Trending March 2024 # Metformin Weight Loss: Truth Behind Its Side Effect # Suggested April 2024 # Top 12 Popular

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Recently people are much talking about the drug Metformin and its “miracle” weight-loss qualities.

What is Metformin?

Metformin is a drug prescribed to address type-2 diabetes. It is also prescribed for obese or overweight individuals at risk of developing diabetes, i.e., prediabetic.

How it Works?

Metformin works to address diabetes by improving the efficiency and effectiveness with which the body’s muscles use glucose and by minimizing glucose release by the liver. It also promotes better functioning of insulin, thereby raising insulin sensitivity. So, it can also be prescribed for overweight individuals who display insulin resistance.

With better insulin function, your blood sugar levels drop concomitantly. Metformin drugs like Glucophage are usually used in conjunction with other medications. Doctors suggest lifestyle changes to maximize the benefits of this drug regime.

Currently, FDA, or the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, has only cleared the use of Metformin to treat type 2 diabetes and considered it the first-line treatment.

Does Metformin Cause Weight Loss and How?

Metformin has been shown to promote moderate weight loss among the people it is prescribed for. It is very different compared to other diabetes drugs, which usually make people put on weight. But it’s important to note that weight loss is a secondary side-effect. The medication isn’t prescribed for weight loss, but dropping a few pounds is a happy coincidence.

Initially, taking Metformin makes most patients quite sick to their stomachs. They suffer nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and an upset stomach. These side effects could cause a temporary but almost immediate loss in water weight. The side effects can also last quite a while, causing a decrease in appetite and a reluctance to eat, which may also cause weight reduction.

But Metformin has an array of other stimulatory mechanisms responsible for weight loss. For one, the body either produces more leptin or becomes more sensitive to leptin – the exact modality remains unclear. The leptin hormone is responsible for increased feelings of fullness, which curb appetite. The GLP-1 hormone is also thought to be released with this drug, which further blocks the GLP receptor and suppresses appetite. The simultaneous function of these hormones could promote weight loss by limiting and regulating the body’s need to eat.

Metformin also supposedly reduces visceral fat stored around organs in the abdominal cavity. Because it burns this fat, patients may see a reduction in their waistline and belly fat. It may also affect the gut bacteria or microbiome ecosystem, the enhanced activity of which also interplays with other hormones and brain activity to reduce hunger and food intake.

Is the Weight Loss from Metformin Permanent?

Weight loss may be a reason for prescribing the drug. In case you are prediabetic or have metabolic complications due to obesity. But weight loss is temporary and dependent on several factors. If you take Metformin, continue eating indiscriminately, and remain sedentary, you may not even lose weight. But with all other factors remaining the same, you will probably gain the weight back once you regain your normal appetite – it doesn’t substitute an active lifestyle. In any case, you can only lose about 3-5 kg in about four or five years. The proper diet and fitness regime can sustain and increase gradually over the years.

Metformin isn’t a magic drug that promotes sudden or drastic weight loss. It isn’t a quick fix for an unhealthy routine. If you have to lose a lot of weight, for example, 10-15 kgs, then Metformin’s contribution is minimal.

Is using Metformin for weight loss Safe?

So far, it hasn’t proven problematic for Type 2 diabetes and parallel concerns. However, since it isn’t prescribed for type 1 diabetes, obesity, or weight management, you need to be responsible for its use. A doctor should prescribe it and must use only the stated amounts. Dosages should be adjusted based on any side effects, significantly if you don’t suffer from the primary issue targeted i.e., Type 2 diabetes. Metformin use for weight loss is unlikely to develop serious side effects but should be strictly monitored. Depending on their body types and metabolic activity, it may only be effective for some.

Adults are not to have more than 25 ml a day – the ideal dosage is between 5-8.5 ml daily. For children, the recommended dosage is only 5ml. The range for tablets is between 500 and 1000 mg and should never exceed 2500 mg. Only liquid and standard tablets are currently available on the market.

Some extended-release Metformin tablets were recalled recently due to the suspected presence of a potential carcinogen. Until the risk of cancer-causing ingredients is ruled out, they will remain unavailable.


