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So often our vehicles will have one issue or another, and we fret over whether we should take them to a mechanic. Is it important enough to get it fixed right away? Is it something that would be dangerous to let go? Or is it something you can live with? The MUCAR Automotive Smart Scanner is an affordable tool that you can keep on hand to help you diagnose your issue and answer those important questions. Find out more in this review.

This is a sponsored article and was made possible by MUCAR. The actual contents and opinions are the sole views of the author who maintains editorial independence, even when a post is sponsored.

MUCAR Automotive Smart Scanner Features

The MUCAR Automotive Smart Scanner has many features for one low price. It could potentially save you money and time and relieve you from being constantly concerned with vehicle issues.

Its features are:

Data analysis

Online chat

Provides multiple codes

Clears codes (such as turning off the Check Engine Light)

DTC definition (to explain the codes)

Freeze frame data (data from the moment the code was generated)

Live data stream

Auto-generate diagnostic report

Optional paid upgrades

Lifetime free updates

Device: quad-core 1.3GHz processor, 2GB RAM and 16GB ROM, 1500mAH battery, 4″ TD touchscreen, speaker, Android system

Using the MUCAR Automotive Smart Scanner

I tried the MUCAR Automotive Smart Scanner both with the free version on my husband’s 2013 Dodge Caravan and the paid option on my 2012 Ford Fiesta to compare. Impressively, the device is plug and play without much setup, even when upgrading to the paid version.

Also impressive is that you don’t need any automotive background to use it. My husband (who has much auto knowledge) and I did it together the first time, then I did it alone, but I could have done it all on my own, though I wouldn’t have a clue what the codes, and even some of the diagnoses, mean. Regardless, I didn’t need to know any of that. This scanner gives you information to take to the auto shop and can even explain the diagnosis to you. It provides you with everything you need.

The scanner will work on most OBD-II compliant vehicles from 1996 through 2023 models and is compatible with OBD2/EOBD & CAN protocols. It plugs into the OBD-II port on your car, located near the floor on the driver’s side of the vehicle. It worked right out of the package, and I didn’t even need to charge it first.

It’s just a matter of turning it on, selecting your language, and connecting to Wi-Fi. The device has dual controls: a touchscreen and “cursor” keys below the screen.

You can scroll through the many diagnostics, looking for issues. It looks like the engine coolant was a little low, but that’s not surprising, as the warmest it was outside that day was 49º F, and my car had only been running for a couple of minutes.

You can also compare the diagnostics you just received with an earlier report, which would help you narrow down the new issue with your vehicle.

Upgrading the Scanner

If you’d like to also check the ABS, SRS, TCM, and ECM diagnostics, you can upgrade for just $39.95. This also gives you modules for many, many makes of cars. Along with the upgrade, I added the Ford module for my car.

You’ll be taken to a screen with the stats for ABS, SRS, TCM, and ECM.

Send Reports and Screencaps

If you want to keep any of the diagnostics for later or perhaps share them with your local car repair, you can either email the report to yourself (or someone else) or have it sent via Bluetooth.

Pictured above is just the beginning of the report that was emailed to me. You can have a document or PDF version of the report emailed to you or sent through Bluetooth to your phone. I was not able to get the Bluetooth to work with my iPhone, but the email option worked well, with one strange problem. It would not let me type in an email address without separating it into words. I have a chúng tôi email, and it was forcing the domain into three separate words.

There’s also an option to take screencaps of your findings. I, of course, wanted that option for completing this review. The option is located in Settings. I found all of the pictures, but when I tried to transfer them to my phone via Bluetooth, I again wasn’t able to. I had to send them individually through email.

Other Features

There are plenty of other features on the MUCAR Automotive Smart Scanner.

At the bottom of the scanner, you can pull off the cap (I had to pry it off with a butter knife) to reveal a USB-C port to recharge the scanner. In addition, there’s a slot to expand the memory another 256GB on top of the built-in 16GB. You’ll also find the reset button here.

