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Class by class, lecture by lecture, question asked by question answered, an education is built. This is one of a series of visits to one class, on one day, in search of those building blocks at BU.

As doctoral candidates in physical therapy, students in Sargent College’s Neurological Systems II have studied anatomy, but until this second-year lab course, the only humans they’ve worked on have been each other. So it is with a certain timidity that a group of the students begin asking volunteer Peter Banhazl, 57, of Wayland, Mass., about his multiple sclerosis.

A gentle, six-foot-tall bear of a man, Banhazl smiles and waits for the students, all women, to pipe up. Section instructor Alissa Leonard (SAR’04,’09) folds her arms and surveys the group. Based on Banhazl’s responses, they must surmise the specific nature of his MS—which can take several forms—and work with him hands-on to assess how he might benefit from physical therapy.

Several beats pass before the questions come.

“Peter, what was the first episode that made you think something was wrong?”

“It was around 1982,” says Banhazl, who knows the drill well after four years working with a succession of students. “My wife, Terrie, and I went skiing, and I got an earache and couldn’t stand up. I kept falling,” he says, gesturing across the room to his wife, Terrie Banhazl (SAR’77), who has a degree in occupational therapy. “A few weeks later I was playing racquetball at the club, where I was the second best player, and Reuben Finkelstein, who was way down in the ranking, beat me. I was concerned. I went to a hospital—this was in California—but that was before MRIs, and a CT scan didn’t show anything.”

Another student asks if Banhazl’s decline has been steady.

“Over years, not days and months, it stayed with me that I had something wrong,” he answers, “but it was so minor over time. I was almost like a crazy person. I was 30, I was in shape, and yet I knew there was something. And they couldn’t find anything.”

“And what year was…”

“The Reuben Finkelstein incident?”

After the laughter subsides, Banhazl describes finally being diagnosed with MS in 1987, when an MRI at Newton Wellesley Hospital revealed little dots on his brain that were the telltale “multiple scars” that characterize multiple sclerosis. But there were no medications at the time. (Today, several drugs are available to help treat the disease.) “There was literally nothing for them to do, just wait and watch you disintegrate,” Banhazl says.

Known around Sargent simply as Neuro, the class for PT students in BU’s three-year doctoral (DPT) program is taught by Lisa Brown, a clinical assistant professor of physical therapy. In the lab, Brown’s class of 47 students splits into two groups, each working with a volunteer. The yearlong course is broken into a fall sequence, when students work with stroke victims, and a spring session, when they work with people with traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s disease, and MS sufferers like Banhazl. With hints from the instructor and Banhazl himself, the group concludes, correctly, that Banhazl suffers from a form and stage of the disease known as secondary progressive MS.

MS affects people differently, so right off the bat the students can’t assume anything about Banhazl’s condition. A so-called autoimmune disease like arthritis, MS is caused when the body’s own immune system goes on the attack, targeting the fatty sheaths encasing the nerve cells that make up the brain and spinal cord—the central nervous system.

Brown’s students are entering physical therapy at a time when an aging population means their skills will be in great demand. “In the case of someone like Peter, PT can help with his daily function,” says Duncalf. “We’re not waiting for him to get better, but we can help him manage his day-to-day life.”

There is no cure for MS, whose range of symptoms includes weakness, tremors, tingling, numbness, loss of balance, vision impairment, and even paralysis. But physical therapy can help, and even reverse, some of the later symptoms of the disease with exercises to strengthen muscles, improve balance and coordination, increase mobility, and ease pain. Physical therapists are themselves teachers; after several sessions they might send patients home with a program they can do on their own.

“I’ll usually prod them to ask important questions,” says Banhazl. “I help them diagnose me. They just studied the subject in class, and now have a real person to study.” He will give the students a verbal nudge if he feels they’re missing something. The caliber of the students is an inspiration, he says, calling them “the brightest of the bright. They’re so smart and focused. It’s comforting.”

“Something I really like about him is he is completely honest,” says Sara Grandall (SAR’12), another class member. “He makes us brainstorm and also gives us a sense of what he’s really willing to do in therapy.” (Banhazl admits that his stationary bike has become the proverbial coatrack.) Duncalf describes him as “super-helpful—he knows when to answer questions and when to hold back, and he is willing to have students practice on him over and over again. He seems completely comfortable.”

“Physical therapists beat the crap out of people with MS,” says Banhazl, who willingly submits to all manner of prodding, including students bending his legs as if he were a rag doll to test his mobility. “That’s their job,” he says. “They can’t fix it, so they look for ways to make your life better by making your body stronger and looser.”

“I think Peter is really inspiring,” says Duncalf. “There are two ways you can go with an MS diagnosis. You can sit and feel sorry for yourself, or you can do whatever you can to help yourself.”

One way Banhazl is helping himself, the students say, is by giving back. “It gives him a little more purpose,” Duncalf says.

Susan Seligson can be reached at [email protected].

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Gene Tests Are Quite Telling – Should You Get One?

It takes me two subway rides, a fifteen-minute walk, one very large cup of coffee, and knocking on two incorrect office doors to arrive at the offices of the Program for Jewish Genetic Health in the Bronx. I am there for a genetic screening designed to indicate which genes I could pass on to a potential child. And though I scheduled the appointment weeks ago, my circuitous arrival builds up the suspense—and my anxiety. Why am I doing this gene test, I think to myself. I’m just opening a can of worms. Will knowing more about the genes I carry actually do me any good?

