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Introduction to LDAP Injection

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What is LDAP Injection?

LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. It can be defined as a protocol that is vendor-neutral and works on the layer over the TCP/IP stack. It is used to introduce the authority checking and authentication mechanism in the web application to ensure its safety and is very frequently used while developing web applications. LDAP is used very often in web applications that are being used over the internet or intranet. Therefore, it is essential to the web application to go with LDAP as it is a very common and important factor that facilitates the secure development of the web application.

LDAP can also be defined as the set of standards used to perform security checks to find out if the user has all the permission to access the existing system. There are several ways to make the checks, but eventually, the motive of all the checks is to ensure the safety of the web application. It prohibits the unauthorized access of users that do not have the proper privileges. Based on the rights that the user hold for the particular web application, it ensures that the user could be able to access only those things to which they are entitled to. Though it is used to take care of the web application’s security, it can also be tricked by hackers to extract the juice from the application.

Performing LDAP Injection with Example

The web application has to take the input from the user in order to process it further. The attacker can take leverage of this if the value entered by the users is not sanitized properly and directly goes to the database for execution. Here we will see how the LDAP injection could be launched on any web application prone to this attack.

The query mentioned above will be transformed into LDAP friendly command so that the application makes it easy for the query to be executed well.

In the above case, if the value submitted by the user is not sanitized, it can lead to getting the name of all the existing users by putting “*” in the input box. An asterisk denotes all the available options, so when the database will process the asterisk rather than any particular username, it will be given all the objects stored in the LDAP database. The actual query that will be executing in the database will be


When the data is not sanitized, and the database accepts the asterisk value to the process, the code will be like below.

As soon as the above vulnerable code runs into the LDAP database, it will through all the objects stored in the LDAP database and will lead to cause harm to the web application. The hacker will use the outcome of LDAP injection to abuse the system and cause a security breach.

How can you Protect yourself from LDAP Injection Attacks?

If there is a vulnerability in the application, there must exist its remediation as well. There will be barely any vulnerability that cannot be resolved or fixed to protect the system. In the same way, there are several ways that can be used to protect the web application from LDAP injection.

The very first and most essential way is to sanitize the input before taking it further for processing. The input submitted by the user has to be validated if it matches the requirement that suites whatever the application is expecting through that text field. For instance, if the user tries to submit any special characters in the text field asking for the name, the user should be alerted that they cannot fill special characters in that field. That is the client-side validation. Now the server-side validation will also be required to ensure the data provided is genuine.

The next one is to configure LDAP, keeping safety in mind. The LDAP configuration should be done to restrict unauthorized users to make any malicious changes to the system. Also, the next one is, the outcome of the LDAP query must be limited and cannot disclose any data that could lead to security breaches. If the data are not sufficient to harm the system, the attacker will not be able to affect the web application in any way, even if they were able to launch the LDAP injection attack.


The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol provides the way to the application to ensure that the user who is trying to access the system is properly authenticated and authorized to use the system. It is very important to consider LDAP while taking care of all the security concerns. The system should be ample to strong to not let any hacker launch an LDAP attack. As the LDAP database holds very lucrative information, the administrator has to ensure that the input from the user has been sanitized very carefully, and the configuration has to be done by keeping all the security factors in mind.

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10 Cybersecurity Practices To Protect Data Centers From Attacks

The top cybersecurity practices that data centers should start adopting to protect from cyber attack

Do you have the impression that a company is apologizing for a security violation involving sensitive data or revealing a hacker attack every day? Not just you, either. The frequency of cyberattacks and cybercrimes is alarmingly rising. Data centers are most under cyberattack and protecting data centers from attacks is important.

And not just large conglomerates are experiencing data breaches; attacks on small firms are also on the rise as hackers become aware that these companies may not have put in place a strong cybersecurity defense. According to cybersecurity defense startup BullGuard, 43 percent of small enterprises have no cybersecurity practices strategy at all. These hazards increased as remote employment became the norm during the pandemic. In this article, we shall discuss some of the top cybersecurity practices that data centers have to imply to protect their data and prevent any kind of cyberattack. Let us look into those now.