Alternatively, the system includes a browser, which is handy for looking up anything you don’t understand in the diagnostics. There is also an online chat. In other words, there is plenty of help all around.


While I had to search to find some of the functions on the MUCAR Automotive Smart Scanner, the diagnoses of my cars were very quick, within minutes. The setup was just as quick. Quickly finding more information and sending the report to yourself or others adds to the functionality even more. I wish the Bluetooth function would have worked with my iPhone or iPad, but either way, I could still get all the answers I needed.

You can get your own MUCAR Automotive Smart Scanner for $84.90 after applying the $20 Amazon coupon. For the peace of mind that you get from it before you get behind the wheel again, it’s very much worth it.

Laura Tucker

Laura has spent nearly 20 years writing news, reviews, and op-eds, with more than 10 of those years as an editor as well. She has exclusively used Apple products for the past three decades. In addition to writing and editing at MTE, she also runs the site’s sponsored review program.

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8 Effective Diy Ways To Manage Dry Eye

Eight DIY Hacks to Manage Dry Eyes with Ease Blink More Frequently

Blinking more often can be a simple yet effective way to prevent and manage dry eye syndrome. By blinking, the protective mechanisms of our eyes are stimulated to keep moisture in. In effect, frequent blinking helps our eyes stay lubricated and prevents dry spots from forming on the cornea or other surfaces of the eye. This is because when we blink, the tear film is spread across the eye’s surface, which helps stimulate the production of other elements necessary for ocular health. Additionally, this reduction in surface tension creates a refreshing environment that further helps facilitate blinking, promote aqueous tear secretion, and keep eyes refreshed by keeping harmful agents away from them. Thus, making it a very practical way to maintain eye health daily.

Use Artificial Tears

Keeping your eyes moist and hydrated with artificial tears is key to helping manage dry eye. Artificial tears can rehydrate the eyes and replace lost moisture caused by tears evaporating off the eye’s surface. They help protect against further irritation, reduce redness, and counteract the burning sensation of dry eyes. It’s important to calculate how much you need based on the severity of your condition, as too many drops can over-moisturize and worsen symptoms, including blurry vision or discomfort. Depending on the symptoms you’re experiencing, your ophthalmologist or optometrist may suggest a certain type of artificial tear for best results – for example, gel-based artificial tears tend to provide more sustained relief than other types of teardrops. So, if you feel like your eyes need extra hydration throughout your day, visit your eye doctor to find a brand and type of artificial tear that works best for you and try them!

Apply Warm Compresses

When suffering from dry eye, taking the time to apply warm compresses can be very helpful. The warmth of a compress helps by helping restore hydration in the tear film and softening the crusts that can form with dry eyes. This relieves discomfort and lubricates uncomfortable symptoms such as burning, grittiness, itching or light sensitivity. On top of this, it also helps reduce inflammation, allowing better application of ocular drops, which often become necessary when managing dry eye. Combining warm compresses with other treatments is likely to be most effective in controlling dry eye symptoms.

Adjust Computer/Device Use

Finding relief from the discomfort requires adjusting both lifestyle and environmental elements, including computer/device use. Taking steps to reduce time spent looking at screens and making adjustments when necessary can help ease the burden of dry eye syndrome. Making sure the room is well-lit with natural light helps reduce eyestrain while reducing workstation glare also helps minimize irritation. Furthermore, adjusting brightness levels on personal devices to an optimal level for viewing helps minimize clear-sight fatigue. Additionally, it’s important to take breaks every 20 minutes away from screens and rest your eyes after extended screen usage by blinking often or using eye drops. Following these simple guidelines can help you manage your dry eye more effectively.

Improve Indoor Air Quality

Fortunately, increased indoor air quality in your home can help to combat this problem. Good ventilation helps to keep the air moist, which prevents moisture from continually being sucked out of your eyes. Additionally, keeping the house pollution-free by avoiding smoking or using harsh cleaning products can reduce the amount of irritating airborne particles that come into contact with your eyes. Finally, monitoring and regulating humidity levels will also help ensure that your eyes remain appropriately lubricated during long days indoors. Taking these measures will maintain comfortable eye health and help you find some relief from dry eye symptoms.

