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What is Value-Based Pricing?

Value-based pricing is a pricing strategy that sets the price of a product/service based on the perceived value it provides to the customer rather than on its production cost or market competition.

By charging a price that reflects the value that the customer receives, a company can differentiate itself from competitors. Thus, it can potentially command a premium price for its products or services, leading to higher profit margins and customer loyalty.

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For example, the diamond industry rests entirely on perception. Even though they are one of the most common gems in the world, their price makes them seem rare and valuable. Here, the diamond industry has created an illusion of the stones’ preciousness. Hence, customers are willing to pay more, allowing the retailers to charge hefty margins.

Key Highlights

Value-based pricing is a pricing strategy where the basis of the price determination of the product is the value it delivers to the customer.

It focuses on the value a product provides to the customer rather than its production costs.

Companies determine the price of their product based on how much customers are willing to pay, which can result in higher profit margins.

It requires a deep understanding of the target customer, their willingness to pay for the product, and the competitive landscape.

It can help companies create a strong brand image and differentiate themselves from competitors.

However, it can be challenging to implement, and businesses must carefully evaluate its suitability for their product and market before implementing it.

How does Value-Based Pricing Strategy Work?

To deploy this strategy, a company should consider the following factors:-

Focus on the Customer Segment

A critical aspect of this strategy is targeting a particular segment of customers.

For example, Brand A has come up with a 700 liters refrigerator, which is one of a kind of refrigerator available in the market. Now Brand A’s target segment is big-capacity refrigerator buyers and not all buyers. A person can call it segmentation of the target audience for setting up this strategy.

Comparison with the Next Best Alternative

It involves evaluating the product’s value proposition relative to its closest substitute or competitor in the market.

For example, Brand B may compare the quality of materials, craftsmanship, and unique features of its watch to those of its closest competitors to ensure that its pricing reflects the added value it provides.

This comparison helps to justify the premium price of the watch and ensures that customers are willing to pay more for its benefits compared to other high-end watches in the market.


When the company has a reference, it is essential to understand the difference between its product and its competitor’s product.

The company needs to identify differentiated features and assign them a dollar value to create perceived value.

For example, suppose the competitor’s 600-liter refrigerator has a price tag of $799. In that case, the company can add $100 to the competitor’s price by offering a 700-liter capacity refrigerator at $899 because it provides 100 liters of extra capacity compared to its competitor.

A survey of the targeted segment of customers is an essential part of this strategy.

Based on this strategy, customer feedback on price is necessary before launching a product and should continue even after launch.

A continuous survey will help the company price the product better as a game of perception that can quickly change.  

Value-Based Pricing Examples #1 Luxury Handbags

Luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton, Chanel, and Hermes offer products that are not just well-made and high-quality but also carry a premium brand image and exclusivity. These brands understand the perceived value that their customers place on the brand, quality, and image, and they set their prices based on that value.

While the production cost of a Louis Vuitton handbag, for example, might not be significantly higher than that of a less expensive handbag from a different brand, Louis Vuitton can charge a much higher price because of the perceived value that its customers place on the brand.

#2 Software Industry #3 Healthcare Industry

Primarily, in the healthcare industry, manufacturers set the prices for medicines on factors like hospital reimbursement, production volume, and more. Thus, the prices were extremely high. However, recently the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) announced that the prices for prescription drugs will be as per the value they provide to the patients.

How to Calculate Value-Based Pricing?

Setting pricing based on value is not a fixed formula but a flexible one that requires ongoing market research, customer feedback, and an assessment of market conditions. Instead of just using the cost of production to set prices, this pricing system tries to determine how much a product or service is worth to customers.

Step #1 Determine the Customer’s Perception of Value

It involves understanding the customer’s needs, preferences, and expectations for the product or service, as well as the benefits that the product or service provides.

Step #2 Evaluate the Competition

Knowing the prices and value propositions of competing products or services can give you essential information about what the market will bear and how customers value similar products or services.

 Step #3 Set the Price Range

Using the information you got in steps 1 and 2, set a price range that accurately shows how much the customer thinks the product or service is worth.

 Step #4 Set the Final Price

One should set the final price within the price range determined in step 3, considering factors such as the company’s cost structure, profitability goals, and market conditions.

Examples #1 Coffee Machine

A company sells a high-end coffee machine that can brew coffee in multiple ways, including espresso, cappuccino, and latte. Determine the price that the company can charge.


#1 Determine the machines value for the customers that drink coffee

Customers value the ability to brew high-quality coffee at home with various brewing options.

#2 Evaluate other brands manufacturing a similar product

Coffee machines from brands like yours cost between $500 and $1000.

#3 Decide the price range for the coffee machine

Based on how the customer sees the value and how much competition there is, the company decides that their coffee machine should cost between $600 and $900.

#4 Select the final price for the coffee machine as per the value

The company sets the final price at $850, considering its cost structure, profitability goals, and market conditions.

#2 Yoga Classes


#1 Determine the perception of the value of the classes for the yoga students

Customers value personalized instruction, private studios, and high-end equipment and are willing to pay a premium for a premium experience.

#2 Evaluate competitor yoga classes by other trainers

Competitors offer similar premium yoga classes for $100 to $150 per session.

#3 Determine the yoga course’s price range

The company sets a price range of $120 to $140 per session based on how the customer sees the value and how much competition there is.