The genetic counselor, Elisa, walks me through my family’s medical history. Do my parents have any genetic conditions that I know about? How about my siblings? What was the cause of death for any deceased grandparents? Then she pulls out what she calls the “menu”—a piece of paper that lists the 38 diseases for which I can get tested. These gene tests make the most sense because, based on my genetic background, I might be a carrier. The conditions range from those that would threaten a child’s life, such as cystic fibrosis, to ones that may detract from the child’s quality of life but not end it early, such as Gaucher’s disease. I read through the options and decide to get tested for all of them, the whole panel. I sign a document, then go get three small vials of blood drawn. In a few weeks, I will find out which diseases I could possibly pass on to my future offspring.

Who Needs Genetic Tests?

For one reason or another, millions of people worldwide are getting their genomes completely or partially sequenced. “The number of genetic tests has been exponentially rising in the last decade,” says Susan Klugman, the director of reproductive genetics at Montefiore, where I got my genetic test. Tests are cheaper now than they ever have been, and researchers are starting to understand more about what kinds of conclusions we can draw from the results. Though companies like 23andMe have made genetic information available to those who are simply curious, testing’s main use is in medicine; a patient’s DNA can help a doctor diagnose medical conditions and select the best possible treatment. Though it’s useful even now, this genetic information is becoming more important than ever; the future of medical care, from pharmaceuticals to family planning, is increasingly tailored to our genes.

Though many of us are familiar with the small, specific genetic tests that claim to predict if you’ll go bald or how hard it would be to quit smoking, we tend to know less about the kinds of genetic tests our doctors may ask for.

The future of medical care is increasingly tailored to our genes. What Can They Test For?

Genetic carrier screenings and similar prenatal screenings were the first type of genetic test to become widespread. Expectant parents can test their genes to see which diseases they risk passing on to their child and plan pregnancies accordingly; prenatal screenings are conducted when a mother is already pregnant, often in the early stages of pregnancy, to test the fetus for those mutations. For the handful of diseases that medical professionals check for in these tests, the gene variants tend to be highly “penetrant,” says David Mittelman, the chief scientific officer for biotech company Tute Genomics —if a baby receives one mutated gene from each parent, he’s very likely to have the disease associated with it. These diseases, which include Tay-Sachs disease and sickle cell anemia, are often very severe.

Genetic tests can also help doctors diagnose a patient. Sometimes patients themselves request these tests before they show any symptoms of a disease, but it’s one for which they predict they have a high risk. For example, a patient may request a test for the BRCA 1 and 2 mutations if she has seen multiple family members struggle with breast cancer. Finding out if she has the mutation would help that patient understand her level of risk for breast cancer so that she can take preventative measures before the onset of the disease, such as medication that could stave off its onset, or, if her risk is particularly high, a preventative mastectomy.

In other cases, a patient is already presenting symptoms, and the doctors want to diagnose the disease to find the best possible treatment. Genes are particularly helpful in diagnosing cancer. Though what we think of as “cancer” is actually hundreds of diseases with different causes and compounding factors, in all of them the genome is altered in some way to make otherwise normal cells grow out of control.

“Genetic tests can help doctors identify and classify the trigger for the cancer and may reveal information about how to best treat it,” Mittelman says. Genes can point oncologists towards the drugs that will work best to combat the tumor, which can make the difference between a patient that has succumbed to the disease and one who survives it. In fact, there’s a whole field of medicine springing up around finding the best treatment based on genetic information, called personalized or precision medicine.

How Well Do They Work?

Whether patients are looking for family planning or to find the best course of treatment, most of these tests are highly effective. But they aren’t foolproof. “Most of the time people get a genetic test because they want a certain answer,” Klugman says. “Sometimes that answer is yes, sometimes it’s no, sometimes it’s in the realm of the unknown.”

A clean bill of health for a genetic carrier screening.

Here’s what Klugman means. Genetic carrier screenings look for specific mutations that are known to be highly penetrant and are found at a particular place in the genome. Though these results aren’t foolproof (the mutation could still exist elsewhere in the genome), other types of genetic tests can have even less certain results, like those for mutations that could make a woman at higher risk for developing breast cancer. Certain types of BRCA mutations are linked to increased risk of breast cancer, others are not, and still others are called “variants of unknown significance.” So far, the links between these variants and the disease in question are not well understood and still being investigated, so doctors and patients may not know how to use that information to improve prevention.

Will This Change Everything?

Until now, researchers have been focused on a few mutations known to cause disease. But the future of genetic testing is getting much more complicated, in part because now researchers can quickly decode a person’s entire genome, instead of being restricted to just a handful of conspicuous alleles. With so much more data, medical professionals can start to assess a patient’s risk for specific diseases based on her genes. “Risk assessment is often more complex because it’s often tied to complex traits,” Mittelman says. Each individual has a small combination of mutations, and each of them affects which others are expressed. That could have big effects on where the environmental factors fit in and, eventually, whether or not a person develops a disease. “You need a lot of data to figure out how those mutations fit together. Right now, that’s still too complex to interpret,” Mittelman says.

Researchers are already starting to connect that deluge of genetic data to disease and treatments, but they often need a way to process that data. More companies are jockeying to be the premiere data processing tool that assists researchers in this process. On the cancer side, IBM just put its Jeopardy-winning Watson to the task of matching cancer mutations to the right combination of drugs to treat the disease. This means that doctors will be able to tell which treatments will work most effectively on each individual patient, but it will also mean that they’ll get a better sense of a person’s risk for developing a particular condition later in life.

