both outside and inside our ceremony, as the leaders of the media business are at the focus of the labor dispute.

Some graduating students stood and turned their backs to the speaker and displayed signs. There were organized chants imploring Mr. Zaslav to pay his writers. For a university committed to free speech, protests are appropriate and common. The right to protest and freely express strongly held convictions is essential to sustaining the liberal democracy that we enjoy.

But what we witnessed on Nickerson Field during Commencement veered, regrettably, in a different direction. A handful of students shouted obscenities at Mr. Zaslav. I flinched, as my reaction harkened back to my teen years, over half a century ago, on the south side of San Antonio, Tex. In that era, shouting the words that I heard from the field would be the precursor to a fistfight. I can’t imagine how Mr. Zaslav felt hearing these obscenities directed at him. I have apologized to Mr. Zaslav for the behavior of these students.

The students who were appallingly coarse and deliberately abusive to Mr. Zaslav were entitled to attend Commencement because they were being awarded degrees that they earned from Boston University. They sought to make a statement, out of passionate conviction, but in the moment, they forgot that in a liberal democracy, personal autonomy and freedom of speech come with responsibilities. One responsibility, particularly in an institution for which freedom of speech is the oxygen that sustains our mission, is respect for the speech rights of others. The deliberate effort to silence a speaker is at odds with this fundamental value. I am disappointed that some members of our graduating student body seem painfully unaware—or perhaps even hostile to—this idea.

I am also disappointed at the insensitivity to our many guests—especially parents and grandparents—who came from far and wide to celebrate the success of a cherished relative. The willingness to spoil the occasion for these literally thousands of guests to not only make a point, but also literally prevent the speaker from conveying his message, was painful and embarrassing to witness. I would stress that from my vantage point—and that of others—the individuals behaving badly constituted a small minority. But that fact does not diminish my disappointment.

On reflection, it seems to me that the incivility on Nickerson Field is indicative of the divisions in our country. People shouting anonymously at each other, accomplishing nothing but feeling gratified for doing so, while generating material to post on social media. In our specific case the shouters infringed on the rights of others—to be heard or, more simply, to celebrate a milestone for a new graduate in a ceremony not disfigured with obscenities. We must do better and be a place where freedom of speech and the vital instrument of lawful protest can coexist and foster every individual’s sense of belonging.

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How To Fix Google Classroom Stream Disappeared Problem

Recently, a number of users have complained about their Google Classroom posts disappearing off the stream. The Google Classroom stream is the web app’s notification board, where teachers can post information about new assignments, discussions, and notices.

The stream is very important as it keeps students updated on recent developments in their classes. However, recently the stream seems to be disappearing for some users. Here is a list of possible solutions for you to try if you are affected by this bug.

Activate Inspect menu

One possible solution that seems to have worked for a few users is to activate the ‘Inspect’ menu on the webpage. The Inspect function is usually used to read the web page’s written code, but in this instance, it seems to bring back the Google Classroom stream.

Maximizing the window or restore down

If the above method did not work, you could give this one a try. This method seems to have worked for a number of users. Although not a permanent fix, it does seem to bring back the stream for a while.

If your browser’s window is not maximized, then maximize. The change in the size of the window will draw the whole screen and you might be able to see the stream again.

A number of users swear by this temporary fix. If the stream disappears again, simply try typing a new post and scrolling. You must scroll down the page, for the fix to work. Simply starting a new post will not do the trick!

Change the display mode

You can change the way your Classroom stream appears to show a condensed version of posts or all the details of each post. You can also hide all notification from your stream. Changing the display mode has worked as a temporary fix to get back a disappeared Classroom stream.

This will open up your class settings. Scroll down to ‘Classwork on the stream’ under the ‘General’ tab. Change the mode to something else (except ‘Hide notifications’).

For example, if the selected mode is set to ‘Show attachments and details’ then change it to ‘Show condensed notifications’ and vice versa.

Hit ‘Save’ at the top right corner, and you should see your stream return. You can go back and change the setting to what you would like to keep it at.

Use the mobile app

The Google Classroom mobile application does not seem to be affected by this problem. Users claim that they can clearly see their disappeared stream when they log in using the mobile application.