Modify Your Diet

Managing dry eye could become a hassle-free affair with the right changes to your diet. Adding certain vitamins and minerals to your daily intake can help support the body’s natural lubrication. Omega-3 fatty acids have been proven to have many healing properties for multiple conditions, including dry eye; foods such as tuna, salmon, flaxseed, and walnuts are good sources of this beneficial nutrient. Additionally, Vitamin A helps to keep the eyes healthy; adding carrots, sweet potatoes, eggs, and dark green leafy vegetables like kale or spinach are great sources of this vitamin. Lastly, ensuring adequate hydration is key; increase consumption of water-rich produce like cucumbers, tomatoes and celery and reach for naturally thirst-quenching fluids like coconut water or herbal tea on hot days. Modifying your diet by incorporating these ingredients can go a long way in helping you manage dry eye.

Reduce Screen Time

Reducing screen time can help you manage your dry eye symptoms. This is because when looking at screens for long periods of time, like when playing video games or scrolling through social media, could be putting extra stress on your eyes and making dry eye worse. To reduce the impact of these activities on your eyes, take frequent breaks from the screen. This can include setting specific times to turn off all digital devices and instead go outside, read a book or take part in another indoor activity. When returning to digital devices, look away frequently and practice relaxation techniques such as palming. Following these steps will assist in reducing potential damage to your eyes caused by digital activities and hopefully improve your overall symptoms of dry eye.

Wear Sunglasses Outdoors

Wearing sunglasses outdoors can help manage dry eye, as it shields the eyes from damaging sunlight and reduces the amount of wind that reaches the surface of the eye. By preventing direct contact between UV rays and corneas, sunglasses reduce the irritation that can cause dry eye. Furthermore, by limiting how much air makes contact with your eyes, you prevent evaporation and can reduce symptoms of dry eyes. In addition to wearing sunglasses when outdoors, it is important to note that opting for lightweight frames, as well as polarized lenses, can also provide relief from dry eye discomfort. For those prone to chronic episodes of dry eye in particular, investing in a good pair of quality sunglasses is a great way to prevent further occurrences and discomfort.


Huawei Band 6 Review: A Perfect Smart Band For The Price

The box contents are pretty simple, and what you expect to get when buying a smart band:

Huawei Band 6 with Attached Strap

Magnetic Charger (Pogo Pin)

Quick Start Guide

Warranty Card

Huawei has kept the design of Huawei Band 6, clean yet stylish. As we get a dual-tone design, where the bottom part comes with all the sensors (Accelerometer, Gyroscope, and Heart rate sensor) in a matte finish plastic, making it skin-friendly yet giving a better grip. While the side frame comes with a slight shiny plastic which looks good.

Also, the keeper is the only place where we can find the Huawei branding on the band. While the strap does keep the band in place, it does leave marks on your wrist if worn a bit tightly. Huawei band  6 also comes with a 5ATM rating, making it water-resistant up to 50 meters.

Huawei band 6 comes in 2 colors (Dark Gray and Gold), which can be customized using a strap that comes in 4 colors (Black, Pink, Forst Green, Amber Red). But it is not as convenient as other wearables out there, as the strap uses a proprietary connector, instead of the usual pin connectors we find on other wearables.

The thing I liked the most about Huawei Band 6 is the 1.47″ AMOLED Touch Display, with a resolution of 194×368 pixels. It’s one the biggest display you could find on a smart band, making it stand out from other bands. This extra screen estate makes it more usable, as text is easily readable, it doesn’t wrap around, and navigating through the UI becomes easy. The single button on the right is used to return home, light up the screen, or access the power menu. Sadly we don’t get an Always On Display on the Huawei Band 6.

In terms of customizations, there are hundreds of watch faces available on the Huawei Health App, including paid as well as Free watch faces. You can also set up a custom image from your phone’s gallery as a watch face. In my case, I was able to load up to 26 watch faces on the band, the number may vary depending on the size of watch faces used.