Metformin can be used if the situation so necessitates it. But taking a drug as a shortcut is never a good idea. As we’ve seen with the recall, medicines can have unintended consequences. It’s always best to lose weight naturally and healthily.

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Is Quantum Ai Legit? Truth Behind Trading Platform

Must See: Best AI Picture Generators

While some sources assert that Quantum AI is a legitimate trading platform, touting its AI-based algorithms and high success rate, others question its legitimacy. The platform claims to have an impressive success rate of over 85%, which could potentially double users’ passive income. Additionally, it provides tools to explore specific interests in digital assets, offering leveraged trading and support for various cryptocurrencies.

However, concerns arise from the lack of transparency surrounding Quantum AI. The creators remain anonymous, with no available information on the official website or social media platforms. While anonymity is not uncommon in the crypto world, the absence of information raises a red flag and necessitates caution.

Quantum AI’s anonymous creators and the absence of verifiable information about them create skepticism. Transparency is crucial for establishing trust in any trading platform. While the crypto space often operates with anonymity, it is essential to exercise caution when the team behind a platform remains undisclosed.

Trading bots can be highly risky and may lead to substantial financial losses. Quantum AI promotes itself as a user-friendly platform simplifying crypto trading for everyone. However, investors should be aware of the risks associated with relying solely on automated trading systems. Thorough research and careful consideration are necessary before entrusting funds to any trading bot, including Quantum AI.

Quantum AI highlights the need for caution when engaging in Contract for Difference (CFD) trading. CFDs can be complex financial instruments with significant risks. Investors must thoroughly understand the intricacies of CFD trading and consider the potential losses before participating in such activities on Quantum AI or any other platform.

Several sources claim that Quantum AI is a scam that exploits the celebrity status of Elon Musk to promote fraudulent software. The Quantum AI scam allegedly combines deceptive tactics, such as impersonating Elon Musk, to deceive potential investors. This highlights the importance of conducting thorough research and exercising caution before investing in Quantum AI or any other trading platform.

Interesting: Is It Possible to Fall in Love with an AI?

Quantum AI is not regulated, as it operates in the crypto trading realm, which often lacks strict regulatory oversight. Investors should be cautious when engaging with unregulated platforms and conduct thorough due diligence.

Quantum AI claims to have a success rate of over 85%. However, it is crucial to approach such claims with skepticism and independently verify the accuracy of the stated success rate.

Trusting an anonymous trading platform like Quantum AI requires careful consideration. While anonymity itself does not indicate illegitimacy, it does raise concerns about transparency and accountability. Here are a few factors to consider when deciding whether to trust an anonymous trading platform:

Look for reviews and feedback from other users who have experience with Quantum AI. Online forums, social media platforms, and reputable review websites can provide insights into the platform’s credibility and user experiences. However, exercise caution as fake reviews are also prevalent in the online space.

Try to independently verify the claims made by Quantum AI. Look for evidence supporting their success rate and performance. If possible, consult with financial experts or professionals in the trading industry to get their perspective on the platform.

Assess the risks associated with using an anonymous trading platform. Consider the potential financial losses and the lack of legal recourse in case of disputes or issues with the platform. It is crucial to balance the potential rewards with the inherent risks involved.

Explore other legitimate and regulated trading platforms that offer similar features and services. Compare the reputation, track record, and transparency of different platforms to make an informed decision.

Ultimately, the decision to trust an anonymous trading platform like Quantum AI is a personal one. It is essential to conduct thorough research, exercise caution, and consider the risks involved before investing your funds.

The legitimacy of Quantum AI, a trading platform utilizing AI algorithms, remains a subject of debate. While the platform claims high success rates and the potential to double passive income, concerns arise due to the anonymity of its creators and the associated risks of trading bots. Investors should approach Quantum AI and similar platforms with caution, conducting thorough research, and considering alternative regulated options. Remember, trading always involves risks, and no platform can guarantee consistent profits.