A hack may be avoided much more easily than it can be fixed. Recovery of sensitive data that has been lost due to a ransomware attack can be a difficult and time-consuming task. Ransomware attacks can be effectively stopped before they cause serious harm by educating employees on fundamental security, personal cybersecurity, and the frequency of cyber dangers. Your staff members need to be aware that they can be the object of malicious individuals looking to gain access to your business.

2.Better Passwords and Authentication 3.Secure WiFi

With the rise of remote working, it’s critical that your staff securely encrypt their networks as well. It may seem obvious for a business to have a secured, encrypted, and hidden WiFi network. Your security and that of your employees go hand in hand. The company’s mainframe can easily be accessed by hacking into a worker’s distant network.

4.Know Your Company

Utilize a simple resource: your knowledge. Consider your business and the areas that hackers are most likely to target. Are they more interested in your customer databases or intellectual property than they are in the private information of your employees? The most likely targets should be located and well-protected.

5.More the Backups, the Better

Use a straightforward resource: your knowledge. Think about both the areas of your company and those that hackers are most likely to target. Are they more concerned with your intellectual property or customer databases than they are with the personal data of your employees? Locate and adequately guard the targets that are most likely to be attacked.

6.Anti-Virus Software

Even the most skilled employees err on occasions. Computers that have anti-virus and anti-malware software installed are better protected overall, especially from phishing attempts.

7.Updated Software

According to the National Cyber Security Centre of the UK, obsolete software is indirectly responsible for more than 80% of attacks. The most recent patches are the sole thing keeping the best antivirus and anti-malware software up to date. Failure to apply fixes will give hackers access to the system’s vulnerabilities.

8.Secure Physical Devices

Company laptops should be secured with passwords or pins, much like you lock the doors when you leave your workplace. Employees who have left the company should get their laptops returned. Consider each computer at work as a potential entrance to your business.

9.Better to Always be Safe 10.Always have a Plan

It costs a lot to hire your cybersecurity team as a small- or medium-sized business owner. Fortunately, several free resources may assist you in creating a fundamental cybersecurity plan and guide what to do in the event of an attack.

How To Protect Computer From Virus And Hackers On Windows 11

Windows 11 is perhaps the most secure version that Microsoft has ever released, but there’s always more you can do to further protect your computer and files from viruses and hackers. Keeping your computer secure will help minimize direct hacking attempts and virtually any type of malware (such as viruses, spyware, ransomware, and rootkits) from stealing your personal information. 

You have many features to protect your computer for free on Windows 11. For example, you can use the Microsoft Defender Firewall to secure your device from unauthorized network access and add two-step verification and biometric authentication to strengthen the account sign-in process.

It’s also possible to enable data encryption with BitLocker to make your files unreadable to others. The Microsoft Defender Antivirus is among the best antivirus you can use to keep viruses, spyware, rootkits, and ransomware out.

In this guide, you will learn the best ways to protect your device and files from malware and hacker attacks on Windows 11.

Protect your computer securing account on Windows 11

On Windows 11, you can protect your account in many ways. If you use a local account, you can improve security by switching to a Microsoft account. You can enable two-step verification to add a physical layer of sign-in security. You can enable the modern passwordless option to sign in by simply using the Microsoft Authentication app. And you can set up Windows Hello to secure access to your account using biometric authentication, such as your face.

Another way you can protect your account is by switching to a standard account to limit system access to prevent misconfiguration or apps running in administrator mode that could cause problems. You would still have an administrator account, but only to perform administrative tasks.

Finally, if you are in an environment with a lot of people, you can also configure “dynamic lock,” a feature that uses Bluetooth devices (such as your phone or watch) to lock the computer automatically as you step away from the device.

Switch from local account to Microsoft account

Although it might sound illogical, switching to a Microsoft account can improve security since you can implement other security features like two-step verification and passwordless sign-in. Also, it makes it easier to reset the login password if ever lost or compromised. 

To link a Windows 11 local account with a Microsoft account, use these steps:

Confirm your Microsoft account email address.

Confirm the account password.

Confirm the local account password.

Create the new PIN to sign in to your Windows 11 account.

Select the option to verify the account.

Confirm the email address to verify the account.

Confirm the code send to your recovery email address.

Once you complete the steps, the local account will link to your Microsoft account.

Enable two-step verification authentication

The two-step verification (or “two-factor authentication” (2FA)) feature adds a second form of identification using the Microsoft Authenticator app on your phone to sign in to your account on Windows 11, making it virtually impossible for someone else to gain unauthorized access to your computer.