#4 Set the final price for the yoga class

The company sets the final price at $135 per session, considering its cost structure, profitability goals, and market conditions.

Types of Value-Based Pricing

Particulars Good Value Pricing Value-based Pricing

Definitions Good value pricing refers to a pricing strategy that offers customers a reasonable and justifiable price, considering the benefits the product provides.

Value-based pricing refers to pricing a product based on the perceived value of its additional features to a customer.

Purpose It aims to offer customers a product that delivers the expected benefits at a reasonable price, resulting in a good value proposition. The purpose of this pricing system is to set a product’s price based on the value it provides to the customer, which can lead to increased profits and customer satisfaction.

Examples A restaurant’s lunch combo of a sandwich, fries, and a drink costs $10, which is fair and reasonable given the quality and amount of the food. It’s a good deal for customers.

Difference Between Value-Based Vs. Cost-Based Pricing

Value-Based Pricing Cost Based Pricing

Value-based pricing sets prices based on customers’ perceived value of the product or service. Cost-Based Pricing is a pricing strategy that sets prices based on the cost of producing and delivering the product or service.

It emphasizes the customer’s perspective and willingness to pay. Emphasizes the company’s costs and expenses.

It can lead to higher prices for high-quality or unique products. Leading to lower prices for commodities or low-quality products.

It focuses on creating and communicating value to the customer. Focuses on recovering costs and making a profit.

It encourages companies to improve their products and services continuously. Encourages companies to control costs and minimize expenses.

It may result in increased customer satisfaction and loyalty. It may result in lower customer engagement and loyalty.

Examples: luxury goods and premium services. Examples: food, essential goods, and services.

Value-Based Pricing Advantages

There are various benefits of this pricing strategy are as follows:

It may lead to a higher profit margin for the company

This strategy works in favor of the seller when a person considers the products prestigious.

While buying a luxury product, buyers only look at the value of the product and ignore the actual possible cost of the product.

Thus, they are ready to pay a high markup leading to an increase in profit margin for the company.

Possible increase in the brand value

In this strategy, there is a constant effort to incorporate the customer’s feedback to include the same in future products to increase the perceived value.

Customer loyalty

When companies ask their customers about their preferences and expectations, it helps them gain their customers’ confidence.

Thus, customers become more loyal.

It gives the company an estimated market demand for its goods.

It gives them an idea of the number of buyers who can afford to purchase their product and are ready to pay a premium price.

Knowing the market demand for a product allows a company to develop supply correspondingly.

It is not always stable

Relying on it to increase profit margin can backfire if a competitor comes with a better product at a competitive price.

Require significant time & resources to fetch customer data

It depends on customer feedback. The company has to constantly spend to get customer feedback and incorporate it time and again in the product.

It applies not only to the features of a product but also to the pricing.

Also, companies trying to create pricing based on the value spend a lot on marketing to make the correct product perception.

Limited customer

A market has a specified number of customers who can afford the high pricing.

A small number of consumers indicates that business growth is finite.

Difficulty in business expansion

It is appropriate for smaller firms that sell highly specialized items.

A person can only apply this strategy to a smaller audience, making it the least desirable option for organizations looking to expand their business.

Competitive market

When a company charges high prices, its competitors can make and sell the same product at a lower price.

As a result, it will share its already limited consumer base and impact its profit.

Increased production costs

Producing customized products is more expensive.

To provide high-quality items, a company will need highly skilled workers.

Final Thoughts

Setting a value-based product price can be challenging since a single price may not work for all customers. However, it can be a powerful tool for building brand value and generating high markups. Before adopting this pricing strategy, businesses must evaluate its suitability for their product. The most effective method lies somewhere between cost-plus and value-based pricing. A good strategy can be to start with cost-plus pricing to cover production costs, build brand value through marketing, and switch to pricing based on value.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is value-based pricing?

A pricing strategy that determines a product’s price based on the value it offers to customers rather than its cost is referred to as value-based pricing. The aim is to establish a price that mirrors the product’s perceived value to customers, resulting in increased profits and brand value.

What is value-based and cost-based pricing?

Cost-based pricing bases a product’s price on its production cost plus a markup to cover expenses and make a profit. Value-based pricing bases a product’s price on the value it gives to customers.

Why is Starbucks value-based pricing?

Starbucks is the master of deploying a value-based pricing strategy. They set the target price using research and customer analysis, and each product they sell to customers adds value.

How to determine whether value-based pricing is right for your business?

Value-based pricing works well for businesses whose leaders are sure that their product stands out because it has features that other products on the market don’t have. But more importantly, it is correct when a company has spent sufficient time in the market and created its brand value.

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Inflation: Meaning, Types, Formula, Examples, Causes

What is Inflation?

Inflation is an economic concept that represents an increase in the prices of goods over time, reducing purchasing power and affecting individuals, businesses, and governments.

For instance, a cup of coffee costs $2.00 in 2023, but in 2023, it costs $2.50. This increase in the price of coffee is an example of inflation because the same amount of money ($2.00) can now buy less coffee than before.

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Factors such as increased demand, reduced supply, or government policies cause inflation. Inflations can have significant economic impacts, such as reducing the purchasing power of consumers, increasing the cost of borrowing, and affecting business investment decisions.

Key Highlights

Inflation is an economic concept that affects everyone, from individual consumers to businesses and governments.