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Tested: The Truth Behind The Macbook Pro’s ‘Terrible’ Battery Life

Read professional reviews of Apple’s new MacBook Pro lineup, and you’ll come away thinking the new laptops have great battery life.

User Happypuppy was anything but. “Not happy with the battery either. I was editing my MacBook review video last night and at 6:28 p.m. it was at 100 percent,” Happypuppy wrote. “At 8:52 p.m. it was down to about 42 percent.” 

Adam Patrick Murray

Complaints about poor battery life on the new MacBook Pro lineup have been piling up—despite the laptops’ high marks for battery life from professional reviewers.

Contrast those writeups with Macworld’s review, which said: “Battery life is also solid, with both models lasting a full day of heavy use, with multiple apps open, dozens of Safari tabs, streaming music to Spotify, and occasionally indulging in some video viewing with Sierra’s picture-in-picture feature.”

Macworld isn’t alone. From Laptopmag to The Verge and chúng tôi the vast majority of reviewers have lauded the MacBook Pros for good battery life.

My own tests agreed. I’m no fan of the MacBook Pro’s butterfly-switch keyboard, nor its lack of USB Type A ports, but one thing I do know is it has relatively good battery life. When I tested both a non-Touch Bar 13-inch MacBook Pro and the base 15-inch MacBook Pro some months ago, I was able to coax about nine hours of 4K video playback from each at 255 nits of brightness.

A search for the truth

This particular MacBook Pro 15 is the baseline model with a Core i7-6700HQ, Radeon Pro 450, 16GB of LPDDR3/2133 RAM, and 256GB of flash storage. The OS I used in the majority of these tests was the latest public one available when I started my testing: macOS Sierra 10.12.2. I disabled automatic screen dimming and manually calibrated brightness using our Minolta photometer for each of the brightness settings I used.

Adam Patrick Murray

The MacBook Pro 15 with discrete graphics has indeed suffered from a software problem that chews up the battery.

Video playback is still great

For the first test, I ran the open-source 4K movie Tears of Steel. The actual video player you use can have a huge impact on battery life (you can read more on this topic here), so I opted to use Apple’s QuickTime player. Apple’s official video run-down test uses iTunes, but I’ve never figured out how the company is able to get the video to loop for its tests. 

The MacBook Pro 15 has pretty stellar life playing video. Set to 257 nits, we’re seeing just about eight hours of battery life. Even more impressive to me is that at the blazing 500-nit setting, you can still get six hours of run time. Considering the 2880-by-1800 native resolution and brightness of the panel, that’s actually pretty nice.


You can expect from 6 to 10 hours of battery life playing 4K video, depending on the brightness of the screen.

There’s one more result on the chart to be aware of, and that’s the battery life when none of the laptop’s USB-C ports are being used. For all the other tests, I used a self-powered device that logs the voltage of the USB port. This lets us know when the laptop is on, and when it finally dies.

This device works because on older MacBook Pros and most other laptops, the USB Type A ports are run on chips that are usually powered on at all times. The MacBook Pro, however, uses Thunderbolt 3 controllers. With Thunderbolt 3, the chip appears to conserve power by switching off when not being used.

The upshot: If you run a USB device on your MacBook Pro, you’ll take a small hit. If you refrain from doing that, then you’ll probably get slightly longer battery life.

Streaming video playback

Most video today is watched online, not offline. Using a brightness setting of 257 nits, I flipped on the Wi-Fi and measured how long it took to run down the MacBook Pro 15 on YouTube and Netflix. For YouTube, I picked a 24-hour Nyan Cat video that’s pretty low-res. I don’t get Nyan Cat, but apparently it’s a thing. It’s also a 24-hour video, so there wasn’t a chance it would stop in the middle of the night and invalidate my test.

Rather than pick a video on Netflix and try to rewind it every few hours, or try to binge-watch a show (which can be unreliable, as the video will occasionally stop streaming), I decided to use Netflix’s internal test video called Example 8 hour 23.976. I intentionally forced the video bit rate to the 4870 option. Audio was on for both, and I used a set of earbuds.


Netflix and YouTube streaming also yielded fairly good battery runtime on the new MacBook Pro 15.

