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NSA PRISM whistleblower: Edward Snowden steps forward

The man behind the public revelation of the National Security Agency’s PRISM surveillance program has stepped forward, with defense contractor tech worker Edward Snowden admitting he blew the whistle to encourage debate on data monitoring. “I know the government will demonize me” Snowden told The Guardian, after opting to make his identity known after releasing several classified documents about the NSA snooping technology. “My sole motive is to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them.”

Snowden is employed by Booz Allen Hamilton, a US defense contractor, and has been working at the NSA for the past four years, most recently based in Hawaii. It was there, over the past three weeks, that he copied top secret documents on PRISM in preparation for making them public, then flew to Hong Kong where he believes extradition processes – at least official ones – will be less successful.

“I have no intention of hiding who I am because I know I have done nothing wrong” Snowden told The Guardian, describing his motivations for revealing PRISM’s existence and the extent of the NSA’s powers. “I will be satisfied if the federation of secret law, unequal pardon and irresistible executive powers that rule the world that I love are revealed even for an instant.”

However, while Hong Kong may have been Snowden’s pick because of its “spirited commitment to free speech and the right of political dissent”, that doesn’t mean he is necessarily safe there. The US government is likely to open a criminal probe into the leak, sources told Reuters, and US national intelligence director James Clapper has described the information being made public as dangerous for the insight it gives potential terrorists.

That, Snowden fears, could see the Chinese government or other powers in the area cut a deal with the US and unofficially ship him back to stand trial. His hope is that he can find asylum in a neutral location, with Iceland top of his wish-list.

As Snowden sees it, the best outcome would be for a discussion on rights and the limits of privacy. “I really want the focus to be on these documents and the debate which I hope this will trigger among citizens around the globe about what kind of world we want to live in” he told the paper. “My sole motive is to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them.”

However, it’s highly possible that by making his identity public, Snowden will also shift the discussion onto him as a person, similar to the WikiLeaks controversy and its controversial founder Julian Assange. Snowden’s argument that he “carefully evaluated every single document I disclosed to ensure that each was legitimately in the public interest” may quickly become buried under the government’s response and the NSA’s fury.

Meanwhile the companies named in the documents continue to deny any such “backdoor access” to their systems to which the NSA hold the keys, with Google and others particularly outspoken about their privacy policies. Google, for instance, claims to have never even heard of PRISM until the documents leaked last week; meanwhile, subsequent whispers from the data collection machine have muddied the waters somewhat as to how much cooperation – technical and otherwise – actually takes place.

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Laptop Technology To Look Forward To In 2023

The world of laptops, tablets and mobile computing is moving ever-forward. With huge innovations coming to the world of technology at large this year, we’re taking a look at CES and other shifts in the market to tell you what laptop technology you have to look forward to in 2023.

Full-Fledged Desktop Hardware in Laptops

In previous years, laptops were often well behind the power curve of the latest in desktop parts and simply couldn’t offer things like fully-mechanical keys or desktop-class hardware. From 2023 and onward, though, this has clearly changed. While I’d still recommend building a PC for the best value proposition, laptops have made some huge leaps forward in both pricing and hardware.

Intel’s Kaby Lake and AMD’S Ryzen Architectures

Meanwhile, AMD’s Ryzen architecture is their first new CPU architecture since 2011 with the Bulldozer series. Alongside Ryzen comes massive performance, power and cooling improvements, as well as new AM4 motherboards and sockets to support the processors. AMD plans on shipping Ryzen-equipped laptops in the latter half of 2023 which should encourage better pricing for the end user through real competition between AMD and Intel for the first time in years.

Hybrid Laptop Advancements

Hybrid laptops have technically been around for a little while, but they’re seeing huge improvements this year. While the high end of gaming laptops is focused on stuffing as much desktop-class hardware into a tiny chassis as possible, most consumer-grade ultrabooks are aiming for the hybrid laptop standard innovated by the Lenovo Yoga laptop of yesteryear.

Hybrid laptops offer touchscreens for tablet functionality as well as screens that can completely pivot or even lay down atop the keyboard to turn the laptop into a de-facto tablet. The possibilities of the hybrid form factor for laptop computers are numerous and allow laptops to compete with straight-up tablets in a unique way by allowing all the same accessibility and convenience with the raw power of a proper laptop.