Prenatal testing is also getting more sophisticated. Current tests, which can be conducted after 9 weeks of pregnancy, extract the baby’s DNA from the mother’s blood to see if the child has the genetic markers for conditions such as Down syndrome. But soon, those tests will be able to test for many more mutations on the baby’s entire genome, says Sara Katsanis, an instructor in science and society at Duke University who focuses on the policy of genetic testing. More people are decoding their baby’s genome before the child is even born—in cases of in vitro fertilization, before an embryo is implanted—and are able to ensure that a baby with a fatal genetic disease is never born or, if that baby is born, that they can start treatment as soon as possible to minimize the condition’s effect.

Katsanis predicts that, in the next 20 years, more extensive prenatal genetic tests will go beyond severe diseases and allow parents to select children with specific and desirable traits. The debates about prenatal testing that have been going on in this country for decades will continue and intensify, she says. “If there’s a genetic test in 20 years that can predict with 70 percent certainty who will develop bipolar disease, is that something you would want to select in your child?” Katsanis says. “It’s uncharted territory, no one knows the answer to that question. It’s up to society and regulators to decide which traits will be on the menu, which things we say are socially acceptable.”

It’s up to society and regulators to decide which traits will be on the menu,

Today, when a person gets a genetic test, the results are usually only shared with the patient and her doctor. But soon, Katsanis predicts, our medical records will hold our entire sequenced genome, along with archives of our childhood vaccines and surgical procedures. This information will be useful to have on hand because it would allow doctors to pinpoint cancerous or disease-causing mutations by comparing a patient’s genome from different times in his life. “It’s a changing landscape—genetic privacy is going to go away eventually. It will all be in the electronic medical record,” Katsanis says.

But genetic tests are already moving outside the realm of physicians. Companies like 23andMe have already been at the forefront of direct-to-consumer genetic tests, though the FDA has stymied some of their efforts out of concerns for misinterpreted results. Mittelman anticipates that these sorts of tests will become more common, but genetic counselors will become even more important in helping people understand what their results really mean.

So? Are You OK, Alex?

Two weeks after my test, I got a call from my genetic counselor: My test came back all negative, like about two-thirds of people who are tested at that center. The counselor congratulated me on my clean bill of health, though she warned me that my results don’t mean that I’m free of all disease-causing mutations. Even for the conditions I was tested for, mutations could be lurking elsewhere in my genome. These caveats echoed a sentiment that experts had mentioned many times before: before genetic tests can reach their full potential in the medical realm and beyond, people need to have a better understanding of how genetics work. This knowledge may help them be less wary of them, which is a good thing, because it’s only a matter of time until genetic tests become so commonplace that we no longer worry about them. “The genetic tests now and those of the future are predictive—that means they don’t imply any sort of certainty [about risk or disease],” Katsanis says. “Until people understand that genetics aren’t a crystal ball, people will continue to fear the information.”

Personally, I’m glad I got the carrier screening. For now, the information isn’t particularly useful, but if I decide to have a child, it will surely come up again with my partner. Given the way medicine is going, it seems increasingly likely that I will have my whole genome sequenced at some future date, which will reveal more about my disease risk and possible treatments. It’s only in this context that the information makes sense for any patient. “Our future has ACG and T in it, not just ‘normal’ written next to it,” Katsanis says. In a very plausible (maybe even inevitable) future where scientists have been able to decode the human genome and connect those genes to health, “normal” won’t cut it—for us to understand how our genes relate to health, we have to know how they relate to one another, and be unafraid of what we find.

Your Guide To Android One

Related: Best Android One phones (including upcoming models)

In recent months Android One has enjoyed a bit of a renaissance with its arrival in the American market. Now that it is becoming more ubiquitous, we thought it was time to break down what Android One is, where it is, and why it’s cool.

What is Android One?

First, it’s important to establish what Android One isn’t. Android One is not a device program, like the Nexus or the Pixel. It is not an Android experience either. Rather, it’s a combination of the two. Google decided to work with OEMs in developing nations to put together phones with a basic but reliable spec sheet, and a build of Android that would run well on those specs.

It’s meant to be a blueprint for how an OEM could build a $100 Android smartphone that wouldn’t suck. The software is a stock Android experience with no frills or extra add-ons. Since then, the program has evolved to higher, but still modest price points. It is now basically an inexpensive Nexus or baby-Pixel program. Unlike those programs, Google isn’t involved in the manufacturing process, but it does maintain the software. Google guarantees your phone will handle the current operating system and security updates. More on that later.

Who is Android One for?

Android One has a few goals. First and foremost is to rein in the fragmentation that Android is known for. The reality is that more than half of the Android devices in the world are still running Android 5.x or lower. Just under 1% are still running Gingerbread of all things. Simply put, that’s ridiculous. It’s a disservice to the platform and it’s especially a disservice to the users. No one should have to run an operating system that old. It’s not in Google’s best interest to perpetuate that circumstance.

Android One is designed with not only the user, but the platform itself in mind. By ensuring that low-cost phones will be made in such a way as to handle at least 18 months of updates, Google is helping to consolidate the platform. It gives Tim Cook one less bullet point in his Powerpoint presentation every June.

Plus, by ensuring that even low-budget users get the latest updates, Google is turning Android into a better brand on the whole. In some areas, a smartphone is the only computing device families can afford. The Android One brand will soon become synonymous with future proofing. When you think about it, getting a low-cost phone you know will have Android P or Q on it isn’t such a bad idea.