Battery life under hard use: This is the tricky part

When you’re looking at this category of laptop, however, you shouldn’t expect people to limit their chores to light duty. It is a “pro” laptop, right? One thing I don’t think people understand is just how much of a penalty you pay when you push the GPU or CPU very hard. 

To find out, I ran two tests. The first used the game Tomb Raider. I set the game for 1680×1050 resolution on the medium setting and ran the game’s built-in benchmark. Once the benchmark is finished, it continues to loop a 3D scene. I then unplugged the MacBook Pro 15 and let it run down to zero. This particular test is mostly a load on the GPU, but the CPU is working as well.

After recharging the laptop, I ran the test using Prime95, which is a pure CPU test. I used the Torture Test Blended mode and manually recorded when the laptop died.

The point of these two tests is to address the people who say they “just did a little video editing” or some other intensive tasks for a “short time” before the battery ran down. Look at this chart and then think about your mix of work. A short time is all you should really expect if the task really pushes that CPU or GPU. On intensive tasks, the only way to get longer life is use a larger battery (more on that below.)


Push the GPU or CPU hard on the new MacBook Pro 15, and battery life will plummet.

There was, indeed, a bug. Read on to learn all about it.

Ways To Gain Emotional Weight Loss With The Power Of Your Mind

What Is Emotional Weight Loss, and What Are Some Ways to Achieve It?

Emotional weight loss is losing weight without any physical or dietary changes. It is a process that helps you to remove the triggers that cause emotional eating and embrace healthy habits.

Weight loss triggers are often triggered by fear, anger, sadness, and stress. These emotions can cause us to eat more than usual and crave comfort foods high in sugar and fat.

There are many ways to lose weight by using your mind, such as meditation, visualization, and mindfulness. The impressive power of your mind can help you lose weight without dieting or exercising. One way to use the power of your mind is through cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT enables you to change your thoughts and behaviors to be more positive and healthy.

For example, using the cbt weight loss app by Lasta and getting rid of emotional triggers such as negative thoughts or feelings. It focuses on your individual needs and keeps track of your progress in an easy-to-understand way.

Lasta app can help you change your lifestyle by quitting smoking, drinking less alcohol, eating healthy foods, and exercising regularly. It also proposes some psychological techniques that can help you to achieve emotional weight loss, such as Meditation.

7 Powerful Tips on How to Deal with Emotional Eating & Overcoming Triggers

Emotional eating can be a severe problem. It can cause weight gain, anxiety, depression, and health problems. But you don’t need to go through the struggle alone. There are specific steps you can take to overcome this problem.

1. Find a healthy way to express your feelings, like journaling or painting

Journaling or painting can help you release your emotions and express them healthily if you struggle with emotional eating. Journaling allows you to write down your inner thoughts and feelings without judgment, while images enable you to explore the beauty of your emotions on paper.

2. Write an apology letter to yourself with positive affirmations

It’s always hard to admit when you’re wrong. But it’s even harder to accept that you’re not perfect, and we must apologize for our mistakes and learn from them. Affirmations are a tool that helps us release negativity and replace it with positivity. They are excellent tools to use when writing a letter.

3. Permit yourself to eat something unhealthy if you need it temporarily

Many people turn to fav food when they feel frustrated, angry, or sad. It’s a common coping mechanism that is effective for short-term relief. But it can also lead to bad decisions and unhealthy habits. If you struggle with emotional eating, try these tips and tricks to help you break the cycle.

4. Prepare ahead of time so you can avoid those triggers that cause you stress or anxiety

When you are hungry, it can be challenging to resist the urge to eat food that is not good for you. In addition, certain things can cause you stress or anxiety and make you eat emotionally. Therefore, it is essential to prepare ahead of time so that when these triggers come up, you have a plan in place.

5. Start small and build up your willpower

It takes work to stop emotional eating. The first step is to start small and build up your willpower. Next, recognize that you’re overwhelmed and break from temptation. Then try again.

