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Some unusual new physics may be emerging at the Large Hadron Collider, where particles are behaving in a surprising way. Collisions between protons and lead nuclei might be forming a new type of matter that relies on quantum entanglement, according to particle physicists.

The Compact Muon Solenoid, one of the two major-magnet particle detectors in the LHC, has been busy smashing together lead ions and protons. When particles collide at incredible energies, they blow apart into their constituent pieces, and physicists look for those building blocks in the shrapnel. This is how LHC scientists found the Higgs boson this summer. (In this new case, the scientists were looking for particle behavior, not necessarily new fundamental bits.)

The shrapnel usually flies out in all directions, at speeds approaching that of light — but sometimes, the exploded bits do something different. They fly away from each other but in an orderly fashion, correlated with each other. This has been seen before in proton-proton collisions, and also in collisions between the nuclei of heavy metals like lead. In the heavy ion collisions, this correlation makes some sense, because physicists think it’s the result of something called a quark-gluon plasma. This roiling soup of particles is the same primordial soup that existed for the first few millionths of a second after the Big Bang. The soup gathers particles together and pushes them in the same direction. Similarly, in proton-proton collisions, the particles are thought to be swept up in something called a color-glass condensate, which also behaves like a wave of gluons.

Now CMS scientists say this directional correlation has happened in proton-lead collisions, too. This was a surprise. It may have something to do with quantum mechanics, according to MIT.

“Somehow they fly at the same direction even though it’s not clear how they can communicate their direction with one another. That has surprised many people, including us,” MIT physics professor Gunther Roland, whose group led the analysis of the collision data, told MIT News.

In September, CMS members cranked up the particle accelerator to a little more than half its full capacity and started colliding lead nuclei with protons, looking for these two-particle angular correlations. In a sample of 2 million lead-proton collisions, a few pairs flew apart with their respective directions correlated. How?

The LHC and other particle colliders are all about accelerating particles to give them more energy, which equates to more mass. This allows them to get “heavier” so more shrapnel comes out when they blow apart. But this also introduces some changes to the particles’ behavior. Namely: Normal protons have three quarks, but when protons speed up and get heavy, extra gluons glom onto them. These gluons exist (as all particles technically do) as both particles and waves. Their wave functions are correlated with each other–they’re entangled, as MIT News explains it. This quantum entanglement, spooky action at a distance, explains how particles that fly away from each other can have shared behavior.

Why care about all this? The result wasn’t expected at all–the CMS team ran some proton-lead collisions for the purpose of getting better control data. So that’s interesting. But more fundamentally, it suggests some newly understood behavior at the tiniest levels. Refining our understanding of how quarks and gluons behave within protons will improve our understanding of the building blocks of all matter, and how it behaved right after the Big Bang. Just the sort of science the LHC was built for.

MIT News

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What Is The Full Form Of Caiib

What is the Full form of CAIIB? CAIIB examination

The CAIIB (Certified Associate of Indian Institute of Bankers) examination consists of two compulsory papers and one optional paper.

The two compulsory papers are −

Bank Financial Management (BFM) − This paper covers themes related to banking funds, such as accounting and finance, capital ampleness, asset-liability administration, venture portfolio administration, and execution assessment.

The optional paper is chosen by the candidate from the following list of papers −

Corporate Banking − This paper covers topics related to corporate banking, such as credit appraisal, project evaluation, working capital management, and corporate administration.

Rural Banking − This paper covers themes related to rural banking, such as rural improvement, microfinance, agricultural finance, and financial inclusion.

Worldwide Banking − This paper covers subjects related to worldwide banking, such as remote trade administration, international exchange finance, global capital markets, and cross-border banking.

Retail Banking − This paper covers points related to retail banking, such as client relationship management, item design, distribution channels, and technology applications.

Cooperative Banking − This paper covers points related to cooperative banking, such as cooperative standards, legal and regulatory framework, administration hones, and financial consideration.

Human Resources Management − This paper covers topics related to human resources administration within the banking industry, such as recruitment, training and development, performance management, and compensation management.

Information Technology − This paper covers topics related to information technology within the banking industry, such as data security, business progression, computerized banking, and developing technologies.

Central Banking − This paper covers points related to central banking, such as monetary policy, banking direction and supervision, financial stability, and central bank operations.

Treasury Management − This paper covers points related to treasury administration, such as liquidity administration, asset-liability administration, outside trade administration, and speculation administration.