What Android One phones can I get?

Android One started its life with a relatively slow rollout to places like India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and other parts of South Asia. Nigeria followed, along with other parts of Africa and the Middle East. Soon, we started to see more developed nations adopting the program with Japan and the Netherlands jumping on board. Most recently, Android One came to the U.S.

There are a number of devices enrolled in the Android One program. The current list, which can be found on Android One’s website, includes the Xiaomi Mi A1, Moto X4, the X1, GM6, S2, S1, GM 5, and the GM 5 Plus. HTC’s recently announced U11 Life will also participate in the program. Let’s talk about those phones.

HTC U11 Life

ProcessorStorageExpandable?RAMDisplayCamera Snapdragon 63064 GB256 GB4GB5.2″ LCD16MP

The global version of the HTC U11 Life is a beautiful phone, bringing HTC’s Liquid Surface design to the midrange. The back is made of acrylic, rather than the glass of high-end phones, but it’s still a bit of a fingerprint magnet. The Phone carries an IP67 rating for dust and water resistance, and has some respectable midrange specs.

The U11 Life doesn’t heave stereo speakers or a headphone jack, but HTCincludes USonic active noise cancelling earphones in the box. The Android One version of the U11 Life still has Edge Sense, which means you can squeeze the phone to activate various features, and HTC’s USonic tuning, which adapts the headphone audio to your particular hearing profile.

Xiaomi Mi A1

ProcessorStorageExpandable?RAMDisplayCameraSnapdragon 62564 GB128 GB4 GB5.5″ LCDDual 12 MP

The Xiaomi Mi A1 is featured prominently on Android One’s web page. The Mi A1 is significant because Xiaomi is casting aside its signature MIUI for this device. At last you can have sweet Xiaomi hardware running Google’s sweet software. The Mi A1 features a nice selection of mid-range specifications, and in our review, wondered if it wasn’t the perfect budget smartphone.

The Mi A1 is available throughout India, and is due to be available in more than 40 other markets soon. The Mi A1 features a dual camera setup that unfortunately struggles in low-light, but otherwise performs well. The phone is snappy and performs everyday tasks well. 64 GB of internal storage will store a ton of apps, games, and media as well.

ProcessorStorageExpandable?RAMDisplayCameraMT6737T32 GB128 GB3 GB5.0″13 MP


ProcessorStorageExpandable?RAMDisplayCameraQualcomm 1.2 GHz Quad core 16 GBY2 GB5.0″13 MP

GM5 Plus

ProcessorStorageExpandable?RAMDisplayCameraSnapdragon 61732 GBY3 GB5.5″13 MP ProcessorStorageExpandable?RAMDisplayCamera MSM 893716 GB256 GB2 GB5.0″13 MP

Kyocera S2

ProcessorStorageExpandable?RAMDisplayCamera MSM 891716 GB256 GB2 GB5.0″13 MP

Sharp X1

ProcessorStorageExpandable?RAMDisplayCameraMSM 894032 GB256 GB3 GB5.3″ LCD16 MP

Japan also has a trio of Android One phones available, again all very similar. Sharp and Kyocera both participate in the Android One program. The Sharp X1 boasts a battery that can last up to four days. The S1 and S2 both sport a water resistant design.

The Sharp X1’s battery pack is a very respectable 3,900 mAh, which isn’t the biggest on the market, but it’s huge for a 5.3-inch phone.

What’s in it for me?

Your Android One phone will be all Google all the time with apps like Maps, Gmail, and Duo, without the bloat found on other phones. Android One phones also come stocked with Google Assistant. Unlike the Pixel 2 though, Android One brings you all this for much less than the cheapest Pixel 2’s $650 price tag.

Google has also pledged that these devices will see at least eighteen months of updates. As many of us know, updates to Android phones can be hard to come by. Google even started calling out OEMs who weren’t getting updates out. With Android One, major updates like the transition from Oreo to P (whatever it will be named) is a guarantee, as is Android Q hypothetically. That is very significant.

Android One also promises fast security updates and support for Play Protect, which is basically Google’s antivirus software running on the phone. Play Protect is designed to help defend against the spate of malicious attacks on Android phones we have seen recently. All told, what Android One brings you is a stock Android experience that will remain current for two years, and safe to use for three years. In the world of Android, that’s one hell of a guarantee.

Android One is the future

Graduating class: Nexus – Pixel – Android One – Android Go


The Android One program is a way for Google to ensure mid-range phones will run Android smoothly for a long time. This is a breath of fresh air compared to the fragmented situation we were in earlier. Users can now be guaranteed years of updates, security patches, and peace of mind. There is a certain amount of comfort in knowing a device will continue to run properly for some time – something Google is clearly hoping to cash in on.

But Android One is also good for Google. It allows the software maker to help consolidate its platform and get an uncluttered version of Android on even more phones. Future security is key both from a user standpoint and in maintaining a healthy software platform. Android One is a great step in that direction.

Acer Aspire One 751: 11.6

Acer Aspire One 751: 11.6-inches, Atom Z520 & May launch

When Acer announced their 11.6-inch Aspire One netbook last month, they were pretty loose on the ultraportable’s full specifications.  Now the largest netbook the company offers has been listed on their German site, as the Acer Aspire One 751, confirming that Acer have used the Intel Atom Z520 processor paired with the US15W Express Chipset and up to 2GB of RAM.