In order to pair Huawei Band 6 with your Android (Android 6.0 & above) or iOS (iOS 12 & above) phone, you need to download the Huawei Health App from Huawei’s website only, which is not an easy process. But once downloaded allows you to play around with band settings, download various watch faces, update the software on the band, monitor your health data, etc.

You can also customize your notification preference list from the band, which supports almost every single app installed on your phone, but the icons support is limited. Strangely, if you disable location services on your phone then the band disconnects and the notification syncing between the phone & band stops.

Huawei Band 6 comes with 96 workout modes which include outdoor and indoor running, walking, pool swimming (as it comes with a 5ATM rating), rope jumping, and more. Outdoor cycling is only supported on Huawei/Honor branded phones running EMUI 5.0 or above, and iPhones running iOS 9 & above.

Even though there’s no built-in GPS on Huawei Band 6, yet the workout data is calculated well. As it makes use of location services of the connected phone, the steps count comes really close to the actual steps. I manually counted the steps while walking, and the band recorded 5% more steps than actual. You can also enable auto workout detection for better results.

Another great thing that makes the Huawei Band 6 stand out is battery backup. Huawei claims to offer up to 2 weeks of battery life on a single charge, which held quite true in my usage. The last time I charged the Huawei Band 6 was on 9th November in the evening, and it lasted till 24th November evening, that’s around 15 days. Do keep it in mind, that I didn’t use sleep tracking often, but only 2-3 days, during this time. Also, the number of notifications you allow on the band may also change the results in your case.

Regarding charging, you do get a 2 pin magnetic dock in the box, which allows charging the band easily without worrying about detaching the straps. The magnetics are strong enough to stick the band in place, but not strong enough, as you can accidentally knock off the charger. This charging dock can charge the Huawei Band 6 from 0-100% in 1 hour.

Huawei Band checks all the marks that you expect from a fitness band, be it a big AMOLED colorful display, health features like SpO2, Sleep tracking, Heart Rate monitoring, etc. That too with a simple yet stylish body, which is lightweight and comfortable, still I will say, Huawei could have used a better strap on this one.

Buy Huawei Band 6            Buy Honor Band 6

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Galactorrhea Causes Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

Galactorrhea can be a symptom of some abnormality with the body or hormone imbalance, also, it can be because of prolactin. Condition milk leakage is very common and it can be seen in around 20 percent of the population with minor symptoms. The condition is more common in women than in men as they are the ones responsible for breastfeeding.

To understand galactorrhea it is important to know how milk production takes place in the human body. Milk production begins in the women’s breast when they are pregnant, the hormone signals the mammary glands for the production of milk for the child.

There are a lot of vital organs and hormones involved in the release of milk. Some of them are:

Alveoli. This sac produces and stores milk.

Milk ducts. This carries the milk from the alveoli to the nipples.

Areola. This is the area surrounding the nipple and is dark in color. This produces a sensation and indicates the hormones to release the milk.

Nipple. They contain very tiny pores that help the milk to come out of the breast.

Galactorrhea: Causes

Galactorrhea happens when the pituitary gland produces too much Prolactin. This hormone is responsible for the production of milk, the excess milk that produces needs to release otherwise, it will cause further pain and infection. The leakage is caused due to this release. This can happen in any gender. Also, this condition is common in infants.

The following are the important causes of developing Galactorrhea:

Medicines. Galactorrhea may happen due to the use of certain medications like birth control pills, blood pressure control, antidepressants, and diabetes.

Gender. Cases of galactorrhea are more in women than in men.

Infants. Infants also suffer from this problem and it generally goes away in a matter of time.

Thyroid. Thyroid too causes milk release problems.

Anxiety and stress, personality disorders, and other issues can cause hormonal changes in the body and can cause irregular lactation.

Breast stimulation and excessive use of the breast in sexual intercourse may arouse hormonal simulation that can cause lactation.