To set up two-step verification on your Microsoft account, use these steps:

Open your Microsoft account online.

Sign in to the account (if applicable).

Sign in to the Microsoft Authenticator app on your phone with your Microsoft account.

After you complete the steps, the next time you try to sign in to Windows 11 with a password, you will need to authenticate with the Microsoft Authenticator app on your phone.

Enable passwordless option

If you use a Microsoft account to sign in to Windows 11, you can also remove your password from the account to enable the passwordless experience. This means that you will use the Microsoft Authenticator app, Windows Hello, security key device, text message by phone, or email verification to sign in to your account without a password.

This feature works in combination with two-step verification. If you don’t have the feature enabled, turn on two-step verification and continue with the steps below.

To enable the passwordless experience on Windows 11 with your Microsoft account, use these steps:

Open your Microsoft account online.

Sign in to the account (if applicable).

Open your phone.

Confirm the request from the authenticator app.

Once you complete the steps, you can start signing in to your account without a password.

Enable Windows Hello authentication

To configure Windows Hello facial recognition to unlock a computer with your face, use these steps:

Open Settings.

Under the “Ways to sign in” section, select the Facial recognition (Windows Hello) setting.

Confirm your current password or PIN.

Look directly into the camera for Windows 11 to create a facial recognition profile of your face.

After you complete the steps, you can lock your device (Windows key + L) and then look into the camera to sign in.

If the sign-in experience is not working as expected, under the “Facial recognition (Windows Hello)” setting, you will now find an “Improve recognition” option that you can use to keep training the system to detect your face better.

Alternatively, you can also set up a fingerprint reader if you don’t have a camera that supports Windows Hello.

Switch to standard account and use admin only for management

Windows 11 offers two types of accounts, including “Administrator” and “Standard User,” with different levels of permissions to manage apps and the system. The Administrator account has unlimited access, giving users the ability to change system settings, run elevated tasks, and everything else.

The Standard User account offers a more restrictive environment. A user with this level of privileges can work with apps, but it cannot install anything else. Also, they can change settings, but not system settings or settings that will affect all users. 

Since using an account without limits can be a security risk, switching to a standard account is recommended to improve security. You can create a new “Administrator” account that you will only use for management and then change your account type to “Standard User.”

Create local administrator account

To create an administrator local account through the Settings app, use these steps:

Open Start on Windows 11.

Create a Windows 11 administrator account by confirming a name and password.

Create the security questions and answers to recover the account if the password is lost.

Use the “Account type” drop-down menu and select the Administrator option.

Once you complete the steps, the new account will appear on Windows 11.

Switch to standard account

To change an Administrator account to a Standard Users account on Windows 11, use these steps:

Sign out of your current account.

Sign in to the newly created administrator account.

Open Settings.

Under the “Other users” section, select your primary account.

Select the Standard User option using the “Account type” drop-down menu.

After you complete the steps, the original account will switch types from “Administrator” to “Standard User.” If you ever need to make system changes or install new apps, you will be prompted to confirm the administrator credential. Or you can also sign in to the administrator account to perform system changes. 

Enable Dynamic Lock

Dynamic Lock is a feature that locks your device when you step away from your desk based on the proximity of a Bluetooth-paired device, such as your phone or wearable, adding another layer of security.

There are two parts to this security feature. You first need to pair a Bluetooth device (such as your iPhone or Android phone) to the computer, and then you have to enable Dynamic Lock in the Settings app.

To connect a supported Bluetooth like Android or iPhone to Windows 11, use these steps:

Turn on the Bluetooth device.

Turn on the device’s Bluetooth pair option to make it discoverable.

Open Settings on Windows 11.

Turn on the Bluetooth toggle switch to enable the wireless radio (if applicable).

Select the Bluetooth option.

Choose the Bluetooth device from the list.

Continue with the on-screen directions (if applicable).

Select the Dynamic lock setting.

Check the “Allow Windows to automatically lock your device when you’re away” option.

Once you complete the steps, if your Bluetooth device isn’t near the computer, Windows 11 will wait 30 seconds and then turn off the screen and lock the account to secure your computer.