That’s slightly different from the original rumors - when the netbook was believed to be the Aspire One 731 – that pegged the CPU as Intel’s Atom Z530.  Otherwise the specifications match what we’ve heard previously: an LED-backlit 200-nit display running at WXGA 1366 x 768 resolution, integrated WiFi b/g and optional Bluetooth 2.0+EDR and triband UMTS/HSPA WWAN.

Both 3-cell and 6-cell batteries are available, with runtime estimated at up to 8hrs with the latter.  Pocket-lint were on hand for a 751 launch event, and snapped these live photos of the netbook, which is set to hit the UK in May for around £349 ($518). 

Acer Aspire One 751 specifications (translated):

Aspire One 751

Breathtaking sights and sounds

The Aspire One 751 brings life into your favorite movies! It offers a perfect visual effects on the 11.6 “screen with a 1366×768 pixel resolution and a top-quality sound through the headphones with the very real discernible 5.1 channel surround sound.

Always ready

A unique charging enough for the battery of your 751 Aspire One with an endurance of up to 8 hours of supply. Do limitations in your applications through the latest, small but powerful processor. Save a big workload to files on the rugged hard drive and take part in multimedia events via the Multi-in-one card reader and optional Bluetooth.

The focus of attention

The shell in glossy ruby red, shell white, sapphire blue or black diamond certainly attracts all glances! Only 1 “thin, has the delicate shape of the Aspire One 751 a futuristic look. A look inside reveals the final, while you flat and clear Acer keyboard FineTip an even greater comfort for your input supplies.

The Acer Linking

Use the multi-functional interface for effortless navigation. To always stay in touch, you can sign up for the Wireless, Fast Ethernet or 3G connection (on selected models) to decide. The integrated Acer Crystal Eye webcam and digital microphone provides online chat of the highest quality.

Technical specifications

Operating System Genuine Windows ® XP Home Edition

Genuine Windows Vista ® Home Basic

Processor & Chipset Intel ® Atom ™ processor Z520, supports Intel ® 32 Architecture

Mobile Intel ® Express Chipset US15W

Memory channel with a single SODIMM slot

DDR2 667/800 MHz SDRAM memory interface design

SODIMM slot: Supports 512 MB / 1 GB / 2 GB SODIMM for total system memory up to 2 GB

Screen 11.6 “HD 1366 x 768 (WXGA) pixel resolution, high-resolution (200-nit) Acer Crystal Brite ™ LED backlight TFT LCD

16:9 aspect ratio

Drives 2.5 “HDD 9.5 mm

Multi-in-1 Card Reader

Audio Dolby ® Headphone

High-definition audio support

Two built-in stereo speakers

MS-Sound compatible

Integrated Digital Microphone

Communication Acer Video Conference:

Integrated Acer Crystal Eye webcam, supporting enhanced Acer PrimaLite ™ Technology

WLAN: Acer InviLink ™ 802.11b / g Wi-Fi CERTIFIED ® network connection, supporting Acer SignalUp ™ wireless technology

LAN: 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet

WPAN: Bluetooth ® 2.0 + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate)

(Manufacturing option – not all models)

WWAN: UMTS / HSPA to 850/1900/2100 MHz and quad-band GSM / GPRS / EDGE (850/900/1800/1900 MHz), upgradeable to 7.2 Mb / s HSDPA and 2 Mb / s HSUPA, receiver diversity and supports Equalizing to 2100 MHz

(Manufacturing option – not all models)

Dimensions & Weight 284 (W) x 198 (D) x 25.4 (H) mm

1.25 kg with 3-cell battery

1:35 kg with 6-cell battery

Black diamond color

Sapphire Blue


Mussel White

Battery & Power 30 W adapter with power cord

24.4 W 2200 mAh 3-cell Li-Ion Battery

• up to 4 hours of battery life

(actual duration depends on application and configuration)

57.7 W 5200 mAh 6-cell Li-Ion Battery

• Up to 8 hours of battery life

(actual duration depends on application and configuration)

Keyboard 86-/87-/91-Tasten completely Acer FineTip great keyboard with inverted “T” cursor layout

Multifunctional Touchpad Display:

• Circular-motion scrolling

• Pinch-action zoom

• Page flip

10 function keys, 4 cursor keys, 2 Windows ® keys, hotkey controls, integrated numeric keypad, international languages are supported

Power button with LED

Start Buttons with LED: Bluetooth ® *, WLAN / WWAN (* manufacturing option – not all models)

3x USB 2.0 ports

1x Monitor (VGA)

1x Headphones / speaker / line-out j

1x microphone-in-line

1x Ethernet (RJ-45) connection for Internet

1x mains connection

Productivity software applications:

• Acer Recovery Management

• Microsoft ® Works SE 9 with Office Home and Student 2007 Trial

• Google Toolbar ™

• Google ™ Desktop

• Google ™ Setup

• Adobe ® Reader ® 9

• Adobe ® Flash ® Player 10

• Microsoft ®. NET Framework 2.0

• Consumer-friendly Internet Explorer ® 7.0

• eSobi

• Carbonite Online Backup

McAfee ® Internet Security Suite (60-day trial version)

Windows ® Media Player 10

Acer GameZone

Communications Applications:

• Acer Video Conference Manager 4.0

• Windows Live Essentials ™ – Wave 3 (Mail, Photo Gallery, Live ™ Messenger, Writer)

Storage bag options

Additional Lithium Ion Battery

Additional power supply

External HDD

External optical drive

Warranty 1 year warranty including 1 years International Travelers Warranty (ITW)

Fix: Xbox One Error Code 0X807A1007

FIX: Xbox One error code 0x807a1007




Xbox One error code 0x807a1007 prevents you from using the party chat in a game. That’s annoying but we will fix that together if you follow the step by step guide below.