Breast cancer. Cancer and tumors are one of the most important reasons for lactorrhea. Tumors can affect the hormones of the breast and discharge of milk is common.

Injury. Injury to the chest due to an accident or any damage to the chest region may also cause lactation.

Some people also take herbal supplements to increase the size of the breasts like fenugreek, fennel seeds, etc. overdose of these supplements can cause milk leakage.

Kidney disease is also associated with galactorrhea.

Galactorrhea: Symptoms

A symptom of galactorrhea is the release of white milk-like discharge from either or both of the breasts. This can happen to either sex male or female and can happen to infants too.

Infection in the vagina is also a symptom

Some of the symptoms may cause headaches

Dryness in the vagina

Nausea and weakness

Menstrual periods get also affected by this condition

Blurry vision

Less sexual drive

Pain in the breasts

New hair growing in the chest area

Galactorrhea: Risk Factors

Several factors play an important role in the development of Galactorrhea which includes:

Sex. Galactorrhea cases are more in women than in men.

Age. Leakage of milk is a known condition for infants and people who are at adolescent age and had recent pregnancies.

Diseases. Patients suffering from other hormonal diseases like thyroid are at greater risk for this problem.

Personality disorder. Personality disorders like anxiety and stress, bipolar, and borderline can cause hormonal changes in the body and can cause irregular lactation.

Sexual intercourse. During sexual intercourse, breast stimulation plays an important role and some people overdo this and may suffer breast-related issues.

Cancer and tumors. People suffering from cancer and tumor are also at risk for galactorrhea.

Medicines. Some of the medicines which are used to treat other underlying diseases can cause galactorrhea.

Accidents. A person who has suffered Injuries to the chest can develop a leakage problem.

Supplements. Uses of supplements to correct or increase the size of the breasts like fenugreek, fennel seeds, etc. increases the risk for lactation.

Galactorrhea: Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Galactorrhea is mainly done based on observation and some of the tests may be required for confirmation and to rule out underlying causes:-

Physical examination. The doctor will physically examine your breasts and look for signs of abnormality in the nipples and other areas of sensation. He will also ask about the recent injury and will look for signs of any infection.

X-rays. X-rays may be used to check for another injury to the chest.

MRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a useful modern technique used for imaging tumors and other issues related to the abnormality of the pituitary glands that secrete the hormone responsible for lactation.

Ultrasound. These scans are also useful along with all the above tests to confirm lumps in the breasts or nipples.

Blood test. This test provides the result of an infection in the blood and also confirms thyroid and other diseases.

Pregnancy test. Pregnancy can also be a reason for abnormal lactation.

Galactorrhea: Treatment

Medicines. Galactorrhea can happen due to some medication and the same needs to be stopped immediately in consultation with the doctor.

Thyroid treatment. Get your thyroid levels checked and start taking prescribed medication for it.

Try to avoid over-sensation in your breast area that triggers the hormone for lactation.

Breast cancer & tumor treatment. If the tumor or cancer is diagnosed the removal of the same may be suggested by your doctor.

Galactorrhea: Prevention

Some of the measures that can help to prevent Galactorrhea include:

Do not touch your breast unnecessarily.

Keep your breast free of any infection.

Wear a loose cloth to avoid nipples getting in contact with it.

Check for any irregular levels of thyroid or infection.

Do a pregnancy test.

Look for any lumps in the breast.

Look for any signs of changes in the nipple and nipple region.

Try to identify the milk or puss that comes from the nipple.

Do not try to drain the excess milk and consult your doctor.

Do not use any supplement for the enlargement of your breast.

Do not go for any surgery to perfect your shape.

Breastfeed your baby. Breastfeeding is very important to keep your breast away from infection and cancer.


Delirium Causes Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

Delirium is an acute organic mental disorder that is characterized by impairment of consciousness, disorientation, and disturbance in perception which occurs rapidly within hours to days. Delirium causes disturbances in mental abilities that result in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment.