USB Type-C and USB 3.1 Are Now Standard

Last but certainly not least, USB-C is finally the standard. USB-C combines the speeds of the USB 3.0 with a new, smaller form factor that allows devices to be inserted without ever needing to be flipped over. (And so, the eternal crisis of dealing with USB sticks has ended, at least if you’re using this format!)

Meanwhile, USB 3.1, while expensive, is blowing away our old expectations for data transfer standards with a whopping 10 gigabit/second data transfer rate.

USB-C, however, is definitely more important. This is because it allows for rapid charging of mobile devices, from smartphones to laptops. If your device supports USB-C charging, and many do, you can expect longer battery life and shorter charge times than ever before.

While 3.1 is cool and all, the most it offers besides faster transfer rates is the ability to utilize more external displays or other peripherals for the laptop. Ultimately, though, newer Thunderbolt standards still have 3.1 beat when it comes to those applications.


There’s a lot to look forward to in 2023. Say what you like about 2023, but the world of tech and the world at large are making huge strides forward.

This may be a little late, but good luck this year. Many people had a rough 2023, but I believe that’s only made us stronger and empowered us to make 2023 a better year.

Image credit: What is USB type C

Christopher Harper

I’m a longtime gamer, computer nerd, and general tech enthusiast.

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Fix: Can’t Forward Media From Whatsapp On Android

When you receive a funny picture on WhatsApp, your first thought is to forward it to your contacts. But WhatsApp may sometimes fail to forward media files. Either nothing happens when you try to forward media files, or a strange error message pops up on the screen. Let’s explore how you can fix this problem.

What to Do If You Can’t Forward Images and Videos on WhatsApp Forward the File to One Chat at a Time

You can forward a message or media file with up to five chats in one go. However, when WhatsApp detects the same message or file has been forwarded multiple times, it may prevent you from sharing it with multiple chats at a time. Try forwarding the problematic media file to only one chat at a time.

More specifically, when a message or file is at least five forwards away from its original sender, the “Forwarded many times” label will appear. This indicates you can forward the respective messages or file only to one chat at a time.

WhatsApp has implemented a security measure to slow down the spread of spam, viral messages, rumors, and fake news.

Get the Latest Android and WhatsApp Updates

Make sure to update your OS and apps to the latest version.

Go to Settings.

Select System.

Tap System Update.

Check for updates and install the latest Android version available for your device.

Then, open the Play Store app.

Search for WhatsApp.

If there’s an Update button next to the app, tap it to install the latest WhatsApp version.

Clear the App Cache

Try clearing your app cache and check if you notice any improvements.

Go to Settings.

Select Apps.

Then tap All apps.

Select WhatsApp and tap Storage.

Hit the Clear cache button.

Restart your device, launch WhatsApp and check if you can forward media files now.

Check Your Date and Time Settings

Make sure your phone’s date and time are set correctly. Suppose your date and time settings are incorrect. In that case, your device won’t be able to connect to WhatsApp’s servers to download and forward media files.

Go to Settings.

Select System.

Navigate to Date & time.

Set your date and time to Automatic or Network Provided.

Free up Some Space

Check your storage space and delete unnecessary files. If you’re running low on storage space, you won’t be able to save new media files from WhatsApp or share images and videos with your contacts.

Don’t forget to run the built-in cleaner to automatically remove junk files. Go to Storage, select the Cleanup option, and hit the Clean up button.

Check Your SD Card

If you’re using an SD card to store multimedia files, make sure WhatsApp can access and use your card. Additionally, ensure there is enough space on the SD card and Read-only mode is turned off.

If the issue persists, back up your data, turn off your device and take out the SD card. Wait for one minute, put the card back, turn on the device, and check the results. If you’re still experiencing multimedia-related issues, you may want to format your SD card.

Screenshot or Compress the Image

Try taking a screenshot of the image you’re trying to forward. Then check if you can share the screenshot you just took. Alternatively, save the problematic file under a different format and check if the glitch persists.

If you’re trying to forward a large file, install a third-party app that compresses media files. Check if you can share the compressed version of the problematic file. If the issue persists, uninstall and reinstall WhatsApp.


If you can’t forward media files on WhatsApp, try forwarding the problematic file to one chat at a time. Then install the latest Android and WhatsApp updates. Clear the app cache, and make sure your phone’s date and time are set correctly. Additionally, free up some storage space, and compress the problematic file or save it under a different format.