Economists use metrics like the Consumer Price Index (CPI) or the Producer Price Index (PPI), which track the prices of goods and services at different production levels to measure it.

Strategies for managing it include monetary policy tools like adjusting interest rates and government policies to increase the supply of goods and services.

Over time, it can erode the value of savings and investments, emphasizing the importance of managing inflation to ensure long-term economic stability.

How Does Inflation Work?

Step #1 Increase in the supply of money:

When the central bank increases the supply of money in an economy by printing more money or lowering interest rates, it increases the amount of money circulating in the economy.

Example: Let’s say a country’s central bank decides to print more money, and the total money supply increases from $1 trillion to $1.5 trillion.

With more money in circulation, consumers have more money to spend, leading to increased demand for goods and services.

Example: With more money in circulation, people may start buying more cars, electronics, and other goods, leading to increased demand for these products.

Step #3 Reduced supply of goods and services:

Example: Car manufacturing companies may not be able to produce enough cars to meet the increased demand, leading to a shortage of cars.

Step #4 Price increase:

With the demand for goods and services increasing and the supply decreasing, the prices of these goods and services begin to rise.

Example: The shortage of cars may lead to an increase in car prices, making it more expensive for people to buy cars.

Step #5 Reduced purchasing power:

As the prices of goods and services increase, the value of money decreases, leading to reduced purchasing power.

Example: With the increase in car prices, people may have to spend more money to buy the same car they could have bought at a lower price before. This means that the same amount of money can now buy fewer goods and services than before.

Types of Inflation Demand-pull Inflation

It occurs when consumers want to buy more than businesses can produce and supply, increasing the product prices. For instance, if the tomato harvest falls by 50% over a given period, the demand will be more than the supply, which increases the crop price.

Cost-push Inflation

It results from an increase in daily wages and production costs. For instance, if the production cost of cooking oil increases, food prices in restaurants will automatically rise.

Built-in Inflation

It is when employees and laborers expect an increase in wages as a result of the increasing cost of living.

What Causes Inflation?

Decrease in Supply: With the rise in prices of raw materials, the production volume declines, decreasing the supply altogether. When supply becomes less than the demand, the prices automatically increase.

International Factors: A significant part of a country’s economy depends on its import and export relations. When the import rate increases, the price of all imported goods increases in the domestic market.

Effects on the Economy

Reduced Purchasing Power: Inflation makes money worth less, so people can buy fewer things with the same amount of money.

Hardship for the Poor: It hurts poor people the most because they spend most of their income on things like food and energy. The cost of essential goods has risen more than wages over the last seven years.

Increased Interest Rates: When inflation gets too high, central banks often raise interest rates. It makes borrowing money expensive, and people tend to spend less.

Boost in Employment and Growth: In the short term, it can actually help the economy grow faster. It can lower labor costs and encourage job growth.

Risk of Recession: If inflation keeps rising, people may expect higher wages, leading to even higher prices. It could create a cycle of inflation that eventually causes a recession.

How to Measure Inflation?

There are several ways to measure inflation, including:

Consumer Price Index (CPI):

It tracks the changes in the prices of goods and services that households usually buy.

It includes things like food, housing, clothing, transportation, and healthcare.

CPI is published regularly by government agencies and is often used to adjust wages, benefits, and taxes.

Producer Price Index (PPI):

It measures the average price change that producers receive for their goods and services.

It tracks changes in wholesale prices and can indicate changes in consumer prices at an early stage.

GDP Deflator:

It compares the nominal GDP (total value of all goods and services produced in an economy at current prices) to the real GDP (adjusted for inflations).

It takes into account changes in both consumer and producer prices and is frequently used to compare inflations across countries.

Inflation Rate Formula

The formula is,

Inflation Rate = (CPI (x+1) – CPIx) / CPI x,


CPI x is the CPI rate value for the first year.

CPI x + 1 is the CPI value for the second/next year.

You can download this Inflation Rate Example Template here – Inflation Rate Example Template

#1 US

The CPI Index for the US in 2023 was 278.802. It rose to 296.797 in 2023. Calculate the inflation rate.



The inflation rate for the US is 6.45%. It indicates that the prices of goods/services in the US economy increased by 6.45% in a year.

#2 UK

The consumer price index was 123.8 as of 2023. The recent value in December 2023 was 127.164. Calculate the inflation rate.



The UK’s inflation rate is at 2.72%. It signifies that the increase in prices of products over a year has been over 2.72%.

Inflation vs. Deflation

Inflation Deflation

Definition It is a continuous increase in products (goods and services) over time. It is a constant decrease in the prices of goods and services over a period.

Causes Increase in money supply, increased demand, decrease in supply, or government policies Decrease in money supply, decreased demand, or economic recession

Examples Hyperinflation in Germany during the 1920s, inflation in the US during the 1970s The Great Depression in the US during the 1930s, the deflationary spiral in Japan during the 1990s

Impact on prices It increases the prices of goods and services It decreases the prices of goods and services

Impact on investments It tends to increase the value of assets such as stocks, real estate, and commodities It tends to decrease the value of assets such as stocks, real estate, and commodities

Impact on borrowing It increases the cost of borrowing money due to higher interest rates It decreases the cost of borrowing money due to lower interest rates

Impact on employment It can lead to job creation in the short run but may also cause a wage-price spiral and lead to unemployment in the long run It can lead to job losses due to decreased demand and economic slowdown

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How does the government control inflation?