Delirium affects the cognition of the individual. Cognition includes several specific functions, such as the acquisition and use of language, the ability to be oriented in time and space, and the ability to learn and solve problems. It includes judgment, reasoning, attention, comprehension, concept formation, planning, and the use of symbols, such as numbers and letters used in mathematics and writing.

Delirium is of three types −

Hypoactive delirium is characterized by inactivity or reduced motor activity, sluggishness, and abnormal drowsiness.

Hyperactive delirium is characterized by restlessness, agitation, rapid mood changes, or hallucinations.

Mixed delirium includes both hyperactive and hypoactive symptoms. The person may quickly switch back from hyperactive to hypoactive states.

Various causes such as vascular conditions, infections, certain medicines, trauma, and electrolyte imbalance are known to result in delirium

The diagnosis of delirium and its underlying causes is based on the history, presentation, nervous system evaluations, CSF analysis, EEG, imaging tests, blood tests like CBC with ESR, blood grouping, urine examination, and serum electrolytes.

Delirium: Causes

Various factors play an important role in the development of Delirium. The following are the important causes of developing delirium −

Vascular causes such as hypertensive encephalopathy and intracranial hemorrhage.

Various Infections such as Encephalitis, and meningitis

Neoplastic diseases such as space-occupying lesions

Fever and acute infection, particularly in children

Exposure to various toxins

Malnutrition or dehydration in children

Certain medications can trigger delirium, including painkillers, benzodiazepines, opioids, anticholinergics, anti-allergics, and anti-convulsant medicines

People with Sleep deprivation for a long duration or severe emotional distress

Following major Surgeries or other medical procedures that include anesthesia

Following traumatic injuries in patients having subdural and epidural hematoma, contusion, laceration, and heatstroke.

Vitamin deficiency such as thiamine

Endocrine and metabolic causes include diabetic coma and shock, uremia, myxedema, hyperthyroidism, and hepatic failure

Heavy metals such as lead, manganese, mercury, carbon monoxide, and toxins

Decrease in the oxygen supply to the brain in conditions like anemia, pulmonary or cardiac failure

Delirium: Symptoms

Symptoms of delirium usually begin over a few hours or a few days and often fluctuate throughout the day, and there may be periods of no symptoms. Symptoms tend to be worse during the night when it’s dark and things look less familiar. Patients with delirium mainly present with the following symptoms that include −

The patient has difficulty staying focused on a topic or switching topics and gets stuck on an idea rather than responding to questions or conversation

The patient is easily distracted by unimportant things and is being withdrawn, with little or no activity or little response to the environment

Poor thinking skills

The patient has poor memory, particularly of recent events

Disorientation to time place and person

Difficulty speaking or recalling words

Rambling or talking nonsense things

Face difficulty in understanding what others are talking

Difficulty reading or writing

Behavior changes such as Hallucinations, restlessness, agitation, calling out, making other sounds, being quiet and withdrawn, slowed movement or lethargy, disturbed sleep habits, reversal of night-day sleep-wake cycle

Emotional disturbances such as the individual being either anxious, scared, or depressed., Irritable or very excited sometimes. The mood shifts are rapid and unpredictable

Disturbance of the sleep-wake cycle, the patients find difficulty in falling asleep, total sleep loss, daytime drowsiness, and disturbing dreams or nightmares.

Delirium: Risk Factors

Several factors play an important role in the development of delirium which includes −

Older age group people are at more risk

Patients with a history of brain disorders such as dementia, stroke, or Parkinson’s disease

History of previous delirium episodes

Certain Infection

Certain Medications like pain killers, anti-psychotics and anticonvulsants

Individuals with visual or hearing impairment

Patients with multiple medical problems

Bone fracture

Delirium: Diagnosis

The diagnosis of delirium is mainly done based on history and some of the tests may be required for confirmation and to rule out underlying causes

History of symptoms, head injury, and meningitis should be asked for

Mental status assessment and neurological exams should be done. That includes checking vision, balance, coordination, and reflexes which help to determine if a stroke or another neurological disease is causing the delirium.