6. Keep a list of your favorite foods and snacks

When you are emotionally stressed, it is easy to turn to food as a source of comfort. Emotional eating is not always a bad habit and can be helpful when you’re genuinely struggling with depression or anxiety. However, many permanently change their relationship with food as their habits cause health issues and weight gain. To break this cycle, write down your favorite foods and snacks.

7. Try mindful eating techniques

Emotional eating is a dangerous thing. It can be challenging to stop, but there are ways to reduce your emotional eating. First, try mindful eating techniques such as journaling about what you eat, listening to your natural hunger signals, and cooking with spices or herbs.

How to Eat Fewer Sweets Using Your Mind & Managing Your Environment?

There are a lot of sweet foods that are readily available in our environment. However, it is challenging to avoid them if we want to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

This is where mindfulness comes into play. It helps us understand how our mind reacts to certain situations and how we can use the power of our mind to control what we eat and when we eat.

Sweeteners are added to many foods, from bread and cereal to pasta sauce and yogurt. You can reduce sugar intake by limiting the number of sweeteners you eat or using less in your recipes.

Don’t focus on the sweetness of foods.

Focus on how food tastes instead of how it looks.

Avoid eating sweets before bedtime.

Add flavor without adding sugar with herbs and spices such as cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, allspice, cardamom, and vanilla extract.

How to Increase Self-Worth While You Lose Weight

It is not easy to lose weight because it requires changing your lifestyle. You need to eat healthily and exercise more. However, you also need to be happy with yourself.

Self-worth is hard for people to achieve, even when they are on the right path to achieving their goals. However, self-worth can be increased by looking at the progress you’ve made so far and celebrating your achievements.

It’s important that people celebrate their accomplishments and feel good about themselves because feeling good will make them want to continue their journey toward a healthy lifestyle.

The best way to increase your self-worth while losing weight is to focus on the process rather than the outcome. For example, think about how many steps you take in a day or what you eat daily instead of how much you weigh. When you are focused on the process, staying committed and avoiding temptations that might lead to quitting becomes more effortless.

How to Curb Negative Thoughts That Contribute to Emotional Eating & Overcoming Triggers

A study by the University of Pennsylvania revealed that people who were more concerned about their weight were more likely to eat emotionally. This is because they have a negative view of themselves and believe they deserve to eat bad food because they are “fat.”

People on a diet often feel like they need to deprive themselves of certain foods or go hungry to lose weight. However, this is not healthy, and it can lead to bingeing later on.

When a negative thought poped up about yourself or your body, replace it with a positive one using this acronym: RULES (Recognize You are Loved)!


Use these five tips on working towards successful weight loss & building self-esteem.

There is a myriad of people who are working towards their weight loss goals. Whether they have been struggling with obesity for some time or just trying to get back into shape, there are a lot of ways that you can work towards success.

Here are five tips on how to work towards successful weight loss and building self-esteem:

Be patient with yourself; it takes time for your body to adjust to changes in diet and exercise routine.

Take small steps to make significant changes over time.

Keep track of what you eat so that you can keep track of your progress.

Be mindful of what triggers negative emotions when trying to lose weight.

Don’t compare yourself against others; you’re a “winner” in an individual weight-loss game.

How Does The Grey Market Effect Business With Its Types?

Introduction to Grey Market

Let us first clear the confusion between the grey markets, the black market, and the grey economy. Usually, people miss interpret and estimate all the three to be the same, however, there is a difference amongst the three.

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Grey Market: Sales of legal commodities or goods through a distribution channel that are also legal however not intended for sales by the original manufacturer is called selling in the market.

Grey Economy: Economy or goods and products that are not taxed or monitored by any form of the government comes under the grey economy. This is a very informal type of economy.


This term that is ‘The Grey Market’ is also spelled as ‘The Gray Market’ however the meaning is the same and it has the same definition. Let’s read the definition given below.

To be precise this is a market where the products and goods are bought and sold outside the, not within the original manufacturers authorized distribution channel. You can also refer the Grey Market to selling and importing products by dealers that are not authorized by the manufacturer; however, the selling activity is not illegal still it is unofficial.