Governments can control inflation by using monetary policy tools such as increasing interest rates, reducing the money supply, and selling government securities. It can also use fiscal policy tools such as reducing government spending and increasing taxes.

Is inflation good or bad for the economy?

Inflation affects the economy in both good and bad ways. A certain level of inflation is beneficial as it encourages spending and investment. But high or unpredictable inflation can reduce consumer purchasing power, lower economic growth, and cause financial instability. So, the government and central banks must manage inflation carefully to promote stable and sustainable economic growth.

Q3. What is an example of inflation?

Suppose the inflation rate in a country was 6% per year. Here’s how much a loaf of bread would cost:

First year: $1.00

Second year: $1.06 (an increase of 6%)

Third year: $1.12 (another increase of 6%)

Real example: In 2023, the COVID-19 pandemic caused a surge in demand for homes in suburban areas, which led to an increase in the prices of houses and rental properties. This is an example of demand-pull inflation.

How to reduce inflation?

The most important measures to reduce inflation are:

Monetary measures: credit control, demonetization, and issuance of new currency

Fiscal measures: reducing expenses, increasing taxes, promoting savings, and managing public debt.

Other measures: increasing production, implementing wage policy reforms and establishing price control mechanisms.

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Reverse Discrimination: Meaning And Definition

It is normally referred to as “reverse discrimination” when members of a majority or historically privileged group—such as white people or men—are intentionally treated unfairly because of their race, gender, age, or another protected trait. Usually, allegations of this nature relate to a job or education.

On occasion, the phrase is also used to disparage initiatives like affirmative action that aim to support minorities and fight inequality. Despite the fact that the phrase “reverse discrimination” is not officially mentioned in federal civil rights laws, these lawsuits are typically filed as discrimination claims in accordance with Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and other laws.

Meaning of Reverse Discrimination

The term “reverse discrimination” refers to circumstances where a member or members of a majority are discriminated against on the basis of a protected factor, such as race or gender, even though this is not officially addressed by federal law.

White people who are prejudiced in favour of a racial minority are frequent examples of this form of discrimination. Another instance may be a male suing an employer because he believes a woman received preferential treatment at work because of her gender.

Affirmative action and other diversity initiative programmes aim to “level the playing field” in the workplace and in educational institutions. Despite their historical grounds, they may potentially be in violation of discriminatory legislation.

The Law on Reverse Discrimination in the Workplace

Courts have had difficulty handling a variety of discrimination-related matters, including those deemed to be “reverse discrimination.”

Employers are prohibited from discriminating on the basis of race, sex, gender, religion, or national origin under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, regardless of the identity of the victim of the discrimination. Additionally, programmes and policies that might have a “disparate impact” or a negative impact on members of a protected class are not permitted to be developed by employers under Title VII.

However, in discrimination lawsuits involving a majority of plaintiffs (white, male, etc.), courts have construed this and related state legislation in various ways. The courts have accepted some forms of discrimination against women and historically marginalised groups like minorities, but others have not. This legal matter is still debatable.

Reverse discrimination claims are difficult to prove, just like those made by individuals from historically underrepresented groups. The burden of proving real employer discrimination on the basis of race, sex, or another unlawful reason rests with the plaintiff. Additionally, the claimant must demonstrate the following −

Evidence indicating the plaintiff belongs to a protected class (such as being of a particular race, sex, or religion),

Similar employees not included in the class of the lawsuit received better treatment than the plaintiff,

Data proving the employer’s discrimination against historically privileged or majority groups, and

If it was considered in a decision about a promotion, the plaintiff did the job satisfactorily.

Can I Be Discriminated Against for Being a White Male

Yes. In the United States, reverse discrimination is becoming a bigger issue. But from a cultural standpoint, reverse discrimination is frequently downplayed or overlooked.

It’s crucial for the victim to be aware of his rights and seek clarification if they are being unfairly singled out or denied job benefits inside the government due to their race or gender.

Reverse Discrimination, Affirmative Action, and the Supreme Court

In the famous Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) decision, when a white medical school candidate challenged a university’s use of race in admissions, the U.S. Supreme Court supported the use of affirmative action in college admissions. The Court ruled that while there could be particular quotas based on race or any other single element (such as age, gender, national origin, etc.), race could only be one of several considerations in a college admissions policy.

When white University of Texas applicant Abigail Fisher was turned down for admission in 2008, the Supreme Court addressed another issue with affirmative action. She claimed that she and other white applicants were discriminated against since race was taken into account while evaluating applications. Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin (2023), however, saw the Court rule once more that “the race-conscious admissions programme in use at the time of petitioner’s application is lawful under the Equal Protection Clause.”

Arguments in two instances where the plaintiffs contested the continued use of affirmative action in college admissions were heard by the Supreme Court in October 2023. In those cases, judgements are anticipated in 2023. The verdicts could have an impact on the use of affirmative action in employment as well, even though the cases solely involved it in the context of education.


Intentional discrimination against members of a majority group, such as white people or men, on the basis of their race, religion, gender, age, or another protected trait is known as “reverse discrimination.” Reverse discrimination happens frequently in practically every community, even though most individuals may not be aware of it.

Frequently Asked Question

Q1. What is the principle of reverse discrimination?