Protect your computer in the network on Windows 11

On Windows 11, hackers usually gain access to a device by exploiting software vulnerabilities and poor security configuration.

To keep your computer secure, you want to ensure that the default Microsoft Defender Firewall is turned on. You want to change the network profile to “Public” mode when in a public place or untrusted environment. Also, if you are not using Bluetooth, you should keep it disabled as it could be another backdoor that nearly malicious individuals can exploit to steal information or gain unauthorized access to your computer. (It’s rare, but it could happen.)

Enable firewall to block ports

On Windows 11, the Microsoft Defender Firewall is a feature that checks incoming and outgoing network traffic to allow or block traffic depending on predefined rules to protect your device from unauthorized access. The feature is enabled by default, but it’s always a good idea to check and enable it as necessary.

To enable the firewall on Windows 11, use these steps:

Open Windows Security.

After you complete the steps, the Windows 10 firewall will enable again on your device.

Change network profile type to Public mode

On Windows 11, you can use different network profile types with specific settings to improve security or share files, printers, and other resources in the network.

The feature provides three network profiles, including Private, Public, and Domain. The Private and Public are available for all computers, and the Domain is only available when a device is joined to the domain.

The Private profile is tailored for trusted networks like your home or work. This profile makes the computer discoverable for file sharing, network printing, and sharing other resources with people you trust.

The Public profile makes the device invisible in the local network. This option is recommended for most locations, including public places, work, and home.

If you want to add an extra layer of security, you should always set the profile type to Public. Unless you need to share resources in the network with people you trust.

Change network profile type for Ethernet

To change the Windows 11 network profile type to protect your computer, use these steps:

Open Settings.

Under the “Network profile type” section, select the profile type:

Public: Your device is not discoverable in the local network. You should use this option in most locations, such as home, work, or public places.

Private: Your device is discoverable in the local network. You would use this option to share files or other resources like printers over a trusted local area network.

Change network profile type for Wi-Fi

To change the network profile type for a wireless connection, use these steps:

Open Settings.

Under the “Network profile type” section, select the profile type, including Public or Private.

Once you complete the steps, the connection will apply the profile type you select.

You can only change profile type per network. If you have an Ethernet and Wi-Fi connection connected to the same network, the new setting will not apply to all network adapters when changing the profile type.

On Windows 11, it’s also possible to change the network profile type using the Registry and PowerShell.

Turn off Bluetooth and Wi-Fi when not needed

Any available wireless connection can be used to attack a device. If you are in a public place like a coffee shop or airport, and you only need to use an application without internet, you can always turn off Bluetooth and Wi-Fi to work more securely. Once you are in a secure environment, you can turn the wireless radios back on.

Disable Bluetooth on Windows 11

To turn off Bluetooth to protect your computer, use these steps:

Open Settings.

Turn off the Bluetooth toggle switch on the right side.

(Optional) Turn off the Bluetooth toggle switch to disable the feature.

Disconnect Wi-Fi on Windows 11

On Windows 11, you can disconnect from a wireless network in several ways. You can turn off the wireless adapter using the dedicated button on a laptop (if available). You can disable the adapter from the “Network & Internet” settings. Or you can disconnect from the Settings app or “Quick Settings” flyout.

To disconnect from a Wi-Fi network on Windows 11, use these steps:

Open Settings.

Turn off the Wi-Fi toggle switch.

Protect your computer with data encryption on Windows 11

BitLocker is a security feature that allows you to use encryption on a drive to protect your data from unauthorized access to your documents, pictures, and any data you may have on the computer.

On Windows 11, the feature is only available in the Pro, Enterprise, and Education edition. However, on Windows 11 Home, you can use device encryption on some devices like Surface Pro 8, Laptop 4, and others.

Enable device encryption on Windows 11 Pro

To configure BitLocker on a Windows 11 drive, use these steps:

Open Settings.

Select the drive with the volume to encrypt.

Select the option to backup the recovery key – for example, Save to your Microsoft account.

Select the “Encrypt used disk space only” option.

Select the New encryption mode option.

Quick note: If you intend to encrypt a drive that you will end up using on an older version of Windows, you should choose the Compatible mode option.

Check the Run BitLocker system check option.

After you complete the steps, the computer will restart to apply the settings and enable BitLocker.

You can also enable encryption for secondary and external drives. And using BitLocker To Go, you can protect your data on USB flash drives.

