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It’s difficult to predict how an appeals court will rule after it hears arguments Monday in Verizon Communication’s challenge of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission’s net-neutrality rules.
Groups on both sides of the debate over the FCC’s rules prohibiting broadband providers from selectively blocking or slowing traffic say they believe they have a good case at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Reading the court’s tea leaves has become as much of a case of wishful thinking as a predictive science.
On one hand, the same appeals court ruled against the FCC in April 2010, when the agency tried to force Comcast to comply with an Internet policy statement after the cable broadband provider was caught slowing BitTorrent and other bandwidth-hogging applications. The court said then that the FCC lacked “any statutorily mandated responsibility” to enforce network neutrality rules.
The legal situation has changed since then, however. Last December, the same appeals court ruled in favor of the FCC after Verizon Wireless had challenged the agency’s authority to impose data roaming rate rules on mobile carriers. The question over the FCC’s authority to impose data roaming rules is similar to the one raised by Verizon in the net neutrality case, some telecom experts said.
Then, in May, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled, in a case called City of Arlington v. FCC, that a regulatory agency generally be given broad deference when interpreting its own authority when statutory ambiguity exits. That decision could influence the upcoming appeals court decision, some experts said, although others cautioned that the cases have significant differences.
Adding to the difficulty in predicting an outcome: The court has a number of options it could take. It could strike down the FCC’s net neutrality order, it could uphold it, or it could take some type of middle ground. For example, the court could kick back the rules to the FCC by saying the agency may have the authority but hasn’t made its case.
[Related: A brief history of net neutrality at the FCC]Verizon’s position
Verizon argues that the FCC doesn’t have authority to regulate an information service, a class of communications that the agency has previously exempted from most regulation. The net neutrality rules are a violation of Verizon’s First Amendment free speech rights and its Fifth Amendment property rights, the company has argued.
The agency has claimed broad authority over broadband using twisted regulatory logic, Verizon’s lawyers wrote in their brief to the appeals court. As with the earlier Comcast case, “the FCC has acted without statutory authority to insert itself into this crucial segment of the American economy, while failing to show any factual need to do so,” Verizon said in the court brief.
That earlier Comcast decision from the same court presents a major “hurdle” for the FCC, said Randolph May, president of the Free State Foundation, a free market think tank that has joined a brief calling for the court to overturn the rules. Although the FCC, in its 2011 net neutrality order, “made an effort to beef up its argument that it possesses authority under the Communications Act to regulate Internet access service, I think the overall impression is that the agency is reaching too far,” May said by email.
May would lean toward the FCC losing the case, he said. The court will look at whether the FCC’s net neutrality rules were reasonable, May said, and many critics have argued the regulations were unnecessary because there have been few examples of violations.
“Even if the court finds that the FCC possesses authority under the statute, there is a pretty good chance the court will find, in light of the lack of persuasive findings concerning market failure, consumer harm, or impact on investment and innovation, that the agency’s decision is arbitrary and capricious,” May said.
The Free State Foundation, free market think tank TechFreedom and other critics of the net neutrality rules argue in their brief that the U.S. government could police major violations of net neutrality principles under existing antitrust law.
If the appeals court strikes down the rules, “net neutrality will be dealt with the same way concerns about competition are dealt with throughout the rest of the economy,” Berin Szoka, president of TechFreedom, said by email.
The TechFreedom/Free State Foundation brief also repeats concerns that the rules violate broadband providers’ free speech rights. “By denying Internet service providers their editorial discretion and by compelling them to convey content providers’ messages with which they may disagree, the Order violates broadband providers’ First Amendment rights,” the brief says.
The First Amendment and Fifth Amendment concerns are “silly,” countered Matt Wood, policy director at Free Press, a digital rights group that has pushed for strong net neutrality rules. The FCC hasn’t taken away Verizon’s ability to communicate on its website or its blogs, and the agency hasn’t taken away the carrier’s network, he said.
Verizon’s argument that its free speech is impacted when it provides the pipes for other people’s messages is “contrary to the notion to what a carrier does and how the Internet works,” he said.
Verizon, during other debates, has argued it should not be held responsible for the communications of its broadband customers, says the Center for Democracy and Technology and a group of legal scholars in their brief to the appeals court.
The FCC’s order does not violate Verizon’s free speech rights, but “instead protects the First Amendment interests of Internet users,” CDT says in the brief. “Certainly, Verizon often does speak via the Internet, using websites, blogs, email, social media, and the like. But its separate conduct in transmitting the speech of others should not be confused with Verizon’s own speech.”