In a Grey Market Brands that are sold are genuine these goods are also known as Grey Goods are sold not within the authorized distribution channel by authorized Market dealers, in fact, these products are sold in an unauthorized sales territory by unauthorized Market dealers. These products are sold at a lower price than the price of the same product sold in the authorized sales market and by authorized Grey Market dealers.

Explanation of the Term Grey Market

Well, the above statements have made the term quite clear. However, let’s still try to understand the same better.

The market is also known as the parallel market. The reason behind calling it the parallel market is because the products or goods are sold in a distribution channel that is not authorized by the manufacturer of the goods, this system forms a parallel distribution channel for buying and selling of goods that created two different prices for the products in the market.

Not confusing the term with the black market or the grey economy is important. The most important factor here is that the market deals with legal goods or grey goods that are sold in an unauthorized distribution channel by unauthorized dealers who are not permitted to sell the products by the original manufacturer of the products.

Most of the times these legal products are sold through an illegal distribution channel, the channels are either individual distributors or small companies who are not authorized to sell the products by the manufacturer of the product. The reason for selling in the market is selling the product at a lower rate than the rate available at the authorized dealer through the authorized distribution channel. Or selling of products in a country where the product is not available.

Types of Grey Market

Did you know that there is a variety even in the grey market? What I mean is that the market has types. Let me explain them in brief.

The original market where the legal products are sold through unauthorized distribution channels. This is where new products are sold. Mostly the market deals in new and original products.

At times it is difficult to differentiate between the new and the used goods in the market. The market where used goods are sold is also called the green market.

And the third type of market is also called the dark market. The dark market deals in secretive and unregulated trading of commodities such as crude oil.

The grey market and its explanation is now very clear. Now we need to understand this market even better by understanding, what causes give birth to the grey market? How does it affect the market, the industry, and the manufacturer? What are the pros and corns of the market? And finally, how can we prevent the loss?

So let’s begin with what gives birth or the causes of Grey Market. Unauthorized retailers gain in the grey market because of the following reasons:

1. Low Price Competition 2. Price Difference in Different Countries

Manufacturers offer different prices or different costs for the same product in different countries. This is one of their strategies to maximized profits on the basis of the demand for that product in that particular country. The grey marketers are aware of the same and purchase goods from the country they get the products at a lower cost and sell them at a low cost in the host country. This creates different prices for the same product in the host country.

3. Blocked Distribution

Some manufacturers block a few distributors from selling their products; however the distributors want to sell the product of the manufacturer, hence they buy the product from the grey market. This is where they buy the product from a cost lower than the price set by the manufacturer. This involves buying a product at a lower cost and distributing the goods though an illegal distribution channel.

4. Sales Targets

The manufacturing companies do enforce huge sales targets on their employees especially their sales team. This creates sales pressure and that is how in order to meet grey market sales targets the employees sell these products in the grey market. This gives rise to the buying and selling of a product in the grey market from a sound business.

5. High Product Cost

Some premier products have a very high selling price, some are overpriced, some are costlier than their competitors, etc. in order to sell their products and balance grey market sales in the market, the companies do sell their products into the grey market to keep their products selling and rolling.

How does the Grey Market Effect Business? 1. Affects Profitability

In the grey market, the goods are sold at a lower cost than the cost decided by the company. The company sets the prices bases their calculations of profits. When goods are sold at a lower cost the company’s profitability is affected.

2. Brand Reputation

Products of the grey market do not come with a guarantee backed by the company. If the products sold in the grey market do face an issue with its performance the name of the brand will be affected.

3. Cannot Guarantee the Product

As discussed earlier that in the grey market it is very difficult to differentiate between the new products and used ones. You never know what the grey marketer might sell to you an original new product or a used one. Trusting the grey market might also not be as easy as it seems.

4. Multiple Market Prices 5. Effects the Government

Grey goods are goods that are sold without tax charges. Taxes are applied to both buying and selling of the products. An increase in the transactions puts the government to loss.

Pros and Cons

Customer’s Point of View:

Products are available at a cost lower than the normal market price.

Products that are not available in the market in a specific country are also made available in the market.