Ans. When a Member State treats its own citizens less favourably than those whose circumstances are covered by EU legislation, this is referred to as reverse discrimination.

Q2. What is unfair discrimination?

Ans. The Employment Equity Act deals with unfair discrimination. Race, gender, ethnicity or socioeconomic origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, and disability are a few examples of this. Direct or indirect discrimination is possible. The Employment Equity Act is in effect, and these issues are heard by the Labour Court.

Q3. What is perceptive discrimination?

Ans. When someone is treated unfairly because it is assumed that they possess a particular protected feature under the Equality Act 2010, whether or not it is true, it is referred to as perceived discrimination.

Research Ethics: Meaning And Application

Research is an ongoing, exacting process. In fields like the humanities, social sciences, biology, and medicine, the researcher and the subject of their study are in close contact. The science of humanity as a whole is called anthropology. The researcher and the researcher (interviewer-interviewee, scientist-subject) share ecosystems, histories, and occasionally ethnic and linguistic identities in most fields of the discipline. Researchers frequently hold positions of authority in the area, which increases the likelihood that they may project their preconceptions and stigmas onto the individuals they encounter with.

Research Ethics Meaning

The Nuremberg trials, which took place in 1945–1946 and saw the prosecution of numerous Nazi scientists who had done cruel experiments on disabled people, homosexuals, and other persecuted groups, contributed to the development of the area of research ethics. The world was appalled when these scientists’ cruel tactics were revealed. This demonstrated the lengths scholars would go to in their ostensible quest for knowledge—torture. This served as a wake-up call to the scientific community, highlighting the necessity of establishing ethical guidelines that researchers must abide by when conducting their study.

The Nuremberg Code (1947), which established the guidelines for human testing, contained these regulations. Its fundamental tenet is that no human subject may be subjected to an experiment without that subject’s agreement. Any study participant should not suffer any injury during an experiment that has the potential to cause them harm or even death. Any associated risk with a study is only acceptable because the predicted rewards from the investigation offset it. All other factors are superseded by the study subject’s safety and consent.

All the following ethical principles and regulations for research ethics are founded on the Nuremberg Code. Many professional groups and research councils worldwide, including India, have embraced several of these standards. The Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants (2006), published by the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Ethics Guidelines for Social Science Research in Health (2000), published by the National Committee for Social Science Research in Health are two important ethical guidelines for research in India.

Theoretical Approach

There are two theoretical perspectives to comprehend ethics and its application to social sciences. Theoretically, consequentialism or utilitarianism holds that an action’s morality or immorality may be determined by its repercussions. As long as the goal is achieved, any forms of experimentation and inquiry are legitimate. According to this viewpoint, it is OK to test novel medications or treatments on humans without understanding how they would affect their bodies.

They contend that if it benefits “experimental participants,” it will also assist millions of other people. However, if “subjects” suffer or even pass away during the trial, it is determined that the experiment must be stopped, saving millions in both financial and human costs. This philosophical approach’s ethics are based on cost-benefit calculations.

Human experimentation is any experiment performed on a living individual, not for therapeutic purposes but to learn how it would affect him. Examples include administering growth hormones to young children to observe the effects, administering low doses of insulin to healthy individuals as a control group, administering trial medications to patients to determine their potential for healing, administering electric shocks to individuals to gauge their capacity for endurance, etc. Several instances of “live ethics in research human subjects” being treated inhumanely during social and medical research.

The most notorious instance is that of Nazi Germany when war captives were put through cruel examinations and torture in the name of medical research. These included “incompatible unsterile blood transfusions, (e.g., giving Rh positive or Rh negative blood to an Rh-positive individual, or giving blood from blood type A to inmates, etc.)” injections of harmful chemicals, forced sterilization of women because they are mentally ill and would likely produce mentally ill offspring disrupting the population’s gene pool, and performing surgeries without anesthesia. Holocaust survivors and others subjected to these experiments had psychological effects for the rest of their lives. This emphasized the necessity of voluntary involvement and informed consent in all types of study.

Principles of Research Ethics

Some of the principles that are crucial to conducting ethical research are −

Honesty − Honesty ensures that the researchers truthfully share crucial details of the study with respondents, colleagues, and authorities.

Objectivity − This principle helps avoid any biases influencing the study.

Integrity − Integrity helps to maintain consistency of actions throughout the conduction of the study.

Carefulness − Carefulness helps avoid any errors committed during the study and rectify the errors made.

Openness − This principle ensures that the researcher is open to criticism and new ideas that may help improve the study.

Transparency − This principle helps ensure that all necessary information is accurately disclosed to evaluate the research adequately.

Accountability − Accountability ensures that the researcher holds responsibility regarding all concerns of the study.

Originality − This principle helps ensure that the study is free from plagiarism and that proper credits are given to the sources used in the study.

Confidentiality − This principle helps to ensure that all sensitive information is safeguarded and the participants’ responses stay only with the researcher.

Protecting of rights − This principle helps protect the rights of humans and ensures that no animal is harmed during the conduction of the study.

Legal Consideration − This principle helps researchers ensure that all legalities are followed during the study.

Each research participant must be made aware of the following by the researcher −

The purpose of the study.

The participants have free will to participate in the study.

The respondents can withdraw from the study at any point.

The possible benefits and risks involved in the study.