Still, the FCC’s argument that it has so-called ancillary authority to regulate broadband because it has authority over other communications services may be a tough sell, Wood said. The appeals court rejected the ancillary authority in the 2010 Comcast case, he noted.
The Supreme Court’s City of Arlington case and the data roaming case give the FCC a “mini-winning streak,” however, Wood said. He gives the FCC a “close to 50 percent chance” of winning the Verizon case.
The FCC has a good chance of winning, countered Michael Weinberg, a vice president at digital rights group Public Knowledge. The agency is “basically right” in arguing it has the authority to regulate broadband under the Communications Act, he said.
The agency had potential court challenges in mind when it drafted the net neutrality order, Weinberg said. “The FCC was thoughtful about this,” he said.
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Verizon and media-reform group Free Press ratcheted up the already-heated rhetoric over the network neutrality debate this week, with each accusing the other of distorting the facts and invoking disingenuous hyperbole to sell one another’s position.
The latest salvo began on Monday, when Tom Tauke, Verizon’s (NYSE: VZ) executive vice president of public affairs, policy and communications, delivered a speech at a conference in Aspen, Colo., during which he defended his company’s joint proposal with Google (NASDAQ: GOOG) for a legislative framework that would set rules, with significant limitations, for prohibiting Internet service providers from blocking traffic on their networks.
Tauke, a former congressman, defended the agreement as a reasoned compromise that would protect the free flow of content on the Internet while also shielding ISPs from the burdensome regulations they argue would chill capital investment in broadband networks.
He argued that the agreement “parenthetically fulfills the president’s campaign promise of nondiscrimination and transparency on the Internet,” referring to then-candidate Barack Obama’s oft-repeated promise to “take a backseat to no one in my commitment to net neutrality,” a pledge he made at a Google’s headquarters in Mountain View, Calif.
The group, which has been arguably the most strident supporter of rigid network neutrality rules throughout the debate, took particular issue with Tauke’s coupling of a proposal it deems a sellout with Obama’s address of the issue.
“Verizon is simply dead wrong in claiming their farce of a framework would fulfill President Obama’s net neutrality promises,” Free Press Research Director Derek Turner said in a statement. “Verizon can’t hide the fact that, if enacted, this pact would mark the end of the open Internet era.”
In keeping with the point-counterpoint nature of this debate, Verizon rebutted the latest from Free Press with a “fact sheet,” contradicting the assertion that the proposed policy framework would leave the Federal Communications Commission too weakened to impose meaningful oversight over the industry.
“With action verbs like ‘slam’ and foreboding nouns like ‘pact’ and ‘scheme,’ the statement is a fun summer read,” Verizon spokesman David Fish said. “But, like some other works of light fiction, it leaves one wanting more — in this case, the facts.”
For its part, Google has defended itself against charges from Free Press and others that it abandoned a cause it had long championed in developing the policy framework with Verizon. The company has acknowledged that in the spirit of pragmatic compromise it softened its position, particularly in the provision of the framework that would preclude the FCC from imposing neutrality obligations on wireless providers. But at the same time, the company said that it was necessary to give a little ground in a debate where positions had hardened to the point of deadlock.
Tauke defended the so-called managed services exemption, arguing that it would apply only to novel applications, such as smart-grid transmissions or telehealth monitoring, which demand quality-of-service guarantees and would exist apart from the consumer-facing Internet that would be subject to nondiscrimination rules.
“That requires a different set of rules than the rules that would govern the best-practices Internet,” he told his audience in Aspen, disputing the “long perpetuated narrative of a two-tiered Internet,” a charge leveled by Free Press and other long-time foes of the big cable and telecom providers.
“That too is wrong,” Tauke said. “Dead wrong.”
Kenneth Corbin is an associate editor at chúng tôi the news service of chúng tôi the network for technology professionals.
Google is a proponent of net neutrality and has repeatedly voiced its support of it in the past. In a statement released to news organizations after the vote, Google pledges to continue to follow the policies of net neutrality. Here is its statement in full:
We remain committed to the net neutrality policies that enjoy overwhelming public support, have been approved by the courts, and are working well for every part of the internet economy. We will work with other net neutrality supporters large and small to promote strong, enforceable protections.Facebook Netflix
As the largest video streaming service on the internet, Netflix has a vested interest making sure people are able to stream their content. Even though the company has seemingly waffled on its net neutrality, it came out with a firm statement stating, “We’re disappointed in the decision to gut #NetNeutrality.” Here is the company’s full statement:
We’re disappointed in the decision to gut #NetNeutrality protections that ushered in an unprecedented era of innovation, creativity & civic engagement. This is the beginning of a longer legal battle. Netflix stands w/ innovators, large & small, to oppose this misguided FCC order.