Eligibility criteria for CAIIB examination

To be eligible for the CAIIB (Certified Associate of Indian Institute of Bankers) exam, the candidate must fulfill certain requirements. Firstly, they must be a member of the Indian Institute of Banking and Finance (IIBF). Additionally, they must have completed the JAIIB (Junior Associate of Indian Institute of Bankers) exam conducted by the IIBF. Furthermore, they must have a minimum of two years of work experience in the banking or financial services industry and be currently employed in the same sector while applying for the CAIIB exam. However, it is important to note that meeting these eligibility criteria does not guarantee acceptance into the CAIIB exam, as the decision ultimately rests with the IIBF.

Conclusion FAQs

Q1. What is the exam pattern for the CAIIB program?

Ans. The exam pattern for the CAIIB program consists of two parts −

Part A − It is a compulsory paper consisting of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) covering all three subjects.

Part B − It is an elective paper, and candidates can choose any one subject from a list of elective subjects.

Q2. What is the passing criteria for the CAIIB exam?

Ans. Candidates need to secure a minimum of 50% marks in each subject and an overall aggregate of 60% marks in both parts A and B to pass the CAIIB exam.

Q3. What are the benefits of clearing the CAIIB exam?

Ans. Clearing the CAIIB exam provides several benefits, such as −

Enhancing the knowledge and skills of banking professionals

Increasing the career opportunities and promotions in the banking sector

Enhancing the credibility and reputation of the individual in the banking industry.

What Is The Full Form Of All

What is Acute Lymphoblastic leukaemia?

Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia or ALL is a very progressive disorder and intensifies rapidly thereby creating immature blood cells in the body, rather than forming matured ones. Acute lymphocytic leukaemia is very much prevalent amongst children and correct treatments might increase the chance of survival to a greater extent. Acute lymphocytic leukaemia is also prevalent amongst adults but the chance of getting cured is very less.

Symptoms

There can be multiple symptoms of acute lymphocytic leukaemia which may include −

Bleeding from the gums

Severe Bone pain

High Fever

Frequent infections in different body parts

Severe nose bleeding

Lump formation by swollen lymph nodes around the neck, armpits and in abdomen.

Paleness in skin

Breathing problems

Fatigueness.

Diagnosis

The Diagnosis procedure of ALL involves an in depth medical history followed by different physical examinations, complete blood count profile and smear study. But most of the symptoms of Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia are common illnesses but prolonged persistence of any symptoms might be alarming for any sort of malignancy.

Pathological examination are conducted in the presence of Philadelphia chromosome.Immunophenotyping also confirms whether the leukemic cells are myeloblastic in nature in the form of neutrophils, eosinophils, or basophils or lymphoblastic in nature-B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. Bone marrow samples undergo specific cytogenetic testing that help in detecting the disease and its aggressiveness as well.

Medical imaging like ultrasound or CT scanning helps to detect whether the other organs like-lung, liver, spleen, brain, kidneys, and reproductive organs have become malignant.

Treatment

ALL treatment aims is to introduce a long lasting remission without any predominant cancer chúng tôi the past few years a lot of research is going over the treatment strategies and medications for fast recovery. Following are some of them:-

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the first preferred treatment alternative for ALL diagnosed individuals and they go through a couple of medications. The patient cannot undergo any surgery due to the massive spread of the malignant cells in the entire body. The cytotoxic chemotherapy for ALL patients is done with multiple antileukemic medicines specific for each patient.

Radiation therapy Biological therapy

In Biological therapy specialised targets are selected based on their collaborative effects on the leukemic lymphoblasts which can pave a new way for clinical trials and novel treatment strategies.Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors also known as TKIs, are incorporated into the treatment strategies for patients with a variant of Bcr-Abl1+ (Ph+) lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Immunotherapy

The revolutionary discovery in the field of immunotherapy is the development of Chimeric antigen receptors or CARS for treating ALL patients. The technology involves a single chain variable fragment (scFv) which helps to recognize the surface marker CD19.CD19 is surface marker molecule present on all the B-cells or bone marrow cells and is used to detect the malignant B-cell populations. The clinical trials were first conducted on mice by immunising CD19 antigen and resulted in producing anti-CD19 antibodies.

Relapsed ALL

People who have experienced the relapsed ALL are exposed to the poorer prognosis in comparison to those who have recovered after their induction therapy.Patients with recurring leukaemia will give a better respond to the standard chemotherapy procedure but still for a better result patients should be kept on continuous clinical trial on reinduction chemotherapy and an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The tumours can also be revived with palliative radiation on a very low dose outside the central nervous system to get rid of further spreading of infection.Tyrosine kinase inhibitor has also been in great use as a part of relapsed ALL.