So until Google sends out an official fix, you could use the Google Classroom mobile application to view and post to your stream.

What seems to be the issue?

The user Streams disappearing issue seems to be a bug on Google’s end. The issue seems to occur if the first ten posts on the stream are all classwork items. These include assignments, supplements, or questions.

Is the stream deleted?

No, the posts on the stream are not deleted. While it is understandable that users are worried all their posts have been deleted, the truth is that they are simply hidden. Using the above fixes, you can try to get the stream back, or simply log in to the Google Classroom mobile application to view your stream.

Maximizing Profit: The Pbl Classroom Without Pbl

Facilitating problem-based learning (PBL) in the classroom requires a shift in pedagogy from a “stand and deliver” class. The problem presented at the beginning of a PBL cycle must create an authentic need for students to develop 21st century skills such as:

A problem we presented in our math classroom is: “How can the student store maximize profit?” This question serves as a strong avenue to facilitate collaboration, meaning that when students try to work alone, it is too hard or too large of a task. PBL requires students to communicate their understanding of the problem, helping them develop critical thinking skills and increasing academic discourse in the classroom. Reflection is also an important part of a PBL cycle. Students should reflect on their process of solving the problem, but also on how collaboration, strong communication skills and thinking critically with peers made the process more manageable. Once students see value in these skills, they can begin making them part of everyday work, whether or not a PBL-focused problem is present.

Take caution, however. These skills are not simply present just because of a PBL cycle — they must be taught.

Student Collaboration

Once students see a need for collaboration, it becomes the teacher’s role to set the foundation. Establishing group norms can be an opportunity for students to become familiar with their peers as learners. As we consider our math problem about maximizing profit, students will have to discuss important vocabulary such as profit and income. Collaboration also provides a space for students to talk about how they will hold each other accountable. Another important aspect is helping them be aware of equity in their group, how are they communicating with others, helping group members to understand their point of view and vice versa. As they think about maximizing profit, students will have to make sure they have a common understanding of the zeros in the parabola representing the “break-even points.” After establishing expectations, the teacher must work to maintain high collaboration standards through giving feedback and helping student groups sort out conflict. This can include checking for understanding or facilitating discussions about why everyone in the group hasn’t built a common understanding.


Productive group work involves communicating with team members, a 21st century skill. Communication is also very important when thinking about how the work will be completed, because the workload could become unevenly distributed if group members do not communicate often. Modeling how to ask questions to clarify statements, gain others’ perspectives and check for understanding is an important part keeping communication open.

Problem-Solving Skills

Modeling how to solve a problem can be a very powerful way for students to make inferences about what skills are needed. During a problem cycle, teachers can ask questions to help students develop and use their problem-solving skills. For example, teachers could have groups formulate a plan for solving the problem, then ask clarifying questions about both the problem and their process as students work to solve the problem. When thinking about maximizing profit, students will have to work with their group and apply the mathematical definition of a vertex in the context of the problem. This will require students to build understanding about the x-axis representing the number of price changes based on their price interval. It can also build confidence for students to talk about their errors or misconceptions and the process their group used to correct the error. An error may include thinking that the axis of symmetry represents the price change or the price to produce the maximum profit. Ultimately, teachers need to help students recognize the skills they are building throughout the process by being transparent.

Valued Skills Remain in Use

In the video Problems of Practice, I address that, in our Algebra 2 PBL Curriculum Writing Team, we found units where an authentic PBL problem would restructure the unit so that students deepen their understanding of math through a real-life application. For those units where we didn’t see a strong fit, we left them as a more traditional curriculum. This is where the shift in pedagogy happens. Just because students are not involved in a PBL unit, such as maximizing profit, doesn’t mean that they can’t use the skills they have gained through working with their peers.

After establishing a classroom where collaboration, communication and critical thinking skills are valued and used by students, the atmosphere of that classroom changes. I saw this in my own classroom through students asking each other questions and working together without having to be prompted. The skills established though PBL units are more evident. Students are more confident about explaining how they solved a problem, or where their point of confusion lies within solving a problem. The teacher can take on the role of thinking about creating opportunities for students to use their skills through the traditional unit.