— Netflix US (@netflix) December 14, 2023Amazon
Amazon is another of the tech giants that stood behind net neutrality. With its repeal, Amazon’s Chief Technology Officer took to Twitter to share his statement:
Microsoft is a staunch supporter of net neutrality, saying earlier this year, “Without an open internet, broadband internet access service providers gain the power to outright prevent edge content and services from reaching their customers, levy tolls on edge providers and customers for access to edge content and services, and pick winners and losers in the internet economy, thus subjecting edge provider success to the control of broadband internet access services providers rather than the forces of customer demand.” After the vote, its Chief Legal Officer made the following statement:
The open internet benefits consumers, business & the entire economy. That’s jeopardized by the FCC’s elimination of #netneutrality protections today.
— Brad Smith (@BradSmi) December 14, 2023Reddit
Reddit bills itself as the “Front Page of the Internet”. It’s another company like Facebook that was started by a couple of kids and turned into a phenomenon. If you’ve used the site any time in the last few weeks, you’ll know that the site and (most of) its users are strong supporters of net neutrality. In a statement today, Reddit CEO Steve Hufmann (Spez) said in part:
It is disappointing that the FCC Chairman plowed ahead with his planned repeal despite all of this public concern, not to mention the objections expressed by his fellow commissioners, the FCC’s own CTO, more than a hundred members of Congress, dozens of senators, and the very builders of the modern internet.
Nevertheless, today’s vote is the beginning, not the end. While the fight to preserve net neutrality is going to be longer than we had hoped, this is far from over.
You can read the statement in its entirety here.Comcast
Comcast is one of the companies that could seemingly benefit from the net neutrality changes. Many fear that companies like Comcast could wield its power to prevent users from reaching sites or streaming video content to benefit its own platforms.
But, According to a blog post by Senior Vice President David L. Cohen, Comcast believes that Congress should move to enact net neutrality laws. Its stance is that the rules enacted by the FCC were just governmental overreach, but it really supports net neutrality. Whether you believe that or not is up to you, but you can read the full blog post here.Charter/Spectrum AT&T
AT&T repeated many of the same sentiments as Comcast and Charter. AT&T’s Senior Executive Vice President of External & Legislative Affairs, Bob Quinn, took to the web to express that the repeal of net neutrality laws isn’t that big of a deal.
In the post, Quinn states, “AT&T intends to operate its network the same way AT&T operates its network today: in an open and transparent manner. We will not block websites, we will not throttle or degrade internet traffic based on content, and we will not unfairly discriminate in our treatment of internet traffic (all consistent with the rules that were adopted – and that we supported – in 2010, and the rules in place today).”
You can read the full post here.Verizon T-Mobile Sprint
Which company had the best response?
Physicians can gather new insights from data to provide customized medical services.