Risk Factors

Various factors that enhance the risk of Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia −

Foregoing cancer treatment − Children and adults who get exposure to different types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy due to their previous history of cancer might be at greater risk of developing the disease.

Radiation exposure − Individuals exposed to very high amounts of radiation like survivors of a nuclear radiation accident, are also at a greater risk of developing acute lymphocytic leukaemia.

History of genetic disorders − People with Down syndrome are associated with a greater risk of acute lymphocytic leukaemia.

Conclusion

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia affected about 8,86,000 individuals and led to 1,21,000 mortality worldwide in chúng tôi disease prevalent amongst both children and adults but affects children between the age group of 3-7 years. Almost 75-80% of the cases can be observed before 6 years with a secondary rise post the 40 years.Statistics say ALL affect 1 in 1500 children.According to the present statistics the disease affects about 1.7 per 100,000 people every chúng tôi exhibit the most childhood leukemias and the most common childhood cancer.

FAQs

Q1.Who is the doctor who treats ALL?

Ans. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is considered a very special disorder and categorised as a type of cancer.Hence this disorder can be best treated by a haematologist or an oncologist. For children paediatric oncologists mostly treat the cases.

Q2.Is there any specific diet recommended for ALL patients?

Ans. There is not much restriction over the diet but all foods must be cooked properly. Anything raw like fresh fruits and vegetables should be avoided,as they must be boiled or cooked.

Q3. What precautions should be taken to avoid this disease?

Ans. The major line of treatment for ALL is avoiding crowds. The more they remain in isolated places,it is good for the sake of their chúng tôi must be least exposed to people having contaminated diseases like common cold, flu, measles or Chickenpox. Refraining themselves from any kind of stressful activities is mandatory.

What Is The Full Form Of Car

Introduction

The Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) assesses a bank’s capital position in relation to the risks it assumes. The greater the CAR, the more probable a bank is to be able to absorb losses without becoming bankrupt. Regulators often require the CAR to ensure that banks have sufficient capital to handle unforeseen losses and maintain financial stability.

The CAR is expressed as a percentage, and regulators have established a minimum value. CAR is calculated using two different types of capital: Tier 1 capital, which consists of stock and other loss-absorbing instruments, and Tier 2 capital, which consists of other loss-absorbing forms of debt.

Calculation of CAR

A bank’s capital is divided by its risk-weighted assets to determine its capital adequacy ratio (CAR). The CAR is calculated using the following formula −

$$mathrm{CAR = (Tier: 1 :Capital :+ :Tier :2 :Capital) / Risk-weighted :Assets }$$

where −

Tier 1 Capital − The bank’s core capital, which consists of equity and stated reserves.

Tier 2 Capital − supplemental capital in the form of subordinated debt and other hybrid instruments.

The value of each asset is multiplied by a risk weight factor that regulators have allocated to it in order to arrive at the risk-weighted assets. Depending on the type of asset and its credit risk, different risk weighting factors apply.

Depending on the jurisdiction, regulators often set a minimum CAR standard for banks that takes into account the size and complexity of the bank, the risks it confronts, and the general state of the economy. Banks that don’t comply with the minimum CAR standard risk being fined or having their operations restricted.

Importance of CAR

For banks, regulators, investors, and other stakeholders, the capital adequacy ratio (CAR) is crucial for a number of reasons −

A bank’s stability and ability to bear unforeseen losses are measured by the CAR. A high CAR shows that the bank has sufficient capital to withstand financial shocks like economic downturns or borrower defaults.

The level of risk in a bank’s assets is the foundation for the CAR calculation. This encourages banks to maintain a diversified asset portfolio and better manage their risks.

Banks must meet minimum CAR standards imposed by regulators in order for them to have sufficient capital to absorb losses. If banks don’t follow these guidelines, they risk fines or having their operations restricted.

Investor trust in a bank’s performance and financial stability might rise when the CAR is high. As a result, the bank can experience a reduction in its cost of capital and more investment in its stock or debt instruments.

Regulatory Requirements for CAR

The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, which establishes international standards, or national regulatory bodies, such as the Federal Reserve in the United States, the European Banking Authority in Europe, or the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, vary by country in terms of the regulatory requirements for the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR).

CAR is determined using Basel III, a framework developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. Banks must maintain a minimum CAR of 8% and a minimum of 4.5% in Tier 1 capital in accordance with Basel III. The overall minimum CAR is increased to 10.5% by the requirement that banks maintain a 2.5% “capital conservation buffer.” Banks that don’t meet the minimal CAR criteria can have their activities restricted or need to acquire more capital.