Confidentiality of the study will be maintained.

Ethical Failure in Research

Ethical failure occurs when participants are mistreated by the researcher or their rights or dignity are violated during the conduction of the study. Research misconduct is another ethical failure in which the researcher falsifies data, manipulates the results, misinterprets the results, or commits academic fraud. Such actions are carried out intentionally and may waste the resources and funding involved in the study. Another type of ethical failure is plagiarism, which indicates that the study is not original and that someone else’s work is copied, either intentionally or unintentionally. Ethical failure also occurs when harm is caused to the participants.

Psychological harm is caused when triggering questions are asked, causing anxiety or shame.

Social harm involves social stigma, stereotypes, public embarrassment, and social risks.

Physical harm occurs when any injury is caused during the research conduction.

Legal harm is caused to respondents when privacy is breached or the confidentiality of participants is not maintained.

Application of Principles of Ethics

Assessment − Identifying the research problems effectively, chalking out the goals of the study

Voluntary Participation − Not forcing individuals to become a part of the study and letting them become a part of the research by their will.

Rights of the participant − The participants should be told that they can choose not to share particular information and choose to withdraw from the study at any given point.

Beneficence − Ensuring that the benefit of the participants is maximized.

Confidentiality − The privacy and anonymity of the participants should be maintained.

Non-discrimination −  Avoiding participants’ discrimination on race, religion, sex, and creed.

Advantages of Research Ethics

Research ethics increase the trust between researchers and the respondents.

Ethical principles help protect the respondents’ rights, welfare, and dignity.

The respondents can hold researchers accountable for answers.

Research helps in promoting social as well as moral values.

Research ethics help avoid errors, publish original research and veracity, and better understand the study.

Ethical values adopted in research help increase cooperation, answerability, impartiality, and mutual respect.

Respondents are likely to trust the researcher, and the research study follows ethics and increases the trust and reliability of the study.

Limitations of Research Ethics

Research involving experimental drugs or equipment such as x-ray machines can cause physical harm to the participants.

Some research can cause psychological harm to individuals as some questions may trigger anxiety and bring back memories of certain traumatic events.

Tribal or other backward groups may face stigmatization and discrimination during the study.

The data collected may be released unintentionally, violating the rights and confidentiality of the participants.

How can studies be made ethical?

The following steps can be followed to make a research ethical −

Collect accurate facts.

Map out the ethical concerns.

Respondents should recognize their responsibilities.

Respecting the privacy and confidentiality of participants.

Resolving the ethical issues once recognized.


Principles of ethics are essential to be followed by researchers to ensure that fair research is conducted, which is free from plagiarism, and the rights of respondents are not violated. Ethical research does not violate legal norms and ensures that no harm is caused to the respondents intentionally or unintentionally.

Schools Of Jurisprudence Meaning Types

The research or philosophy of law is known as jurisprudence. In order to have a deeper grasp of the legislative process, various jurists and academicians have attempted to explain it in general terms. The foundational principles of natural law, civil law, and international law served as the basis for modern jurisprudence, which emerged in the seventeenth century.

What does School of Jurisprudence define?

There is no set or uniform understanding of jurisprudence because people all around the world hold different ideologies and notions. It covers a wide range of topics. A jurist’s discussion of the political circumstances in his or her society reflects the legal system that was in place there at the time. It is thought that the Romans were the first to learn what the meaning of law was. In jurisprudence, policy is combined with other disciplines, like psychology, politics, economics, etc. It is not taken directly from any state assemblies’ or legislatures’ acts.

Types of School of Jurisprudence

There are primarily five schools of thought in law; we will discuss these schools and the leading jurists within them.

Philosophical School

It is referred to as the law of nature and higher law, and it has played a significant role in the history of politics, law, religion, and ethics. 

According to Dr. Friedman, as humanity has failed to find absolute justice throughout history, ideas about natural law have also been evolving along with societal changes. Natural law was seen to have a divine origin in prehistoric civilizations, a religious and supernatural foundation in medieval periods, and a strong political and legal foundation in modern times. The natural law theory’s belief in a universal order regulating all men and women is its most significant contribution to the legal system.

The philosophical or moral school is primarily concerned with how legislation relates to particular goals that it is meant to achieve. It takes an effort to investigate the justifications behind the creation of a specific law.

Historical School

Legal scholars from the Historical School of Jurisprudence discuss how society and the law are intertwined. The state’s law is made up of all of society’s customs and laws. A community’s particular wants and demands are closely related to the social structure of that society. This idea demonstrates that the rule is the result of historical causes and effects. The law depends on people’s broad awareness. The understanding has existed since the beginning of the public because no one had the authority to act as a sovereign and create laws.

Montesquieu was the first jurist of the Historical School. He claimed in his well-known book, “Spirit of Law,” that the law must adapt to changing society.

Savigny is referred to as the second historian-school jurist.

Realist School

Many people’s emotions have an impact on the decisions made by the law. Because the rule is taken into consideration at this school and is treated as truth, this institution is known as the Realist School. The judgments of the judges in the jurisdiction, in particular their mindset, are emphasized in this course. The emphasis at this institution is on the perspective and application of the legal and judicial systems. America and Scandinavia in Europe saw the emergence of the Realist School in the 1880s. America experienced a great deal of decision-making in 1890, and the cases, judgments, and points of view that informed those conclusions were all made public.