The plenitude of innovative choices can be overwhelming from the outset, so putting resources into an organization to assist with practice management solutions might be the initial move toward going digital. Advisors like these can spread out all the choices and costs required for your office, as well as implement staff training and smooth the transition to using new technology.Telehealth
The direction is clear regarding repayment, guidelines, and market influences: Telehealth is well en route to getting typical. Advancements are getting more refined to help telehealth, says Todd Evenson, chief operating officer at the Medical Group Management Association (MGMA). Indeed, even five years back, the probability that patients had a camera on their home PC that would allow them to collaborate with providers was a lot smaller, while today it is automatic. Evenson adds. “I can see physicians utilizing that to engage the patient, particularly those in distant areas or who can’t go to the workplace because of physical issues. It offers an opportunity to be less problematic to their day. You could be in your office and connect with your opportunity as opposed to taking off part of the day to go to the physician’s office.”Electronic Health Records (EHR)
In spite of your opinion, EHR at last permits office and expert staff to invest more one-on-one time with patients, reinforcing relationships and conceivably getting more business. Taking out the basic front desk clutter, loose papers and tons of documents make for a more organized office, and one that is probably going to be alluring to patients. When somebody’s record is electronic, it is simpler to track and make changes to their data. Follow-up appointments, medication reminders and test results would all be able to be emailed to the patient conveniently.Augmented Reality
Augmented reality is unique in relation to virtual reality and keeps you from putting some distance between reality by placing the information into eyesight as fast as possible. It assists clinical students with getting ready for real-life operations and empowers doctors to improve their capacities. Patients will be equipped for portraying their symptoms with more precision. Drug organizations can likewise offer more innovative drug information to patients.Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
In the future, nascent machine learning technologies may discover their way into clinical decision support tools for physicians. Cognitive computing technologies, for example, IBM’s Watson, ceaselessly gain from past interactions, picking up value and insight over the long run. Watson Health is devoted to improving the capability of researchers and physicians to gather new insights from data to provide customized medical services. Organizations, for example, IBM and Epic Systems are working together with Mayo Clinic to bring the cognitive computing capabilities of Watson to EHRs. Epic is extricating patient information from health records, providing it to Watson to be immediately compared and monstrous volumes of relevant clinical data, and afterward sending results once again into the Epic EHR. This could prompt more quick and intensive analysis of the multitude of factors affecting patient care.Wearable Technology
Wearable technology like wellness trackers and pulse screens are now famous among some patient groups. However, this innovation is progressively picking up clinical importance. For instance, patients with type 2 diabetes have increasing access to affordable continuous glucosePersonal Health Data
When it comes to customising and personalising your Apple Watch, the watch face you set on the display is of paramount importance. It should fit in with your personal style, display information that’s most important to you, and look good. While Apple doesn’t allow third party watch-faces on the Apple Watch, the company does offer a pretty large library of faces itself. So, here are the best Apple Watch faces that you should check out.1. Metropolitan (watchOS 9)
One of my personal favourite new watch faces in watchOS 9, Metropolitan is a clean watch face that manages to look minimal even with support for four complications around the corners. The watch face seems perfect for both casual and semi-formal settings, and you can rock it at a formal meeting as well, but I would personally stick with a more simple watch face in such a situation, like the California watch face.
In terms of customisation, Metropolitan offers four different types of watch styles, five dial options and a bunch of color choices to pick from. Basically, you can make this Apple watch face work with any outfits you have planned.2. Lunar (watchOS 9)
There’s support for four complications around the corners, just like the Metropolitan watch face. However, this watch face can look a bit overwhelming to people; it certainly looked that way to me. Customisation options are definitely not a lot here, and you can only change the color of the second hand, and switch between an analogue and digital clock.3. Playtime (watchOS 9)
Playtime looks like a watch face custom built for kids, but it’s a load of fun regardless of how old you are. The cute watch face is perfect for those times when you’re simply chilling (especially if there are kids around because they will love this). The watch face comes from Apple’s collaboration with Joi Fulton, and it brings a bit of interactivity as well. You can rotate the digital crown to change the background. Plus, tapping on the faces of the characters makes them react to you, which might sound like a waste of time, but is weirdly fun.4. Astronomy (watchOS 9)
The Astronomy watch face is inspired by a mechanical orrery, says Apple. The watch face is definitely one of the coolest ones available on the Apple Watch as far as sheer looks are concerned. You can choose between the ‘Earth view’, ‘Moon view’, and ‘Solar System view’ on the watch face, and it continuously updates as the day progresses. Personally, I find it really interesting to watch the sunrise and sunset over India as the day goes by. And, you can even rotate the digital crown to view the light/shadow on the face of the earth in the coming hours.5. Modular
The Modular watch face is perfect for people who like digital watches, and want a load of information to go along with it. Whether you’re looking to add complications for keeping track of the weather, your to-do list, timers or alarms, the Modular watch face has got plenty of space to fit it all in.6. Portraits (watchOS 8) 7. Infograph
One of my personal favourite Apple Watch faces, and the one you’d likely see me sporting on my watch most often is the Infograph watch face. This watch face brings a total of eight complications to the screen, which means there’s ton of information on here, which is great for me.
Also, the watch face makes great use of space, and it just looks amazing to me. Some people might find this to be too loaded with information, and if that’s the case you can either choose a different watch face from the rest of the list, or you can just turn off some of the complications from Infograph as well.
Personally, I even use some of these complications as quick-launchers for third party Apple Watch apps that I use, such as Spotify and Overcast.8. California
This is the watch face I usually go with on slightly more formal occasions where the Inforgraph watch face might feel a tad out of place.
This watch face brings the basics right up-front and looks really classy. You get the time, obviously, along with a bunch of options for the dial-markers including Devanagari if you want hindi numerals.