Some types of banks, such as those considered to be systemically important or those with large exposures to high-risk assets, may be subject to stricter CAR rules in some jurisdictions. In reaction to alterations in the state of the economy or other elements that impact banks’ risk profiles, regulators may also modify the CAR standards.

Conclusion

The ratio of a bank’s capital to its risk-weighted assets, or capital adequacy ratio, is a measurement of a bank’s financial strength and resilience. As it supports risk management, regulatory compliance, investor confidence, and financial stability, it is a crucial statistic for banks, regulators, investors, and other stakeholders. Regulators work to lower the risk of bank failures and safeguard depositors and other stakeholders by establishing minimum standards and ensuring compliance. A bank with a higher CAR is typically more stable and financially healthy, whereas one with a lower CAR may be more risky.

FAQs

Q1. What happens if a bank’s CAR is below the required minimum?

Ans. Banks that don’t meet the minimum CAR standard may be liable for fines or have their operations restricted. The bank can be required by regulators to raise more capital or take other actions to strengthen its financial situation.

Q2. When are CAR reports made?

Ans. Banks normally report CAR to regulators on a quarterly basis, and their financial statements make this information available to the public.

Q3. Are there any restrictions on the use of CAR as a gauge of a bank’s financial stability?

Ans. The use of CAR as a gauge of a bank’s financial health has limitations, yes. It does not consider all risks, such as operational risk, reputational risk, or liquidity risk, that a bank may face. Also, different banks could employ various accounting techniques, which can make it challenging to evaluate CAR between other organizations.

What Is The Full Form Of Aiims

What is AIIMS? History

In 1952, the Indian parliament passed the AIIMS Act, which provided for the establishment of a national medical college and hospital in New Delhi. The institute was modeled after similar institutions in the United Kingdom and the United States and was envisioned as a center of excellence in medical education, research, and patient care.

The foundation stone for the institute was laid by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, on 22 January 1953. The construction of the institute was completed in 1956, and the first batch of students was admitted in the same year. The institute was formally inaugurated by Pandit Nehru on 25 July 1956.

Since its establishment, AIIMS has grown in stature and reputation and has become one of the leading medical institutions in India and the world. The institute has expanded its scope to include several other medical colleges and research institutes across the country, collectively known as AIIMS institutions. Today, there are 22 AIIMS institutions in India, and plans are underway to establish more in the coming years.

Over the years, AIIMS has produced several notable medical professionals and researchers who have made significant contributions to the field of medicine. The institute has also played a critical role in the fight against several diseases, including tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and cancer. AIIMS continues to be at the forefront of medical education, research, and patient care in India and around the world.

Roles and Responsibilities

The roles and responsibilities of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) can be broadly categorized into three areas: medical education, medical research, and patient care.

Medical Education

AIIMS is responsible for providing undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in various specialties. The institute offers courses such as MBBS, MD, MS, DM, chúng tôi chúng tôi and Ph.D. The faculty at AIIMS is responsible for designing and delivering the curriculum, evaluating students’ performance, and mentoring students.

Medical Research

AIIMS is also involved in medical research and has made significant contributions to the field of medicine over the years. The institute conducts research in various medical disciplines and has several research centers, including the AIIMS Research Cell, the AIIMS Stem Cell Facility, and the AIIMS-ICMR Center for Advanced Research in Evidence-Based Child Health.

Patient Care Notable Contributions

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) has made several notable contributions to the field of medicine, research, and patient care since its establishment. Here are a few examples −

Organ Transplantation − AIIMS has been at the forefront of organ transplantation in India, having performed the first successful kidney transplant in the country in 1971. Since then, AIIMS has performed several other successful organ transplants, including liver, heart, and lung transplants. The institute has also contributed to research in this field, including developing new techniques for organ preservation and transplant.

HIV/AIDS Research − AIIMS has played a significant role in HIV/AIDS research in India. The institute established the National AIDS Research Institute in 1992, which conducts research related to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care. AIIMS has also been involved in developing HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines for India and has provided training to healthcare professionals on HIV/AIDS management.

Mental Health − AIIMS has made significant contributions to the field of mental health, including establishing the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre in 2003. The center provides treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals with substance abuse disorders and conducts research on substance abuse prevention and treatment. AIIMS also has a department of psychiatry that provides mental health services to patients and conducts research in this field.

Medical Technology − AIIMS has contributed to the development of medical technology in India, including developing indigenous medical devices and technologies. For example, AIIMS researchers have developed a low-cost device for detecting cervical cancer and a handheld device for detecting jaundice in newborns.