Enable device encryption on Windows 11 Home

To configure BitLocker encryption on Windows 11 Home, use these steps:

Open Settings.

Turn on Device encryption to enable BitLocker on Windows 11 Home.

Once you complete the steps, the feature will encrypt the entire system drive.

If you no longer need encryption, it’s possible to decrypt the drive with the same instructions.

Protect your computer against viruses and ransomware on Windows 11

Viruses are still among the biggest security threats on Windows 11, Windows 10, and other versions. As a result, it’s always recommended to have an antivirus solution installed and updated on your computer. 

Although almost every third-party antivirus is now capable of protecting your device from threats (such as viruses, spyware, ransomware, rootkits, and other types of malware and hackers), Windows 11 comes with the Microsoft Defender Antivirus, which is considered one of the best antivirus applications for home and commercial users.

Install an antivirus

On Windows 11, you technically don’t need to spend money on an antivirus, but you can always opt for a third-party solution that may include other features to up the security of your device. For example, Symantec’s Norton Antivirus, AVG, Avira, BitDefender, and McAfee.

Enable periodic scanning

If you choose to use a third-party solution, you can also enable the “Periodic Scanning” feature from Microsoft Defender Antivirus. When you enable the feature, the default antivirus will remain disabled. However, the system will periodically scan the system to add a second line of defense to detect threats that your current solution may not be able to detect.

To enable “periodic scanning” on Microsoft Defender Antivirus for Windows 11, use these steps:

Open Windows Security.

Turn on the Periodic scanning toggle switch.

After you complete the steps, the Windows 11 antivirus will use the “Automatic Maintenance” feature to run the scans at optimal times to minimize the impact on performance and battery life.

Perform a full antivirus scan 

If you choose to stay with the Microsoft Defender Antivirus, the anti-malware software will proactively monitor and protect your computer and files from virtually any type of malware. However, sometimes, it might still be necessary to perform a complete scan of the device to ensure that the installation hasn’t been compromised.

To perform a full virus scan on Windows 11, use these steps:

Open Start on Windows 11.

Select the Full scan option to check the entire system for viruses and any other type of malware.

Once you complete the steps, the antivirus will scan the computer for viruses and other types of malware. If anything is detected, Microsoft Defender Antivirus will automatically remove (or quarantine) the threats.

If the computer is already infected, you can use the Microsoft Defender Offline scan to detect and remove viruses that the antivirus may not be able to remove while Windows 11 is fully loaded.

Enable reputation-based protection

Windows Security also includes a feature to protect your computer against unwanted malicious apps. The feature is known as “reputation-based protection” that can detect and block low-reputation apps that may cause unexpected behaviors on Windows 11, such as poorly designed apps or apps that cause harm.

To enable reputation-based protection for unwanted apps on Windows 11, use these steps:

Open Windows Security.

Turn on the “Potentially unwanted app blocking” toggle switch to protect the device from unwanted apps on Windows 11.

Check the Block apps option.

After you complete the steps, Windows 11 will be able to detect and block apps with a low reputation that may cause problems.

Enable ransomware protection

Windows 11 also has the “Controlled folder access” feature to protect your files against ransomware.

Ransomware is a fairly new form of malware that encrypts the files on a computer, making the data inaccessible and unreadable. Once the attack is successful, the malicious individual will demand ransom to unlock the device and files.

Controlled folder access monitors the changes apps make to your files on Windows 11. If an app tries to modify the files inside a protected folder and the app is blacklisted, you will get an alert about the suspicious activity.

To enable the ransomware protection on Windows 11, use these steps:

Open Windows Security.

Turn on the Controlled folder access toggle switch to enable ransomware protection.

Once you complete the steps, Microsoft Defender Antivirus will monitor the protected folders as applications try to modify your files. If suspicious activity occurs, you’ll get a notification about the threat.

You can also configure various aspects of the features. You can also allow apps you trust that the system mistakenly blocked, add more folder locations and drives to the protection list, and it’s possible to disable the feature if it’s not working as expected.

Enable core isolation protection

As part of the device security, Windows 11 also ships with “core isolation,” a virtualization-based security feature that isolates core processes in memory from malicious code to protect memory integrity.