Two categories of realist schools exist −

American Realist − The scholars watched the judgments and learned from them in addition to their own experiences.

Scandinavian Realists − The academics only trusted their personal experiences in this regard.

Legal accuracy, according to Jeremy Frank, is a myth, and there is no way to predict the outcome of any wrongdoing since there are many variables and constraints that are left open to different interpretations. He muses over the actions taken by and planned for by jurists and judges. They reach their conclusion by applying the law. But what if both the choice and the facts are incorrect? There is no way to know for sure that judges will be able to understand all of the information and reach the right conclusion every time.

Sociological School

According to Roscoe Pound, the main characteristics of sociological law are as follows: The sociological school’s proponents place more emphasis on the practical than the abstract components of law.

The abstract ideas of analytical positivism, which place emphasis on the command or power aspects of law as well as the dead weight of previous culture and traditions that served as the primary focus of historical jurisprudence, are utterly rejected by sociological schools.

The following are the main phases through which sociological jurisprudence developed and evolved −

The father of sociological jurisprudence was Auguste Compte (1789–1857). The empirical method relies on observation and experience to create a link between the law and society.

The psychological stage is the third step in the growth of sociological law. Later in the 19th century, psychology had a significant impact on other social sciences, especially law.

The fusion of sociological approaches with those of other social sciences is the final phase of sociological jurisprudence development. It was thus understood that many social sciences represent various facets of human civilization.

Analytical School

Also popular as Imperative school of law, analytical school of law primarily deals with the laws that exist in present form with the objective to analyze. The scholars of this group explained law as the its relation with the state. According to these scholars, law is something the command emanating from the State. John Austin was one of the most proponents of the analytical school; therefore, sometimes, it is also known as Austinian school. Other known scholars are Jeremy Bentham (1748 -1832), Erskine Holland (1835 -1928), and Sir john Salmond (1862 – 1924).


The definition of law and its purposes were greatly aided by the five schools of jurisprudence. Despite differences in the arguments made by different schools’ scholars, all of them shared a desire to “maintain law,” and their only concern was how to better govern the law and administer justice on a broad scale, despite the various modes of justice. The ideas of diverse jurists evolve as time goes on, just as the law does. Even the Indian Constitution is subject to alteration by legislative and judicial interpretation. The Cyber Law, which specifies how cybercrimes will be punished, has been introduced to try to stop these crimes. The Indian Penal Code has also undergone changes in order to better combat these heinous crimes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Which school of law explains balancing purpose of jurisprudence?

Ans: The goal of balancing the needs of the individual and the state is fulfilled by the Sociological School of Jurisprudence. This school contends that the current socioeconomic crisis cannot be resolved through the use of the legal framework that is already in place.

Q2. What is the importance of legal philosophy?

Ans: The philosophy of law frequently aims to set law apart from other normative systems, such as morality (see ethics) or other social customs.

Q3. What is the main idea of natural school of jurisprudence?

Ans: A legal doctrine known as “natural law” places special emphasis on the rules of nature. This school of law also stands for the notion that there are laws that apply to all cultures.

Q4. Who is the father of jurisprudence?

Ans: Though Aristotle is popularly known as father of natural law, but Bentham is referred to as the “Father of Jurisprudence.” Austin expanded on his work. The definition of law was initially analyzed by Bentham.

Products Liability: Definition And Meaning

When a manufacturer or seller is held accountable for putting a faulty product in the hands of a customer, this is referred to as “product responsibility.” All sellers of the goods who are involved in the distribution chain are accountable for any product flaw that results in harm. In general, the law demands that a product live up to typical consumer expectations. A product cannot be said to meet the typical expectations of the consumer if it has an unforeseen flaw or risk.

Meaning of Product Liability

The term “products liability” refers to the responsibility of any or all parties involved in the production of a product for any harm the product may have caused. This covers the distributor, retailer, maker of the assembled product (at the top of the supply chain), and manufacturer (at the bottom of the chain). Products liability lawsuits would be brought against manufacturers of goods that have inherent flaws that damage consumers (or anyone else to whom the product was lent, gifted, etc.). Although most people consider items to be tangible personal property, products liability has expanded the definition of tangible personal property to encompass intangibles (such as gas), naturals (such as dogs), real estate (such as houses), and writings (i.e., navigational charts). The main source of product liability is tort law.

A federal product liability law does not exist. Product liability lawsuits are typically brought under the doctrines of negligence, strict liability, or warranty breach and are based on state law. Additionally, each state will have a set of commercial statutes that are based on the Uniform Commercial Code and contain warranty guidelines that affect product liability.

Types of Product Defects

A plaintiff in a product liability case must demonstrate, under any theory of liability, that the damaged product was both faulty and excessively harmful as a result of the defect. Three different sorts of flaws can lead to harm and make a manufacturer or supplier liable:

A plaintiff in a product liability case must demonstrate, under any theory of liability, that the damaged product was both faulty and excessively harmful as a result of the defect. Three different sorts of flaws can lead to harm and make a manufacturer or supplier liable:

Design Defects: Something that is inherently hazardous about a product is present from the very beginning, even before it is made.

Manufacturing Defects: those that happen during the creation or assembly of a product.

Marketing Defects: flaws in a product’s marketing strategy, including incorrect labelling, inadequate instructions, or inadequate safety warnings.