AIIMS has made significant contributions to various fields of medicine and healthcare, including organ transplantation, HIV/AIDS research, mental health, and medical technology. These contributions have had a significant impact on improving healthcare outcomes in India and around the world.

Conclusion

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) has played a crucial role in the development of healthcare in India and has made significant contributions to medical education, research, and patient care. From its establishment in 1956, AIIMS has grown to become one of the most renowned medical institutions in the country, attracting top medical talent and producing several notable medical professionals.

FAQs

Q1. How many AIIMS institutions are there in India?

Ans. Currently, there are 22 AIIMS institutions in India.

Q2. What is the admission process for AIIMS?

Ans. The admission process for AIIMS is through the AIIMS Entrance Examination, which is conducted annually. The examination is held in online mode and consists of objective type questions. The examination is open to Indian citizens and foreign nationals.

Q3. What medical services are provided by AIIMS?

Ans. AIIMS provides medical services in various specialties, including cardiology, neurology, oncology, gastroenterology, and many more. The institute has state-of-the-art facilities for diagnosis, treatment, and research in these fields.

What Are Motherboard Form Factors?

Most computers that are sold feature a standard form factor motherboard. The use of standards in this way helps to ensure that any components are compatible, rather than requiring the user to dive deeply into the specification of every component and its mounting mechanism to verify compatibility.

The original motherboard standards were the XT and AT standards used in the original IBM PCs of the same name in 1983 and 1984, respectively. In 1995 these standards were replaced by an Intel-developed standard, ATX, that is still used today.

Some system integrators or OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) such as DELL have generally chosen to avoid using standard motherboard form factors. To some degree, this has enabled alternative layouts that can be more space efficient or improve airflow. However, the primary driving factor and effect is that the motherboard and many connectors used are proprietary, tying the owner into official repair, replacement, and upgrade services.

While this behavior might not be an issue in a corporate environment, companies will likely already have a service contract with the PC manufacturer. It is less friendly towards the standard home user. The driving concept of the proprietary form factor is demonstrated by the use of non-standard connectors. It would be more believable that the changes are purely for space or efficiency reasons if standard connectors were used.

ATX

The ATX motherboard standard has been in place since 1995. While the individual components have changed as technology and connector standards have changed, the overall average hasn’t changed. For example, the motherboard still uses the same standard size of 305mm x 204mm. Another critical point is the mounting points. As the screw hole locations are standardized and unchanged, you could fit any modern ATX motherboard into a 1995 ATX compatible case. Or a 1995 ATX motherboard into a modern case with no issues.

The ATX standard defines the location of the CPU socket, RAM sockets, PCIe expansion slots, chipset, some power connectors, and the rear I/O. This standardization means that any compatible PC case will fit any ATX motherboard. For example, users don’t need to check if the rear I/O plate is too large. It also means that other components will just fit. For instance, A GPU will fit and align with the rear access panel. Large components like the CPU cooler can be designed to allow for the proximity of the RAM. In this case, many large CPU coolers simply warn users that they may impact compatibility with large RAM heat sinks.

ATX Variants

A variant of ATX called MicroATX is available that is 244mm x 244mm making it roughly 75% of the height of the standard ATX motherboards. This is generally used in small form factor computers. These might be secondary computers inside large computer cases or used in low-load environments such as a media streaming computer.

The reduction in size does mean some components need to be sacrificed. Typically, these are PCIe expansion slots. The smaller size also somewhat limits the cooling capacity that might be achievable in a more significant case. A key difference of MicroATX is that the motherboard mounting screws have different locations. Some but not all full-size cases offer secondary mounting points for MicroATX motherboards.

EATX is a relatively loosely defined standard that simply covers motherboards that are larger than standard ATX motherboards. A key point is that the mounting points are the same as for ATX motherboards. Care should ensure that cases offer enough space to fit the larger EATX motherboards. Typically, one of the core differences of an EATX motherboard is the presence of the second set of RAM slots on the other side of the CPU socket. Some EATX motherboards may offer dual CPU sockets.

ITX

There are three ultra-small form factor motherboard standards: MiniITX, NanoITX, and PicoITX. These are compatible with x86 CPUs and could be used for small form factor computers. However, these are typically used in industrial and automotive control systems. Components are generally chosen for thermal performance reasons, often allowing operation under passive cooling, especially with the case being designed as a passive radiator.

Conclusion

ATX has been the standard motherboard form factor for PCs since 1995. It standardizes the size and mounting points of the motherboard as well as the location of principal components to ensure compatibility between the motherboard and other components and the motherboard and PC cases.

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