On Windows 11, core isolation should be enabled by default, but it’s not always the case. However, if you cannot enable the feature, the problem could be a compatibility issue with a driver.

To enable core isolation on Windows 11, use these steps:

Open Windows Security.

Turn on the Memory integrity toggle switch.

Restart the computer.

After you complete the steps, the device will have an extra layer of protection to prevent attacks from adding malicious code into high-security processes.

One of the best ways to protect your computer is to ensure that Windows 11 and apps always have the latest security and maintenance updates. The reason is that cumulative updates are essential to fix bugs, patch security vulnerabilities, and improve system performance. Windows Update usually applies updates automatically on Windows 11, but you may still need to check and install them manually.

Install updates on Windows 11

To install security and maintenance updates on Windows 11, use these steps:

Open Settings.

Once you complete the steps, it will download and install automatically on your computer if an update is available.

Install updates for Microsoft Store and other apps

Updates are also essential for applications as they can improve security, fix bugs, improve performance, and introduce new features. If you use apps from the Microsoft Store, they will update automatically. Depending on the app, if you have desktop apps, they will also automatically receive updates. However, you may need to download and install those automatically in some cases.

To check and download updates for Microsoft Store apps, use these steps:

Open Microsoft Store.

After you complete the steps, the Microsoft Store app will check and download any available updates for the apps. 

If you have a classic desktop application, you may receive a notification to update the software manually. However, you can usually check for updates from the “Help” or “About” menu. If you can’t find the option, you can always check the manufacturer documentation website for more information.

Protect your computer by creating periodic backups on Windows 11

On Windows 11, a full backup creates a copy of the entire system that allows you to recover in case of critical system problems, malware attacks like ransomware, hardware failure, or when you are upgrading the primary drive. In addition, a backup can help you roll back to a previous installation after upgrading to a new feature update or an entirely new version.

You can always choose a third-party solution (such as Macrium Reflect or Veam), but you can still use the (deprecated) legacy “System Image Backup” tool to save a full backup to a USB hard drive. 

To create a full backup of a computer running Windows 11, use these steps:

Open Start.

Select the external drive to save the Windows 11 backup.

Once you complete the steps, a full backup of the Windows 11 device will be created with the installation files, settings, applications, and personal files.

You will also receive the option to create a repair disk, but you can ignore it since you can use the Windows 11 bootable media to access the recovery settings to restore the backup.

In addition to periodically backup your computer, it’s also recommended to use third-party services like OneDrive to store your files in the cloud. This approach will protect the files from hardware failure, ransomware, or theft.

Alternatively, copying your files to an external drive with a simple copy and paste (as long as you don’t have a lot of data) is another way to protect your documents, pictures, videos, and other files.

Protect your computer with common sense tips on Windows 11

Whenever possible, avoid browsing not secure and untrusted websites. You would typically know if a website is not secure because the site address will start with “HTTP” in the address bar instead of “HTTPS.” Also, Chrome, Edge, Firefox, and most modern websites will alter you that the site is not secure with the “Your connection is not private” message. 

Also, avoid installing software from untrusted sources. You should only be using the Microsoft Store to download apps on Windows 11. If you install unlicensed software, you will be at a higher risk of getting the device compromised with malware and other malicious code.

Finally, you should never connect USB or external drives that you don’t own to your computer. If this is the case, you should consider using a spare computer to format the drive to make sure it’s clean of viruses.

Wrapping things up

This guide shows you many steps you can use to protect your computer against viruses and hackers. However, it’s not necessary to implement all these recommendations in most cases. You can always pick and choose the ones you consider will be most effective in your situation.

For example, if you have a device in a secure environment, you probably don’t need to configure the “dynamic lock” feature. If you don’t have a camera with support for Windows Hello Face, using a fingerprint reader or PIN should be more than enough protection. If you decide to use the built-in ransomware protection and get a lot of false positives, you may need to consider switching to another solution or disabling the feature.

Review: Protect Your Photos From Thieves By Watermarking Them With My Watermark

There is a myth on the Internet that any photo out there can be taken and used without payment and/or attribution. Make sure you are not a victim of this myth by protecting your work with My Watermark.

Some people seem to think that if they find an image they like on Google Images, then they can just take it and use it how they please. If you are the owner of that photo, being exploited like that both cheapens your work and possibly loses you licensing fees. So the solution is to watermark the image, to make it obvious that the image is yours. My Watermark is a portable application that helps you do this quickly and easily.