Top 3 Blue Prism Alternatives In ’23 According To Business Users

Blue Prism is one of the top players in the robotic process automation (RPA) market. The company, founded in 2001 and acquired by SS&C in 2023 Q1, is one of the oldest RPA vendors and is even credited to have coined the term “robotic process automation”.

However, Blue Prism’s RPA tool lags behind similar tools in terms of overall user rating, as seen in Table 1:

Table 1. Overall user ratings of popular RPA tools on 6 platforms*

ProductAIMultipleG2Gartner Peer InsightsTrustRadiusCapterraPeerSpot SS&C Blue Prism4.2/54.5/54.4/58.6/104.3/53.8/5 IBM Robotic Process Automation4.3/54.8/54.4/58.7/10N/A**4.3/5 UiPath4.6/54.6/54.5/58.8/104.6/54.3/5 Automation Anywhere4.3/54.5/54.4/58.6/104.4/54.5/5

* Ratings as of October 2023

** The product is not listed on the platform

Common features of Blue Prism and other tools on the table are that:

They can integrate AI capabilities into RPA bots for intelligent automation,

They have no-code/low-code bot builders that allow non-developers to automate processes,

They provide process mining capabilities to understand business processes better and identify automation opportunities.

In this article, we’ll examine user reviews from various platforms to see what users think of Blue Prism and its competitors in terms of:

Ease of use


Customer support


Shortcomings of Blue Prism according to user reviews

Figure 1. Top used phrases in Blue Prism reviews

Ease of use: Review data aggregated from public sources demonstrates that “Difficult” is one of the top-used keywords in user reviews of Blue Prism RPA, as seen in Figure 1. Compared to other tools, Blue Prism has the lowest score on ease of use and ease of setup on G2:

Figure 2. Comparison of 4 RPA tools. Source: G2

Integrations: As seen in Figure 3, its ratings on integration capabilities are relatively similar to other tools. Users, however, highlight that its integration with developer tools such as Git or Docker is not perfect.

Figure 3. Comparison of 4 RPA tools. Source: Gartner Peer Insights

Customer support: As seen both in Figures 2 & 3, Blue Prism has the lowest score on customer support among the four tools. Moreover, users say its peer user community is not as huge and active compared to other tools.

Pricing: We couldn’t find publicly available pricing information about Blue Prism RPA. However, as seen in Figure 4, users grade Blue Prism’s pricing flexibility and ability to understand needs about licensing as the lowest among the four tools.

Figure 4. Comparison of 4 RPA tools in terms of pricing. Source: Gartner Peer Insights

Now, we’ll examine four Blue Prism RPA alternatives and competitors for workflow automation and whether these tools address Blue Prism’s downsides:

1. IBM Robotic Process Automation

Here is the end-user opinion about IBM RPA in terms of these four aspects:

Ease of use: IBM RPA has, by far, the highest score on ease of use and ease of setup (Figure 2). It also shares the top position in terms of ease of deployment, as seen in Figure 3. Users highlight IBM RPA’s easy-to-navigate interface.

Integrations: IBM RPA has the highest rating in terms of integrations, as seen in Figure 3. It also seamlessly integrates with other IBM Cloud Pak for Business Automation products.

Customer support: In terms of the quality of technical support, IBM RPA provides the best support according to users (Figure 2). However, it lags behind other tools in terms of peer user community (Figure 3).

Pricing: For concurrent execution with attended and unattended bots included, the platform starter pack starts at USD 840.00 per month. According to user reviews, IBM’s ability to understand licensing needs is the best among the four tools.

2. UiPath

Regarding the number of user reviews, UiPath RPA is one of the most popular RPA tools in the market. According to user reviews:

Ease of use: Customers find UiPath to be easier than Blue Prism and Automation Anywhere but more difficult than IBM RPA in terms of use, setup, and administration (Figure 2). However, its end-user training courses and third-party resources are rated the highest among the four tools (Figure 3).

Integrations: Its ability for integration with third-party applications is rated high, similar to IBM RPA (Figure 3). It provides out-of-the-box connectors and connectors through its bot marketplace.

Customer support: Users say that it has better customer support than Blue Prism and Automation Anywhere. The quality and availability of its peer user community, on the other hand, are rated the highest among the four tools.