The goods available in the grey market do not come with a guarantee or a warranty from the company.

The grey goods are not trustable as you never know if the products supplied are used or new products.

Grey goods do not have an after-sales service available for the products.

The customer cannot differentiate between the original and the duplicate product in a grey market.

Products not made as per the specific audience is sold here

Companies, Industry, and Nations Point of View:

The companies that sell very high-value goods for an exorbitant value can also supply their goods through the grey market to increase the sales of their products.

To meet the sales targets the employees sell the products through the grey market in order to reduce the cost of the product.

The company’s brand image and reputation come at stake for the grey marketers can also supply products that are not original

Products are sold without taxes which is why the government loses out on a collection of taxes.

The product has a dual price in the market due to parallel marketing or parallel imports.

The company cannot guarantee the products bought from the grey market.

Business relationships and client confidence are at stake because the grey market is used to distribute the products in the market.

An increase in the transaction of the grey market does affect the economy and the turnover of the industry. This affects the market in the industry.

Customers lose their trust on the company products as they do not get the quality they have paid for.

The products are sold out of the manufacturer’s authorized distribution channel.

Everything above states that company the industry and the nation suffer a huge loss due to the parallel market the loss is not just monetary, it is also a cost to the reputation and the brand image which is much costlier than the monetary gains and losses.

How to Avoid the Losses?

Every problem in this world has a solution and hence the problems that arise in the market can also be taken care of by working ways out to stabilize or sorting these problems out. Let’s see how.

The company should set a single cost policy for its products.

The companies in the industries need to increase their distribution channels in order to avoid grey marketing.

Strict terms and conditions for distributors.

Track the distribution channels and distributors and the stock rolled out to them.

Manage manufacturing costs in order to stabilize the cost of products and reduce selling costs in comparison to their competitors.

Control over the product supply market needs to be kept by the company and the distributors.

Set realistic goals for the employees of the company especially the sales team to avoid selling the same in the grey market.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Grey Market. Here we discuss the Introduction to Grey Market, types of grey market and the pros and cons of grey market. You can also refer to our other related articles to learn more –

What Is A Ceiling Effect?

A ceiling effect occurs when too large a percentage of participants achieve the highest score on a test. In other words, when the scores of the test participants are all clustered near the best possible score, or the “ceiling”, the measurement loses value. This phenomenon is problematic because it defeats the purpose of the test, which is to accurately measure something.

Example: Ceiling effectOn a midterm math exam, in which the highest possible score is 100 points, 90% of the students score 98 out of 100. This means that the majority of the students obtained a top score, and the clustering of the scores near the top is evidence of a ceiling effect. This suggests the exam was too easy.

A ceiling effect can be observed in surveys, standardized tests, or other measurements used in quantitative research. 

What is a ceiling effect?

A ceiling effect is a measurement problem that places a limitation to the maximum level an individual can achieve on a test. As a result, there is a discrepancy between a person’s test score and their “true” score, or reality.

Depending on the scientific area, the term signifies one of the following:

A ceiling effect in medicine and pharmacology refers to the phenomenon in which a drug reaches a maximum effect, so that increasing the dosage does not increase its effectiveness.  For example, researchers sometimes observe that there is a threshold above which a painkiller has no additional effect. Even if they increase the dosage, there is no added benefit regarding pain relief. In this context, the ceiling effect occurs due to human biology.

A ceiling effect associated with statistics in social sciences refers to the phenomenon in which the majority of the data are close to the upper limit or highest possible score of a test. This means that (almost) all of the test participants achieved the highest (or very near to the highest) score.

What causes a ceiling effect?

In the context of statistics, a ceiling effect can occur in survey data because of the limited ability of survey instruments to accurately measure participants’ true responses, as well as distinguish them from others’ responses. This can be due to:

Efforts to limit response bias. In an attempt to prevent biases like social desirability bias, researchers might create ceiling effects due to the way they phrase the possible responses.  For example, when asking respondents about their alcohol consumption, the highest possible option might be “2 drinks per day or more”. This makes it easier for heavy drinkers to fill in the question without feeling too exposed. However, researchers then lose the ability to differentiate between those who consume 3, 4, 6, or more drinks per day.