Product Flaws: Parties in Charge

At some point, the product must have been sold in the market for product liability to occur. In the past, a “privilege of contract” relationship between the victim of a product injury and the manufacturer or supplier of the product was necessary for the victim to get compensation. In most states today, the injured party does not necessarily have to be the product’s buyer, as that criterion has been removed. As long as the product was sold to someone, any person who could have been damaged by it can be compensated for their damages.

Any person in the product’s supply chain could be held accountable for a flaw, including −

The maker of the item;

A company that produces component parts;

A contractor who builds or instals the product;

The distributor; and

The retail establishment where the consumer purchased the merchandise.

A product must be sold in the normal course of the supplier’s business for strict responsibility to apply. Therefore, it is unlikely that a person selling a product at a garage sale would be held accountable in a product liability case.

Who Is in Charge?

The “res ipsa loquitur” theory transfers the burden of proof to the defendant in some product liability proceedings. This Latin phrase, which translates as “the thing speaks for itself,” denotes that the flaw in question would not exist without negligence. If the theory is used effectively, the defendant must demonstrate its lack of negligence rather than the plaintiff having to show the defendant was negligent.

Strict responsibility is the second criterion that supports plaintiffs in matters involving product liability. If strict responsibility is applicable, the plaintiff just needs to demonstrate that the product was flawed—not that the producer was careless. The idea of no-fault, or “strict,” liability enables plaintiffs to recover when they may otherwise be unable to do so by removing the question of manufacturer blame.

Frequently Used Rebuttals to Product Liability Claims

The claim that the plaintiff has not sufficiently identified the manufacturer of the product that is supposedly to blame for the harm is a defence frequently used in product liability claims. A plaintiff must be able to link the product to the person or people who made or provided it. The “market share responsibility” exemption, which is an exception to this rule that pertains to situations involving faulty pharmaceuticals, exists. Each manufacturer will be held accountable based on its share of sales in the region where the accident happened if a plaintiff is unable to determine which pharmaceutical company supplied the drug they took.

The plaintiff significantly altered the product after it left the manufacturer’s control, and this alteration resulted in the plaintiff’s injury, which is another defence a manufacturer can assert. A related defence is that the plaintiff used the product improperly and that this improper usage resulted in the asserted harm.

Legal Theories for Product Liability

Following are major theories for product liability −

Breach of Warranty

Contract law governs a warranty breach since there was a contract between you and the product’s vendor. A guarantee is similar to a warranty. Both express and implied warranties apply. A seller’s claim that “this cream will cure your baldness in thirty days” is an express warranty. The seller is required by law to provide an implied warranty. The two primary implied warranties are fitness for a particular purpose and merchantability.

In essence, merchantability refers to a product’s capacity to satisfy consumer demand. We all assume, for instance, that an automobile will have a steering wheel. A warranty that a product is suited for a particular purpose effectively guarantees that it will carry out its intended function.

Warranty breaches are rarely invoked in product liability lawsuits. Breach of warranty has a number of restrictions that limit its applicability. First of all, a breach of warranty must be based on a contract, which requires privity between the victim and the supplier. In its simplest form, exclusivity refers to face-to-face communication.

Therefore, for a breach of warranty, the affected party usually only has the option of suing the product’s seller rather than the maker or another party that caused the problem. Another issue with breach of warranty is that sellers frequently include exclusions from warranties in the written contract’s fine print, which might limit the claims that the harmed party may be able to make.


Negligence is the absence of routine care. A person or business may be responsible for damages if their carelessness results in a defective product. The negligent party can be the creator, distributor, part supplier, manufacturer, or anybody else who is accountable for the product’s flaws.

This legal theory is widely applied. It is not covered by the warranty breach limitations. Any party, not simply the seller, whose carelessness resulted in the product being the cause of the injury may be held accountable for negligence. On a negligence claim, attempts to limit warranties are irrelevant.

Finding the person or entity who was really in charge of the product’s flaw is a difficulty with the negligence premise. or identifying the specific negligent act. Sometimes, this is not obvious and necessitates careful research.

Strict Liability

Similar to negligence, strict responsibility entitles the victim of an injury to reimbursement from the entity that caused the product’s flaw. In contrast to negligence, the aggrieved party is not required to determine who specifically failed to perform their obligation. Strict responsibility just requires that the product be unreasonably harmful and faulty.

Strict liability allows for liability to arise from any link in the supply chain of commerce, including the manufacturer, distributor, seller, and supplier of component parts. This gives the injured party a less expensive and more convenient path to compensation, particularly if the producer is based overseas. Without the need for the injured party to bring the foreign manufacturer into the case, the distributor or seller in the US can be sued.


The law of product liability is intricate. Success depends on having competent, qualified counsel who is familiar with both the theory and practise of product liability law. This is especially true if your exposure could be global.


Q1. What’s a product liability case?

Ans. Plaintiffs have a legal right to pursue a claim under the doctrine of product liability if they come across a defective consumer good and successfully proved it.

Q2. How product liability affects a company?

Ans. Yes, business operations and decisions are impacted by product liability because they must be coordinated with specific measures to prevent releasing faulty goods and services onto the market.

Q3. What is the liability for products and services?

Ans. Product or services liability refers to the legal obligation placed on a company or service providers for the creation or sale of faulty goods or providing faulty and painful service.

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