Overall, the skills established through PBL units have enriched the classroom, creating more of a team approach to learning, versus a classroom where the teacher is the only source of new information.

Shhh… Listen… Ambient Noise In The Classroom

After 21 years in education, I’ve finally come to the point in my career where I can confess that I love the idea of creating working noise in my classroom, intentionally. For the other years, I was trained that a quiet classroom was a good classroom and early on I bought that idea hook, line and sinker. It wasn’t until I had passed those magical first 5 years that I started to question the idea, mainly because it always seemed to fall short. I love to talk when I’m learning and when I’m around friends, so why wouldn’t my students. Still, I felt as though I would be judged by others whose classroom seemed to be quiet and on task.

Please know, I’m a big believer in music associated with learning, so my classroom hasn’t been a place where students go when they want to take a vow of silence, but it was mainly music that’s filled the air. So I stepped forward into this year, with all the ambient noise I could muster. I wanted to fill my classroom with background noise for learning. The ideal picture in my head was filled with highly productive students, living up to every ounce of their potential with the ambient noise lead them to that learning space. (Ultimately, I knew this wasn’t’t going to be the reality of this change, but could you imagine if it was? #Awesomesauce!) 

Here is what I have documented after five weeks (I teach at a year-round school): For the first few weeks, we did not use ambient noise, then we added ambient noise for the following weeks. During the time with the ambient noise, there was a measurable change in the type of classroom sounds happening. Prouctivity and focus seemed better with a larger number of students. 

Have I suddenly discovered that ambient noise is magic in a bottle? That it will elevate public education to lead the world in test scores? No. Did it help to create a different culture in my classroom where the feeling of peace and calm energy was more the norm than in prior weeks? Yes. Were there many variables? Completely!

While my small sample is not conclusive by any means, I do like the idea of examining all the ways we address all student senses and for creating a better learning environment. I believe the phrase whole child, needs to also included the senses along with other important factors. After all, doesn’t a sound or smell trigger memory as much as something visual?

My next classroom environment idea starts with the sense of smell and the guiding question of “Could essential oils diffused into the air of my classroom have a positive impact on student learning?” Being someone with allergies, this will be one the first things I check on for each student.

My next classroom environment idea starts with the sense of smell and the guiding question of “Could essential oils diffused into the air of my classroom have a positive impact on student learning?” Being someone with allergies, this will be one the first things I check on for each student.

Schools Of Jurisprudence Meaning Types

The research or philosophy of law is known as jurisprudence. In order to have a deeper grasp of the legislative process, various jurists and academicians have attempted to explain it in general terms. The foundational principles of natural law, civil law, and international law served as the basis for modern jurisprudence, which emerged in the seventeenth century.

What does School of Jurisprudence define?

There is no set or uniform understanding of jurisprudence because people all around the world hold different ideologies and notions. It covers a wide range of topics. A jurist’s discussion of the political circumstances in his or her society reflects the legal system that was in place there at the time. It is thought that the Romans were the first to learn what the meaning of law was. In jurisprudence, policy is combined with other disciplines, like psychology, politics, economics, etc. It is not taken directly from any state assemblies’ or legislatures’ acts.

Types of School of Jurisprudence

There are primarily five schools of thought in law; we will discuss these schools and the leading jurists within them.

Philosophical School

It is referred to as the law of nature and higher law, and it has played a significant role in the history of politics, law, religion, and ethics. 

According to Dr. Friedman, as humanity has failed to find absolute justice throughout history, ideas about natural law have also been evolving along with societal changes. Natural law was seen to have a divine origin in prehistoric civilizations, a religious and supernatural foundation in medieval periods, and a strong political and legal foundation in modern times. The natural law theory’s belief in a universal order regulating all men and women is its most significant contribution to the legal system.

The philosophical or moral school is primarily concerned with how legislation relates to particular goals that it is meant to achieve. It takes an effort to investigate the justifications behind the creation of a specific law.

Historical School

Legal scholars from the Historical School of Jurisprudence discuss how society and the law are intertwined. The state’s law is made up of all of society’s customs and laws. A community’s particular wants and demands are closely related to the social structure of that society. This idea demonstrates that the rule is the result of historical causes and effects. The law depends on people’s broad awareness. The understanding has existed since the beginning of the public because no one had the authority to act as a sovereign and create laws.