Tests for memory such as immediate, recent, and remote should be checked

Serum electrolyte to check for metabolic imbalance

Electroencephalography to check the electrical activity in the brain

Blood tests such as complete blood count, ESR, blood grouping

CSF analysis to look for meningitis

Urine examination

Brain biopsy may be required in required some patients

Delirium: Treatment Conservative Treatment

Conservative treatment includes −

The mainstay of the treatment for delirium includes treating the underlying medical condition which is causing the delirium. This may involve antibiotics for an infection, discontinuing a medication causing delirium, or treating metabolic or electrolyte imbalances.

Symptomatic treatment should be done. Treating the symptoms such as agitation, hallucinations, or other behavioral symptoms with antipsychotic medicines is required. Sedatives such as benzodiazepines may be used to calm the patient.

Supportive care is important for these patients. These patients require close monitoring and supportive care to prevent complications and ensure their safety.

Patients with delirium require close monitoring and follow-up care to ensure that their symptoms are improving and that they are not experiencing any complications.

Surgical Treatment

Surgical treatment may be required in some cases to treat the underlying cause which is causing delirium.

Delirium: Prevention

Some of the measures taken can help to prevent delirium to a certain extent include −

Underlying medical conditions should be treated adequately

Avoid the medicines that may cause delirium

A good amount of sleep

A healthy balanced diet containing balanced vitamins and micronutrients

Adequate hydration with plenty of water

Providing appropriate sensory stimulation such as natural light, music, and engaging activities may help prevent delirium.

Family care and support

Early recognition and management of delirium are important to prevent complications.

The patient should be under close monitoring to prevent the patient from self-harm

Regular follow-ups can help to identify the recurrence rate


Delirium is a condition in which the consciousness, orientation, and perception of an individual are altered. The patient is confused, his/her thinking capacity is affected and talks about unrelated things, faces difficulty in remembering things, and is disoriented to time, place, and person. Various causes can result in developing delirium such as vascular conditions, infections, certain medicines, trauma, and electrolyte imbalance. The patient may be agitated or depressed.

The condition is diagnosed based on the symptoms, clinical examination of the nervous system, memory tests, and by observing the patient’s behavior. Investigations like imaging tests, CSF analysis, blood tests, and urine examinations are required to look for the underlying causes. Treatment mainly involves treating the underlying cause, treating the symptoms accordingly, and supportive care. The condition can be prevented by avoiding the triggering factors and medicines, adequate sleep and hydration, adequate treatment of their health problems, and by regular health check-ups.

Entropion Causes Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

When you have entropion, your eyelid turns inward, causing your skin, eyelashes, and eye surface to rub together. It causes irritation and discomfort. Your eyelid may tilt inward with entropion either constantly or only when you blink vigorously or close your eyes tightly. Entropion often only affects the lower eyelid and is more prevalent in elderly persons.

Entropion symptoms can be reduced with the aid of artificial tears and lubricating creams. Nonetheless, surgery is frequently required to entirely treat the disease. Entropion can harm your cornea, infect your eyes, and impair your eyesight if it is not treated. It can also damage the translucent covering that covers the front of your eye.

Entropion: Causes

The following are the important causes of developing entropion −

Muscular lassitude. The tendons and muscles behind your eyes tend to sag as you get older. Entropion is most frequently caused by this.

Scars or signs of prior surgery. The natural curvature of the eyelid can be distorted by skin scarring caused by chemical burns, trauma, or surgery.

Eye disease. Several poor nations in Africa, Asia, South America, the Middle East, and the Pacific Islands suffer from trachoma, an eye illness. Entropion, blindness, and scarring of the inner eyelid can result from it.

Inflammation. You can try to rub or squeeze your eyelids shut to reduce eye irritation brought on by dryness or inflammation. This may cause the eyelid muscles to spasm and cause the lid’s edge to slide inward towards the cornea (spastic entropion).

Developmental difficulty. An additional fold of skin on the eyelid that results in turned-in eyelashes may be the source of entropion when it is congenitally present (existing from birth).