Pricing:  Price for 1 developer & 30 users (1 attended + 1 unattended) is 1380$ per month. Check our article on RPA pricing for a more detailed analysis of the pricing model of different RPA tools. Customers rated the UiPath the highest in terms of overall pricing (Figure 4).

3. Automation Anywhere

Automation Anywhere is another one of the most popular tools on the market, based on the total number of reviews. Users say that:

Ease of use: It is slightly easier to use and set up compared to Blue Prism but harder to administer (Figure 2).

Integrations: Users rate Automation Anywhere and Blue Prism as relatively equal in terms of integrations, both lagging behind IBM RPA and UiPath (Figure 3).

Customer support: Its customer support and peer user community are slightly better than Blue Prism’s (Figures 2 & 3).

Pricing: Price for 1 developer & 30 users (1 attended + 1 unattended) is $875 per month. Check our article on RPA pricing for a more detailed analysis. Customers rated Automation Anywhere’s pricing flexibility the highest among the four tools.

Further reading

Feel free to check our other articles on RPA and intelligent automation software:

You can also explore our data-driven lists of RPA software and intelligent automation solutions. If you have other questions, feel free to reach out:

Transparency Statement: AIMultiple works with multiple RPA companies including IBM mentioned in this article.

Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.





Razer Kraken V2 Review: Two Headsets, One Leap Forward

Growing up

If Razer had only changed the Kraken V2’s aesthetic, it’d already be a huge improvement over last year. Some people might really love the Kraken’s old street-punk style, with its DayGlo colors and scratched-out logo, but I always thought it was a bit out of sync with the rest of Razer’s products, especially in the last three or four years.

The Kraken V2’s look is a total visual overhaul. It’s now black everywhere: on the ears and headband, plus an upgrade to black aluminum for the earcups and chassis. The branding’s also the same shade, with the new, subtler Razer logo embossed right into the headband.

Logos matter, and you can see it in the Kraken. The headband branding is the only design difference between the Kraken V2 and its predecessor, but it has a positive effect. The Kraken previously felt like some bargain peripheral, something left on a shelf in a Best Buy five years ago. This latest iteration pivots towards a more refined adult look.

It’s a smart move. Not only have other manufacturers like Logitech and SteelSeries already made the same shift, but it brings the Kraken aesthetic in line with the rest of Razer’s products.

Moving to 50mm drivers

Like the Man O’ War, the Kraken on its default setting isn’t fantastic. It leans a bit heavy on the mids and treble range, without much of the bass punch you’d expect from the jump to 50mm drivers. Simple music like most of Julien Baker’s piano-and-voice songs or some of The Band’s ouvre sounds fine, but more complex mixes seem a bit lifeless. Everything blends together into one narrow band of sound.

If you’re considering the analog Kraken Pro V2, keep in mind that the default audio is more of an issue. To adjust how it sounds on your PC, you’ll need to run your own separate EQ software. And if you don’t bother, or if you hook the Kraken Pro V2 to a different device like your phone, you’ll notice again that the Kraken’s default sound just isn’t that great. It’s fine, but there are better options out there.

Props to Razer for making that fairly foolproof, though. Like the Man O’ War, the Kraken 7.1 V2 lets you set preferred output through Synapse, meaning you can set Spotify to always default to stereo while games run in 7.1. It’s a small but convenient quality-of-life upgrade.

As for the microphone, the Kraken 7.1 V2 is the clear winner between it and the Pro V2. It’s got a better-quality mic than the Kraken Pro and a bunch of optional tweaks built into Synapse, including active noise cancellation and noise gating. I miss the Man O’ War’s dedicated microphone volume wheel, but the Kraken 7.1’s still got the same features in software and does a good job reproducing voices. The Kraken Pro’s a bit worse off, with a noisier microphone and more nasally sound, but it does get the job done.

Bottom line

It’s a big year for Razer. Less than six months ago, I was ragging on the outclassed Kraken in my Man O’ War review. Now the Kraken’s folded in many of the Man O’ War’s improvements, but with a durable aluminum design and much more affordable $100 price tag. Not bad.

Can The Sender See It When I Forward An Email?

Home » Tips » If I Forward an Email Can the Sender See It?