You might fix this issue by changing your region. It’s a simple process but keep in mind that you need to spend all your money that you have on your Microsoft account before you can change your region.

If you received another error code, check out our Xbox error codes section.

For any other problems with your Xbox, visit our Xbox troubleshooting hub.



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readers this month.

Communication is a key part if you’re playing a multiplayer game with your friends on Xbox.

If you’re in a team with your friends, you’re probably using party chat, but few users reported Xbox One error code 0x807a1007 that prevents them from using the party chat.

Table of contents:

Xbox One error code 0x807a1007 Fix – Xbox One error code 0x807a1007

Solution 1 – Change your region

According to users, you can fix this issue simply by changing your region.

Changing your region on Xbox One is simple, but keep in mind that you need to spend all the money that you have on your Microsoft account before you can change your region.

Also, keep in mind that certain services might not be available in specific regions, so be sure to choose your region carefully.

We have to mention that you can only change your region once in three months.

As for limitations, you won’t be able to change your region if you have a balance due on your Xbox subscription or if your account is currently suspended.

To change the region, follow these steps:

Make sure that you’re signed in to your console.

On the Home screen scroll left to open the Guide.

Select System and choose Language & location.

Select the new location and choose Restart now.

After your console restarts, check if the error is resolved.

Solution 2 – Turn on Energy Saving mode

Few users reported that you might be able to fix error code 0x807a1007 simply by turning on Energy Saving mode. This is a simple procedure and you can do it by following these steps:

Go to Settings.

Select Power & Startup.

Select Power Mode and enable Energy-saving option.

After turning this mode on, your Xbox will start a bit slower than before, but the error should be completely resolved.

Solution 3 – Change the NAT settings

One way to fix this problem is to change your NAT settings. To do that, follow these steps:

Scroll left on the Home screen to open the Guide.

Now choose Network.

Expert tip:

If your NAT Type is set to anything else except Open, you might encounter this error.

To fix this problem be sure to set the NAT type to Open and check if that solves the issue.

Solution 4 – Delete and redownload your profile

The next thing we’re going to try is redownloading your Xbox profile. Here’s how to do that:

Press the Guide button on your controller.

Go to Settings and select System Settings.

Select your gamertag that you want to delete.

Select Delete.

Select Delete Profile Only. (This deletes the profile but leaves saved games and achievements.)

Solution 5 – Clear the system cache

Clearing the system cache can resolve all sorts of issues, so it can be helpful in this case, as well. Go on and clear the system cache:

Press the Guide button on your controller.

Go to Settings and select System Settings.

Select Storage or Memory.

Highlight any storage device, and then press Y  on your controller (you can select any storage device because the system will clear the cache for all of them).

Select Clear System Cache.

Confirm the action.

Restart your console

Solution 6 – Power cycle your console

And finally, if none of the previous solutions resolved the issue, we’re going to restart the console. First, let’s power cycle your Xbox. Here’s how to do that:

To perform a power cycle reset, follow these steps:

Unplug the power cable from the back of the router, modem, or gateway, and wait for five minutes. If you have both a router and a modem, unplug the power cable from both devices.

Restart your Xbox One console:

Press the Xbox button to open the guide.

Select Settings.

Select Restart console.

Select Yes to confirm.

After five minutes, plug the modem or gateway in first and wait for all the lights to return to their normal state.

If you are using a router, plug in the router and wait for all the lights to return to their normal state.

Now that your console is reset, you should test your Xbox Live connection. Here’s how to do that:

Press the Xbox button to open the guide.

Now, select Network settings. If there’s an outage, it will appear on the screen.

On the right side of the Network settings screen, select Test network connection.

Solution 7 – Restore factory defaults

If this issue still appears on your Xbox One, you might be able to fix it by performing a factory reset.

This procedure will reset your console to factory defaults and remove all your files and games, therefore we strongly suggest that you back up all important files.

Keep in mind that you can download synced files from Xbox Live since they won’t be affected by a factory reset. To reset your console, do the following:

Scroll left on the Home screen to open the Guide.

Now select Reset console option.

You should see two options available, Reset and remove everything and Reset and keep my games & apps. We suggest that you use the latter option to reset your console while keeping your games intact.

If this option doesn’t work, you’ll have to use Reset and remove everything option. This option will delete all files from your console, including your games, so be careful while using it.

After the reset process is completed, check if the problem is resolved.

Xbox One error code 0x807a1007 can prevent you from joining the party chat, and if that happens, you just need to try to join it again.

If that doesn’t help, feel free to try all the solutions from this article.

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One Piece: Marine Ranking System (Explained)

The Marines, in real life, are always viewed as good people who are the representation of justice. But in the world of One Piece, it’s quite a different story. In the manga and anime, the pirates take center stage and the Marines play the role of the antagonist in all the popular arcs in One Piece. However, not all Marine officers are downright immoral, as we have seen several righteous officers such as Garp, Tashigi, and many more. The concept of justice is a complex theme among the Marines, but that’s not our focus for today. In this article, we will take you through a complete breakdown of the Marine ranking system in One Piece. You will learn about the different ranks and roles in the Marines and how they play a crucial part in upholding the law in the One Piece world where pirates rule the sea.