Entropion: Symptoms

The patient with entropion mainly presents with the following symptoms that include −

The impression that there is something in your eye

A reddened eye

Eye sensitivity or discomfort

Sensitivity to the wind and light

Moist eyes (excessive tearing)

Crusting on the eyelids and mucus discharge

When to Visit a Doctor?

If you have been told you have entropion and you suffer any of the following −

Your eyes’ redness rises quickly


Responsiveness to light

Reduced vision

These are indications of corneal damage, which might impair your eyesight.

If you feel as though there is always something in your eye or if you observe that portions of your eyelashes appear to be moving inward towards your eye, schedule an appointment with your doctor. Entropion might permanently harm your eye if you don’t address it promptly. Before your appointment, start moisturizing your eyes with eye ointments and artificial tears to safeguard them.

Entropion: Risk Factors

Several factors play an important role in the development of entropion which includes −

Age. Your chances of developing the condition increase with age.

Previous trauma or burns. The scar tissue that results from a burn or other facial injury may increase your chance of developing entropion.

Infection with trachoma. Those who have had trachoma are more prone to develop entropion because this illness can leave scars on the inner eyelids.

Entropion: Diagnosis

The diagnosis of the entropion is mainly done based on history and some of the tests may be required for confirmation and to rule out underlying causes

Typically, a regular eyecheck and physical may detect entropion. During the examination, your doctor could tug on your eyelids, urge you to blink or firmly close your eyes, or both. This enables him or her to evaluate the tightness, tone, and location of your eyelid’s muscles.

Your doctor will also check the surrounding tissue to see whether the entropion is brought on by scar tissue, past surgery, or some other problem.

Entropion: Treatment Conservative Treatment

The method of treatment is determined by the cause of your entropion. There are nonsurgical options available to manage symptoms and safeguard your eye.

When you treat the inflamed or infected eye, your eyelid may return to its natural alignment when active inflammation or infection results in entropion (spastic entropion). Entropion, however, could continue even after the other problem has been addressed if tissue scarring has taken place. In most cases, surgery is necessary to treat entropion, however, temporary solutions may be helpful if you can’t endure surgery or have to put it off.


Botox. Lower eyelids can shift outward when botulinum toxin (Botox) in small doses is injected into the area. A series of injections may be given to you, with effects lasting up to six months.

Stitching causes the eyelid to turn outward. Using a local anesthetic, this surgery can be carried out in your doctor’s office. Your doctor will numb the eyelid before stitching it numerous times along the damaged eyelid.

The eyelid is turned outward by the sutures, and the ensuing scar tissue maintains its position even after the stitches are taken out. Your eyelid could move back inward after many months. So, this method isn’t a permanent fix.

Body tape. Your eyelid can be taped with special skin-transparent tape to prevent it from turning in.

Surgical Treatment

Surgical treatment may be required in severe cases. Your surgical procedure will be determined by the state of the tissue around your eyelid and the underlying reason for your entropion.

Your surgeon will probably cut a tiny portion of your lower eyelid if the cause of your entropion is age-related. The afflicted tendons and muscles are made tighter as a result. In the outside corner of your eye or just below your lower eyelid, you’ll need a few sutures.

A mucous membrane transplant utilizing tissue from the roof of your mouth or nasal passages may be performed by your surgeon if you have scar tissue on the inside of your lid, have undergone trauma, or have had prior procedures.

You might need to take rest after surgery. For a week, apply an antibiotic ointment on your eye. Periodically use cold compresses to reduce bruising and swelling

Entropion: Prevention

Entropion can seldom be stopped. The trachoma infection-related kind could be prevented. After visiting a region where trachoma infection is widespread, if your eyes start to become red and itchy, get checked out and treated very away.


Others may be consulted to help with management even though the ophthalmologist is virtually always engaged in the care of individuals with an eyelid deformity. This operation can also be handled by a face plastics surgeon. The nurses are an essential part of the interprofessional team since they will keep an eye on the patient’s vital signs and look for any indicators of a worsening condition.

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