No, if you forward an email, the sender cannot see that you did so. This is because of how email works. The recipient may see that you forwarded it, however, and might inform the original sender. 

I’m Aaron and I love technology. I use email everyday, as do most people, but I’ve also administered and secured email systems previously. 

Let’s dive into a discussion about how email works, why that means the original sender can’t tell whether or not you’ve forwarded it, and some questions you may have about email. 

Key Takeaways

Email works very similarly to sending a letter.

As a result of the way email developed, there’s little bidirectional communication between email servers.

This lack of bidirectional communication prevents a sender from seeing if their email was forwarded. 

They may know their email was forwarded if someone tells them.

How Does Email Work?

Email was designed to emulate writing a letter as much as possible. While that was in part driven by a desire to make it approachable to people who had never used the internet before, it was also due to some technical limitations of the early internet. 

Point to point communication in the early days of the internet was slow. Connectivity was slow. Imagine a time when transmitting 14 kilobits a second under perfect conditions was blazing fast! 

For reference, when you text a 30 second high-definition video, that’s typically 130 megabytes, compressed. That’s 1,040,000 kilobits! Transmitting that in the early 1990s under totally perfect conditions would have taken close to 21 hours!

Even though text isn’t as large or complex to store as a video, large amounts of text being transmitted in both directions could be time consuming. Taking tens of minutes to have a simple conversation is taxing. Writing emails where you expect a delay isn’t.

So in a world where written correspondence happened via letters, email was billed as a faster mode of communication. But it retained the look, feel, and operation of a letter. 

How? To send an email or letter, you need to specify a recipient and their address and complex technical or physical routing, respectively, will make sure your email gets to your recipient. 

Once you send an email it behaves very analogously to a letter. You lose control over the message and the ability to reroute it back to you. You also don’t know what happens with the letter unless you get a response, with one exception. 

That exception is address resolution. Address resolution is when your email server and the recipient’s email server confirm the validity of the recipient address. If the address is valid, the email is sent without fanfare. If the address is invalid, then you receive an undeliverable notice. Again, very similar to a returned letter. 

Here’s a straightforward seven-minute YouTube video that dives more into how email routing works.

So Why Can’t a Sender See if an Email is Forwarded?

A sender can’t see if an email is forwarded because of how email servers and routing works. Once an address is resolved, the email leaves the sender’s control. There’s no more back-and-forth communication between the sender’s server and the recipient’s server. 

Without that back-and-forth communication, there’s no way for updates about an email to be provided. 

You may be asking yourself: why don’t we have that back-and-forth communication? Why can’t we get updates about our emails?

Instead of modifying email to meet new uses it wasn’t originally designed for, developers have created new methods of communication: instant messaging, texting, file sharing, and other modalities of communication. 

Not all of them are perfectly traceable, or even attempt to achieve every objective of all communication modalities. Including all that functionality in one solution would make the solution very complicated and potentially unmanageable for end-users and service providers alike. 

How does a Sender See if an Email is Forwarded?

A Sender can see if an email is forwarded in a couple of ways:

You include the sender on the distribution list of the forwarded email.

Someone who receives the email downstream notifies the sender. 

Unless the sender is somehow notified, they will not know that the email has been forwarded.


Here are some other questions you might be curious about forwarding an email.

If I Forward an Email Can the Recipient See the Whole Thread?

Yes, but only if you include it. Typically, email clients allow you to preview and edit prior parts of the email thread. If you don’t remove the parts of the thread that you don’t want your recipient to see, then they will be able to see those parts of the thread. 

If I Forward an Email Can the CC See It?

No. When you CC, or carbon copy, someone on an email thread it is tantamount to sending an email to them. Email servers process that distribution the same way. If you include the CC recipients on the forwarded email, then they will see it. If not, then they won’t. 

What Happens when you Forward an Email?

When you forward an email, the contents of the email are copied into a new email. You may then edit that email and specify new recipients of that email. 

What Happens if You Forward an Email and then Reply to the Original Email?

If you forward an email and then reply to the original email, you will be sending two separate emails, potentially to two sets of recipients. How your email application tracks those emails may look different from application to application. 


If you forward an email, the original sender cannot see it. This is because of the way email works. Your sender may know that an email is forwarded if they are notified of the forwarding.

Do you have any stories from the early days of commercially available internet services? I’d love to hear them. Share them below!

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