Instrument design constraints. Due to poor design, a questionnaire might not be able to measure a variable above a certain limit. For example, when a college exam is too easy, everyone will get more or less the same high score. The ceiling effect creates an artificially low threshold, since anyone is able to pass the exam. As a result, the exam fails to measure what it’s supposed to measure (aptitude) beyond a certain (low) level.

Why is the ceiling effect a problem?

Because of the ceiling effect, tests, surveys and other measures fail to capture the true range of values or responses, resulting in little variance in the data.

Ceiling effects cause a number of problems in data analysis including the inability to:

Determine the central tendency of the data, or the true average in a dataset.

Compare the means between two groups, e.g., between a treatment and a control group.

Get an accurate measure of variability, such as standard deviation.

Form conclusions about the effect of the independent variable  on any dependent variables.

Rank individuals according to their score.

Overall, a ceiling effect hinders the accurate interpretation of data and can render results meaningless.

Ceiling effect examples

Ceiling effects can be observed in surveys that include response categories that do not fully capture the range of possible answers above a certain point.

Example: Ceiling effect and response biasSuppose that you are researching what residents in an area think about the new section of urban motorway constructed nearby. Among your survey questions, there is one concerning income (“What was your total household income last year?”) You present respondents with different income categories to choose from:

less than $50,000


Over $100,000

Although this is a discreet way to ask a sensitive question and avoid response bias, there is also a downside to it. Setting the top range like this creates an artificial cutoff point, or ceiling, beyond which it is not possible to measure income. In other words, you can’t differentiate between someone that makes  $100,000, $400,000 or $1 million per year.

Because the income range is not inclusive of the true values above that point, this results in inaccurate measurement and a ceiling effect.

A ceiling effect can create a low threshold, making it easy for participants to reach the highest possible score on a test.

Example: Ceiling effect and poor designYou have created a short memory test that assesses participants’ ability to recall information. The test consists of showing five words on a screen. Because most participants can remember all five words, the test exhibits a ceiling effect: you can’t use it to rank participants according to their recall ability. The best approach would be to use an already validated memory test.

How to avoid ceiling effects?

Ceiling effects can impact the quality of your data collection. It’s really important to take the necessary steps to prevent this phenomenon. There are a few strategies you can use to avoid ceiling effects in your research:

Use previously-validated instruments, such as pre-existing questionnaires measuring the concept you are interested in. In this way, you can ensure that the questionnaire will allow you to capture a wide range of responses.

If no such instrument exists, run a pilot survey or experiment to check for ceiling effects. Running a small-scale trial of your survey will give you the opportunity to adjust your questions in case you do notice a ceiling effect.

When your survey includes sensitive or personal topics, like questions about income or drug use, provide anonymity, and don’t set artificial limits on responses. Instead, you could let participants fill in the higher value themselves.

Other types of research bias Frequently asked questions

What is the difference between ceiling and floor effect?

The terms ceiling effect and floor effect are opposites but they refer to the same phenomenon: the clustering of individual survey responses around a certain value. More specifically, ceiling effects occur when a considerable percentage of participants score the best or maximum possible score, while floor effects occur when the opposite happens, i.e.,  a considerable percentage of participants obtain the worst or minimum available score. This can be observed, for example, when a test is too easy (ceiling effect) or too difficult (floor effect). As a result, researchers can’t use the test to rank participants at either end of the scale.

What is a ceiling effect in pharmacology

In pharmacology a ceiling effect is the point at which an independent variable (the variable being manipulated) is no longer affecting the dependent variable  (the variable being measured). This can be seen with analgesic or pain-relieving medication. Even if researchers increase the dosage, there is a certain point beyond which the effectiveness of the medication will no longer increase.

Why is the ceiling effect a problem?

The ceiling effect is a problem in statistical analysis and data interpretation because it restricts the range of values that a variable can take. Due to this, there is a difference between the reported values and the ‘real’ values which means that the survey, test, or other measure used fails to collect accurate data.

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