My Watermark is a small portable application which you can place inside your Dropbox folder or on a USB stick. When you start it up, its first drawback becomes immediately evident–the app is donationware, which in this case means it’s free to use, but for as long as you don’t donate a minimum of $10, you are going to see a nag screen every time you start the app up, and every photo you watermark with this app for will have the developer’s website URL on it.

If you find this app useful, and you think you are going to use it often, then just donate the $10. It will entitle you to use all of the developer’s other software on his site too. So it may end up becoming a good deal for you. If you refuse on principle to pay money for software, you will have to learn to live with the website URL on your photos–or find another similar program such as TSR Watermark.

When loading photos into My Watermark, you have to load the folder where the picture or pictures are located. The app will then begin to generate thumbnails for each picture. The app claims this will speed things up, but I found that, while generating those thumbnails, the app was extremely slow and unresponsive, therefore frustrating to use. So if you have a lot of images in the target directory, it may be better to go off and make a cup of coffee while they all load.

Once they have loaded, you will then see that you have various options open to you. First, you need to type the text that you want as your watermark (such as your name). Then, you can specify the position of the watermark, the font, the color, and most importantly, the transparency. I have found that it is much better to have a softer looking watermark with a bigger transparency, so the picture itself is not ruined. But everyone will have their own tastes and the program allow you tweak these to your liking.

Once the watermark has been made to your satisfaction, have it made and copied to your computer.

As you can see above, the watermark is really good quality, although you can’t use images instead of text. The process is so painless that if you don’t like the watermark, you can just go back in and redo it in a couple of minutes.

Despite the initial speed issues and the nag screen getting you to cough up some cash, this is a nice little app that could end up paying for itself, when opportunistic people are discouraged from stealing your pictures and conveniently forgetting to pay you.

Note: The Download button on the Product Information page will download the software to your system.

How To Survive A Nuclear Attack (With Pictures)


Seek shelter immediately. Aside from the geopolitical warning signs, your first warnings of an imminent nuclear attack will most likely be an alarm or warning signal; if not, it will be the blast itself. The bright light from a detonation of a nuclear weapon can be seen tens of miles away from ground zero. If within the vicinity of the blast (or ground zero), your chances of survival are virtually nonexistent unless you are in a shelter that provides a very (VERY) good blast protection. If you are a few miles out, you will have about 10-15 seconds until the heat wave hits you, and maybe 20-30 seconds until the shock wave does. Under no circumstances should you look directly at the fireball. On a clear day, this can cause temporary blindness at very large distances. However, the actual damage radius is highly variable depending on the size of the bomb, the altitude of the explosion, and even the weather conditions at the time of the blast.

If you can’t find shelter, seek a depressed area nearby and lay face down, exposing as little skin as possible. If there is no shelter of this kind, dig as fast as possible. Even around 8 kilometers (5 miles) you will suffer third degree thermal-burns; still at 32 kilometers (20 miles) the heat can burn the skin off your body. The wind itself will peak at around 960 kilometers per hour (600mph) and will level anything or anybody caught in the open.

Failing the above options, get indoors, if, and only if, you can be sure that the building will not suffer significant blast and heat damage. This will, at least, provide some protection against radiation. Whether this will be a viable option depends on the construction of the building and how close you will be to the likely ground zero of a nuclear strike. Stay well away from any windows, preferably in a room without one; even if the building does not suffer substantial damage, a nuclear explosion will blow out windows at enormous distances. For an example, one (albeit abnormally large) nuclear test in the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in Russia was known to knock out windows in Finland and Sweden.

Don’t be surrounded by anything flammable or combustible. Substances like nylon or any oil based material will ignite from the heat.

Aside from the geopolitical warning signs, your first warnings of an imminent nuclear attack will most likely be an alarm or warning signal; if not, it will be the blast itself. The bright light from a detonation of a nuclear weapon can be seen tens of miles away from ground zero. If within the vicinity of the blast (or ground zero), your chances of survival are virtually nonexistent unless you are in a shelter that provides a very (VERY) good blast protection. If you are a few miles out, you will have about 10-15 seconds until the heat wave hits you, and maybe 20-30 seconds until the shock wave chúng tôi a clear day, this can cause temporary blindness at very large distances.However, the actual damage radius is highly variable depending on the size of the bomb, the altitude of the explosion, and even the weather conditions at the time of the blast.