You can go full-screen or circular with the watch face. I prefer full-screen which gives me access to two complications. However, if you go circular, you’ll get four extra complications on each corner of the watch face. So if you want extra information on your wrist, you can go with that.
Another thing I really like about this watch-face is that it has one of the best looking Always-on-Displays of any Apple Watch face.
It comes with an inner dial with 12-hour markings that shows your local time, and an outer dial with 24-hour markings that shows you a different time zone. This, you can set by simply rotating the Digital Crown to see all the available time zones, and selecting the one you want to view on your watch face.10. Liquid Metal, Fire/ Water Watch Faces
Technically these are separate watch faces, but they are basically the same thing, except for the element used. These watch faces show awesome animations every time you tap the screen or wake your watch.
The animations were recorded by Apple, and you can choose between water, fire, and liquid metal in the watch faces.
These are by-far the coolest looking Apple Watch faces you will find. The animations are insanely captivating to look at, and I would recommend you keep the dial shape to full-screen for a more immersive animation. However, if you want complications on the screen, you can opt for a circular dial shape as well.11. Meridian
Meridian’s always on display is pretty decent as well, and after California, I think this is the best AOD watch face for Apple Watch.12. Simple
As the name suggests, this is the simplest watch face you can find, which is why it can be the perfect choice for any minimalists reading this list.
The Simple face lets you choose the dial design, so you can go completely minimal with just the watch-hands if you like, or add the hour-markers to your watch face.
The watch face does include complications, but I would suggest that you turn them all off, and just keep the date complication on for the cleanest, most minimal Apple Watch look you can get. Check out the screenshot below.13. Siri Watch Face
The clean-ish looking watch face shows you the time, along with a bunch of Siri cards that surface information based on what Siri thinks you might need to know at that given point in time. It will show you your upcoming events, the weather, sunset/sunrise times and more.
It’s pretty great for anyone who wants a smart-assistant right on their watch face.14. Numerals Duo
If you’re looking for a watch face that’s perfect for a casual outing with your friends, or maybe a trip to the beach, check out Numerals Duo. This watch face displays just the time in two-toned numerals on your watch screen and looks pretty nice.
There are a bunch of color-schemes that you can choose from, and a couple of styles as well.15. Typograph
Plus, you get to choose whether you want to view just four numbers (12,3,6,9) or all 12 numbers on your watch face, and which script you want to view them in. Personally, the default settings look the best to me, but if you want you can choose from Arabic, Arabic Indic, Devanagari, and Roman.16. Solar
If you like slightly more interactive watch faces, check out Solar. This watch face tracks the movement of the sun around your location, and has a clock that runs opposite it to display the time. Check out the screenshot.
Moreover, you can rotate the Digital Crown to move ahead in time and see the position of the sun throughout the day. The face even marks the twilight, sunset, dawn, and other times right on the watch face itself.17. Toy Story
Who doesn’t love Toy Story? It’s one of my favourite animated movies of all time, and if you’re a die hard fan of the movie, the Toy Story watch face will definitely interest you.
Pro-tip: This is also a great way to keep a young kid playing around with the watch, in case you’re looking for something to distract your kids at times.18. Photos
Lastly, there’s the ‘Photos’ watch face, which does pretty much what you’d expect it to do. You can choose a photo from your library and use it as the watch face on your Apple Watch.
You can also choose a bunch of up to 24 photos for the face and your watch will randomly shuffle between them so you get a fresh picture every time.19. Memoji Watch Face
The Memoji watch face is perfect for people who want to show off their Memoji creations to the world, while having some fun seeing them be animated on your wrist. The watch face features all the standard memojis, and all the memojis you’ve created on your iPhone. That’s pretty cool because it opens up the watch face quite a bit. You can create a memoji unique to you and your watch.20. Artist
The Artist watch face doesn’t really offer much in the way of customisation or even information for that matter (which is why it’s quite low on my list), but it’s still a neat face to have.
This one has been created with artist Geoff McFetridge. So what’s special about it? The portrait algorithmically changes every time you raise your wrist. You can tap on the face to change the portrait to a new design as well. It’s pretty neat, and as an added bonus, the always on display looks good.21. Nike Compact
If you like the Modular Compact Apple Watch face, the Nike Compact watch face will be to your liking as well. Though originally intended for the Nike-edition Apple Watches, the watch face is now available on all devices running watchOS 9.