Marine Ranks in One Piece: A Guide (2023)

Spoiler Warning: This article contains spoilers about the story and the Marine characters in One Piece. We suggest you watch the anime or read the manga first to avoid ruining the intended experience.

Who Are the Marines in One Piece?

In the One Piece universe, the World Government stands tall above anyone else in the world. As a result, they have created a military sea force known as the Marines to maintain law and order and to preserve peace on the seas that pirates are threatening to dominate and rule.

The Marines have numerous tasks such as military operations, international security, and law enforcement. They have a main headquarters and various marine bases of operation scattered throughout the seas. Together they are considered one of the Three Great Powers in the world of One Piece. Despite being the face of justice, they are seen as one of the major antagonists in the show and in some of the One Piece movies. Much like real-life military forces, the Marines in One Piece also have a complex hierarchy system, which we have discussed in this article in detail.

One Piece: Marines Ranking (High to Low)

In the image below, the Marine ranks in One Piece are listed in the highest to lowest order. We have followed the same approach to let you know about the power of each Marine rank and what their members bring to the table:

Marines Rank System according to the Author Oda (SBS – Vol 8)

Commissioned Marine Officers

Image Courtesy – One Piece by Toei Animation Studios (Fandom)

The Commissioned Marines Officers (Kaigun Shōkō) are considered the elites of the Marines. Each role in this division possesses a certain amount of leadership and has subordinates to carry out their orders. There is a total of 11 ranks from Fleet Admiral to Ensign. The power levels of a Marine can also be assumed based on their position. For example, the Fleet Admiral is the strongest above all in terms of powers and authority. The ranks inside the Commissioned Marines Officers are as follows:

Fleet Admiral

Image Courtesy – One Piece by Toei Animation Studios (Fandom)

The Fleet Admirals (Gensui) are the highest-ranking officers among the Marines, and they directly work under the Commander-in-chief (more on this below) and the Five Elders. They are considered to be the strongest person in terms of both power and authority. Fleet Admirals are generally seen in a traditional white suit, but it is personally stylized according to the individual. They are also seen donning pure gold epaulets and white cuffs.

They can issue the Buster Call on their own or give orders to a lower-ranking officer. Furthermore, the Fleet Admirals are also the only ones to be known to revoke a Warlord of the sea title. Currently, Sakazuki aka Akainu is the Fleet Admiral of the Marines. Before the Marineford war, Sengoku used to be one.

Former Fleet AdmiralsCurrent Fleet AdmiralKong (Commander-in-Chief now)SakazukiSengoku (Inspector General now)


Along with the Fleet Admiral, the Admirals are the only people in the Marines who can order the Buster Call on any island, which seems to pose a significant threat. When the fans see an Admiral, we automatically know that the seriousness is going to hit the roofs. Moreover, the positions left vacant by Aokiji’s resignation and the promotion of Akainu to Fleet Admiral were filled by Fujitora and Ryokugyu. Therefore, Ryokugyu, Fujitora, and Kizaru are the ones currently appointed as the three admirals in One Piece.

Former AdmiralsCurrent AdmiralsSakazuki (Fleet Admiral now)KizaruSengoku (Promoted to Fleet Admiral)FujitoraAokiji (Resigned)Ryokugyu

Vice Admiral

Image Courtesy – One Piece by Toei Animation Studios (Fandom)

Even though the Fleet Admiral and Admirals are the most terrifying Marines, anyone would also think twice before messing with the Vice Admirals (Chūjō). They are the third highest-ranking Marine officers in One Piece, so you can predict the authority they possess and how insanely powerful they are.

Vice Admirals are powerful and comprise of versatile characters, ranging from Swordsmen to Rokushiki users. An absolute for becoming a Vice Admiral is that the person must know everything about Haki in One Piece and can at least perform a type of Haki. From this rank and above, everyone knows and can perform Haki. For example, Monkey D. Garp was one of the strongest Haki users in his prime.

The general clothing style of the Vice Admirals includes a suit and tie underneath the Marine coat with epaulets. They don’t typically wear the Marine badge as they just put it on their back with their hands out, which is uber-cool to see. Check out some fun facts about the Vice-Admirals in the anime:

You must be wondering why a powerful marine like Monkey D. Garp is stuck at this rank. The reason is that once a person reaches above the Vice Admiral rank, they are under the direct control of Celestial Dragons and the World Government. Garp clearly despises them, and that’s why he rejects his promotions.

Most of the Giants who became Marines were qualified for Vice Admiral positions, which shows how unbelievably strong they were.

During a Buster Call, at least five Vice Admirals are sent in that fleet to assist the situation.

Former Vice AdmiralsCurrent Vice AdmiralsJaguar D. Saul (deserted)Monkey D. GarpSakazuki (was promoted to Admiral)John GiantAokiji(was promoted to Admiral)TsuruKizaru (was promoted to Admiral)SmokerVergo (Died)Gion

Rear Admiral

Image Courtesy – One Piece by Toei Animation Studios (Fandom)

Rear Admiral (Shōshō) is the lowest ranking position among the Admirals, but it is the fourth highest rank among the Marines. They have complete influence over all lower-ranking marines, but they are part of the Admirals with the least amount of power. But don’t let this fact fool you as Real Admirals are completely different in terms of powers.

They are strong and the ones with the highest reputation and potential are given extra authority and assigned additional responsibilities too. Hina is one of the notable rear admirals now and is a perfect example of that.