Montesquieu was the first jurist of the Historical School. He claimed in his well-known book, “Spirit of Law,” that the law must adapt to changing society.

Savigny is referred to as the second historian-school jurist.

Realist School

Many people’s emotions have an impact on the decisions made by the law. Because the rule is taken into consideration at this school and is treated as truth, this institution is known as the Realist School. The judgments of the judges in the jurisdiction, in particular their mindset, are emphasized in this course. The emphasis at this institution is on the perspective and application of the legal and judicial systems. America and Scandinavia in Europe saw the emergence of the Realist School in the 1880s. America experienced a great deal of decision-making in 1890, and the cases, judgments, and points of view that informed those conclusions were all made public.

Two categories of realist schools exist −

American Realist − The scholars watched the judgments and learned from them in addition to their own experiences.

Scandinavian Realists − The academics only trusted their personal experiences in this regard.

Legal accuracy, according to Jeremy Frank, is a myth, and there is no way to predict the outcome of any wrongdoing since there are many variables and constraints that are left open to different interpretations. He muses over the actions taken by and planned for by jurists and judges. They reach their conclusion by applying the law. But what if both the choice and the facts are incorrect? There is no way to know for sure that judges will be able to understand all of the information and reach the right conclusion every time.

Sociological School

According to Roscoe Pound, the main characteristics of sociological law are as follows: The sociological school’s proponents place more emphasis on the practical than the abstract components of law.

The abstract ideas of analytical positivism, which place emphasis on the command or power aspects of law as well as the dead weight of previous culture and traditions that served as the primary focus of historical jurisprudence, are utterly rejected by sociological schools.

The following are the main phases through which sociological jurisprudence developed and evolved −

The father of sociological jurisprudence was Auguste Compte (1789–1857). The empirical method relies on observation and experience to create a link between the law and society.

The psychological stage is the third step in the growth of sociological law. Later in the 19th century, psychology had a significant impact on other social sciences, especially law.

The fusion of sociological approaches with those of other social sciences is the final phase of sociological jurisprudence development. It was thus understood that many social sciences represent various facets of human civilization.

Analytical School

Also popular as Imperative school of law, analytical school of law primarily deals with the laws that exist in present form with the objective to analyze. The scholars of this group explained law as the its relation with the state. According to these scholars, law is something the command emanating from the State. John Austin was one of the most proponents of the analytical school; therefore, sometimes, it is also known as Austinian school. Other known scholars are Jeremy Bentham (1748 -1832), Erskine Holland (1835 -1928), and Sir john Salmond (1862 – 1924).


The definition of law and its purposes were greatly aided by the five schools of jurisprudence. Despite differences in the arguments made by different schools’ scholars, all of them shared a desire to “maintain law,” and their only concern was how to better govern the law and administer justice on a broad scale, despite the various modes of justice. The ideas of diverse jurists evolve as time goes on, just as the law does. Even the Indian Constitution is subject to alteration by legislative and judicial interpretation. The Cyber Law, which specifies how cybercrimes will be punished, has been introduced to try to stop these crimes. The Indian Penal Code has also undergone changes in order to better combat these heinous crimes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Which school of law explains balancing purpose of jurisprudence?

Ans: The goal of balancing the needs of the individual and the state is fulfilled by the Sociological School of Jurisprudence. This school contends that the current socioeconomic crisis cannot be resolved through the use of the legal framework that is already in place.

Q2. What is the importance of legal philosophy?

Ans: The philosophy of law frequently aims to set law apart from other normative systems, such as morality (see ethics) or other social customs.

Q3. What is the main idea of natural school of jurisprudence?

Ans: A legal doctrine known as “natural law” places special emphasis on the rules of nature. This school of law also stands for the notion that there are laws that apply to all cultures.

Q4. Who is the father of jurisprudence?

Ans: Though Aristotle is popularly known as father of natural law, but Bentham is referred to as the “Father of Jurisprudence.” Austin expanded on his work. The definition of law was initially analyzed by Bentham.

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