The face brings a small clock at the top-right, along with three customisable widgets. Two small, circular widgets allow you to place information such as the date, battery status, etc., while the third larger one takes up the bottom half of the watch display, and you can use it with widgets such as the Weather widget, world clock, Spotify, among others. It’s a pretty great watch face for the gym and even for casual outfits.22. Unity Mosaic
The choice of colours in this watch face is representative of the Pan-African flag with the red, black, and green. However, you can further accent the face with a choice of colors, and you can choose to turn on (or off) the background as well. Regardless of the customisability and the lack of complications, the Unity Mosaic is a beautiful watch face that you can sport on your wrist and show support for the Black community.Best Apple Watch Faces by Use-cases
Most Informational: Infograph
Best for Exercising: Infograph (with custom complications) or Nike Compact
Most Minimal: Simple
Best for Formal Wear: California
Coolest Looking: Fire/Water, Liquid Metal
Best for Informal Wear: Numerals Duo
Best Always on Display: California
Best for Kids: Playtime
Best for a Digital Watch Look: Modular
Frequently Asked Questions
How to Edit Your Apple Watch Face?
No matter which Apple Watch face you liked the best on our list, if you’re going to start using one, you might be wondering exactly how you can go about editing the face to use your favourite complications, or to change the color themes and more. Fortunately, it is really easy to customise your Apple Watch face and you can do it directly on the watch as well as on your iPhone.
If you’ve been using a watch face that’s completely customised to your needs, and you want to share it with your friends and family so that they can start using it too, it’s easier than ever before. Since the release of watchOS 7, you can easily share your Apple Watch face with other Apple Watch users. Check out the linked article for a step-by-step guide on how to do just that.
While there are signs of an improving economy, including better profits margins for technology companies, the job trend in the technology sector remains grim.
Nearly 750,000, close to 13 percent of all high-tech jobs in the United States have been lost over the past two years, according to data today released by the American Electronics Association (AEA).
While the losses are slowing, the statistics tell another story. The U.S. high-tech sector lost close to 540,000 jobs in 2002, and another 234,000 jobs in 2003. In 2001, there were 6.5 million high-tech jobs in the United States. By the end of 2003 that number is expected to be close to 5.76 million.
While many companies have cut positions, either to improve profitability or because of consolidation, there are concerns that many U.S. tech jobs are disappearing permanently. Many U.S. companies are signing IT outsourcing contracts in India, China, Russia and in other countries where there is skilled, inexpensive labor.
Several U.S. states reliant on technology jobs have been particularly hard hit. California lost 123,000 tech jobs in 2002, an 11 percent slip in the total number of tech employees in the state. Texas also lost about the same percentage in 2002 to job cuts, followed by New York, Florida and Massachusetts.
The District of Columbia, Wyoming and Montana were the only three states to add tech jobs between 2001 and 2002, while Colorado led the nation in concentration of high-tech workers in 2002, with 98 high tech jobs per 1,000 private sector jobs, followed by Massachusetts, Virginia, New Mexico and Maryland.
The AEA’s “Cyberstates 2003” reports defines tech jobs as those in the electronics manufacturing, communications services, software and engineering/tech services.
The report goes on to say that high-tech manufacturing employment fell 13 percent, losing 233,000 jobs between 2001 and 2002. Manufacturing job losses between 2001 and 2002 were highest in the electronics components sector with 76,000 lost. Communications equipment lost 47,000 jobs and semiconductor companies shed 41,000 manufacturing jobs. The communications services and software sectors lost 146,000 jobs each, while 15,000 engineering and tech services were shed. On the other side, in 2002, 7,000 research and development and testing labs jobs were added.
On the heels of the AEA report, the Information Technology Association of America, issued a statement aimed at allaying concerns that U.S. tech jobs are increasingly migrating overseas. ITAA said not more than 7 percent to 9 percent of all IT jobs will move out of the United States over the next 10 to 15 years.
While IT spending has risen, it’s not clear when that investment will translate into jobs. The U.S. Department of Commerce said IT spending in September rose 15.4 percent over August, after months of flat spending.
The AEA’s report also detailed U.S. technology exports and venture capital investments, both of which slid in 2002. U.S. high-tech exports dropped 12 percent to $166 billion in 2002 from $188 billion in 2001. High-tech exports constituted 24 percent of all U.S. exports in 2002.
The report added that U.S. high-tech venture capital investments amounted to $13 billion in 2002, a 52 percent drop from the $27 billion invested in 2001.
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