Former Rear AdmiralsCurrent Rear AdmiralsX-Drake (Undercover & Captain of SWORD)Hina Strawberry (Vice Admiral now)Prince Grus


Image Courtesy – One Piece by Toei Animation Studios (Fandom)

Commodore (Junshō) is a level above the Marine captain and has absolute order over any marines lower in rank than them. Overall, they are the fifth highest-ranking officer in the Marines and are entrusted with important missions and authoritative matters that are too big of a deal for Captains and others to handle.

For example – Daigin, who was assigned to capture Luffy in Impel Down, was a Commodore. Additionally, ever wondered who assigns a bounty to pirates, Brannew (a Commodore) is the man behind it. He has assigned some of the highest bounties in One Piece and directly reports to Fleet Admiral. He is a special case of Commodore.

Former CommodoresCurrent CommodoresSmoker (was promoted to Vice Admiral)BrannewPudding Pudding (Died)DaiginYarisugi


Former CaptainsCurrent CaptainsSmoker (was promoted to Commodore)KobyMorgan (Discharged)TashigiHina (was promoted to Rear Admiral)ShuVergo (was promoted to Vice Admiral)SharinguruT-Bone (was promoted to Rear Admiral)Very Good

Commanders/ Lieutenants

The Commander (Chūsa), Lieutenant Commander (Shōsa), Lieutenant (Taii), and Lieutenant Junior Grade (Chūi) are well-known ranks in the Marines. But we don’t have much information about all these ranks and the difference between them is also unclear as of now. The only popular commander we know is Donquixote Rosinante, whom we have seen in Law’s flashback. The Lieutenant Commander is known as a Major sometimes, and the famous officers we have seen in the anime are Jango and Helmeppo.


Ensign (Shōi) is the last and lowest rank in this Commissioned Marine Officers division. They are allowed to wear the Kanji “正義” sign for justice on the rear of their clothing. All Marine officers from this position and above are allowed to wear the Kanji for justice badge. Before Tashigi (who is one of the best female characters in One Piece) became a Captain, she used to be an Ensign officer.

Infantry and Sailor Division

Image Courtesy – One Piece by Toei Animation Studios (IMDB)

The Infantry and Sailor division is also a part of the Marines and includes various roles. They are generally tasked with missions and carry out them as per the Commissioned Officers’ orders. The different types of roles in this division are:

Warrant Officer Master Chief Petty Officer

Master Chief Petty Officer (Jun’i), also referred to as Petty Officer First Class, is the second-highest position in the Infantry Division in the Marines. Our favorites Tashigi and Koby used to be Master Chief Petty Officers before they were promoted to higher ranks.

Chief Petty Officer

Chief Petty Officer (Gunsō) is the second class of petty officers. We don’t know much about this position. But the notable father-son combo namely “Axe-Hand” Morgan and Helmeppo are former Chief Petty Officers in One Piece.

Petty Officer

Petty Officer (Gochō) aka Petty Officer Third Class is the fifteenth highest position in the Marines. Once a marine goes all the way from being a Chore Boy to a Petty Officer, they are given the green signal to wear different kinds of clothes. They can even wear ordinary clothes. However, many officers like to wear a traditional uniform, which looks sailor-like.

There aren’t any known characters who held this title earlier. But, non-canon characters such as the villain Zephyr (from One Piece Film: Z) and Komei (from Adventure of Nebulandia special) worked as former Petty Officers.

Seaman Workers Chore Boy

Image Courtesy – One Piece by Toei Animation Studios (IMDB)

From their title, you can already guess what they do at the marine bases. Their main responsibility is to maintain the bases and equipment used by the Marines. Moreover, Chore boy is the marines’ lowest rank. The Chore Boys (Zatsuyō) don’t wear any sort of formal attire. They receive blue trousers and a plain white shirt. Once we saw Koby and Helmeppo become Chore Boys in the Koby and Helmeppo Arc in One Piece.

Special Marine Ranks Commander-in-Chief

The World Government’s Commander-in-Chief is a special position, and technically, it is a title that belongs to the World Government. But this rank has its ties to the Marine, and therefore, needs to be addressed in this article. The Commander-in-Chief is a level above the Fleet Admiral, which means they work directly under the Five Elders. They have full command over not just the entire Marine organization, but also the Cipher Pols, and the Warlord of the seas (disbanded now).

With unreal authority, they can give any order to anyone and the only ones who can revoke his decisions are the Gorosei (Five Elders). The Fleet Admiral can get promoted to this unique position if they accomplish their role as a Fleet Admiral greatly. Thus, Kong, who used to be the Fleet Admiral before Sengoku got promoted to the Commander-in-Chief position in the anime.

Inspector General

The Inspector General (Ōmetsuke) is another special rank where the officer’s sole duty is to monitor and investigate any kind of corruption, mismanagement, and misconduct in the Marine organization. We only know one person who is currently working as the Inspector General, and it is the former Fleet Admiral Sengoku.


Garp still continues to hold his Vice Admiral title but also became an Instructor in One Piece. He took Koby and Helmeppo under his wing and look at how they are shining in their high ranks now.

Frequently Asked Questions

Who is the most powerful Marine One Piece?

As of now, based on their powers and experience, Monkey D. Garp has to be the strongest marine in One Piece. But this record might get broken as there are many powerful admirals with versatile devil fruit powers in One Piece who can surpass Garp.

Who are the 3 Marine admirals in One Piece?

What are the ranks of the Marines in One Piece?

There are up to 19 different ranks in the Marines system. We have listed all of them in a detailed manner above.

Marine Ranks in One Piece Explained

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