Ai Conversational System In Attack Surface Areas And Effective Defense Techniques

Conversational AI security risks

Automated conversation systems are particularly susceptible to assaults because they cannot distinguish between talks created by humans and machines. Additionally, because these systems are based on AI/ML, they inherit the greater security weaknesses of AI systems. Conversational systems leverage NLP as an interface layer to facilitate effective interactions with end users, adding a new threat vector to the dangers already present in ML systems.

1. Infected data

As a conversational system is based on AI/ML and is reliant on data, it might malfunction if the data is corrupted. AI systems learn how to do a task via data collected from a variety of sources. If the data are contaminated, the conversational system will also be contaminated, which will lead to poor judgments being made. Let’s use an illustration to better understand: A misclassification of product suggestions by an attacker might have a machine-direct effect on revenue. Based on the categorized suggestions, a product might receive a better rating from a machine, but people would view it differently.

2. Adversarial attack

The attackers trick the machine learning system into making inaccurate predictions by introducing malicious inputs. A lot of antagonistic assaults have been reported in the past. One demonstrated that it is feasible to 3D-print a toy turtle with a texture that allows Google’s object identification AI to label it as a rifle, independent of the perspective from which the turtle is photographed.

3. Fake Requests to the system

The AI system is growing so sophisticated that these assaults are becoming quite simple to carry out. Attackers can simply imitate fraudulent requests and transactions utilizing cloud infrastructure and AI that mimics human behavior.

For instance, attackers frequently email fake complaints, product queries, or purchase orders using a bot. This would ensure that legitimate requests are also lost, which would result in a loss of money.

4. Evil bot

Another issue has arisen as a result of the use of chatbots in hacking. Competition between firms is increasing by the day, ato to undermine the opponent’s image in the industry, one may resort to utilizing a chatbot (better known as an “evil bot”).

5. Phishing attacks

Email and text message campaigns used in phishing scams, one of the most prevalent types of social engineering assaults, are created to arouse victims’ curiosity, anxiety, or urgency. Then it prompts users to divulge private information, access risky websites, or download malicious files.

For instance, an email is sent to online service users warning them of a policy violation that requires immediate action on their part, such as a password change.

Effective Defence Technique 1. End-to-end Encryption

Encryption is the process of transforming a communication into one that only the sender and recipient can decrypt and read. This prevents any portion of the delivered communication from being seen by anybody else. This is unquestionably one of the most effective ways to ensure Chatbot security and is being frequently used by chatbot creators.

It’s a crucial component of messaging systems like WhatsApp, and major internet companies have worked hard to ensure its security despite of opposition from national governments.

2. Authentication

This method is used to control access to those who are “really permitted.” When logging in, users are required to enter a password and unique identification number. OTP (One Time Password) requests are another addition that users must now make.

This guarantees that no one is attempting to access someone else’s account. Each user and employee through a similar authentication process can guarantee chatbot security. Authentication timeout and biometric authentication are other types of authorization.

3. Authentication Timeout

An added layer of protection is provided throughout the authentication process by a ticking clock. Verification tokens in this situation have a time restriction on their validity. When a user tries to get access, a time-sensitive code is delivered to his or her phone number or email address. When the token expires, the access is terminated. The requirement for several tries to get access to the data is eliminated by this strategy.

4. API Security

It provides an additional layer of defense. Users can use this functionality to send data only to IP addresses that have been white-listed. The IP addresses used to access the APIs will also be shown. If API security is enabled and a user attempts to send an SMS from a different IP address, an error will be displayed.

5. Secure Protocols

The HTTPS protocol is always used by default in security systems. Your data is protected from vulnerabilities and many forms of cyber-attacks if it is sent via the HTTPS protocol and encrypted connections, TLS, and SSL.


AI and conversational AI are both a blessing and a scourge in the digital age. Both security and system hacking are possible with its help. Cybersecurity will be strengthened if artificial intelligence is used more widely in industry. AI can investigate everything, although humans can only do so to a limited extent. Businesses will be able to act swiftly against customers who pose a threat if they have the capacity to do in-depth analysis.

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