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Definition of Put Options

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Like other stock options, a put option with underlying assets as stocks are traded on the stock exchanges over the counter “OTC” market. The price of the underlying asset impacts the price of the put option. So, suppose the underlying asset’s price falls. In that case, the option holder will sell off the option by exercising the right to sell and make a profit due to the difference between the strike price and the market value of the underlying asset.

In other words, we can say that the value of the put option is conversely related to the market price of the underlying asset, i.e., when the price of the underlying asset falls, the value of the put option increases, and when the price of the underlying asset rises the value of put option goes down.

How does Put Options Work?

Put options allow option holders to speculate over the downward movement of the underlying asset price. A small dip in the underlying asset price can lead to a huge profit for the put option holder. We can understand the working of the out option through the following points:

Options traders expect a decline in the underlying stock price and wish to make money.

Investors use the put option as a risk-management str, also called a protective put. Under this strategy, the put buyer ensures that the loss attached to the underlying asset does not go beyond the strike price, i.e., the price at which the put buyer would exercise the option.

The option’s value also decreases when it reaches the expiration date due to the impact of time decay. When the put option loses time value, intrinsic value is left, which is the difference between the strike price and the market value of the underlying asset.

Example of Put Option

A bearish trader purchased a put option at the strike price of $70 per share or contract, which will expire in three months. The investor expects the price to go below $70 in the three months. The current price of the stock is $90 per contract. Now, if the price goes below $70 during the contract, the trader can sell the option at $70 per share and profit from the difference between the strike price and market value.

Types of Put Options

The types of put options can categorize in different ways:

Put option as per the situation: The put option holder can experience the below three situations while exercising the option.

In-the-money: In this situation, the strike price is more than the underlying asset’s price.

At-the-money: In this situation, the strike price is equivalent to the underlying asset’s price.

Out of the money: In this situation, the underlying asset’s price is above the option’s strike price.

American Style put option: This type of put option gives its holder more flexibility because the option holder can exercise the option anytime between the purchase and expiration date.

European style put option: The flexibility of exercising the option is nonexistent in this type of put option. Traders can only exercise the put option on the expiration date.

Exchange-traded put option: These options are traded at the stock exchanges and are easily accessible to the general public.

Over-the-counter put option: These options are traded on the OTC market and are not easily accessible to the general public.

Put Options Profit/Loss Chart

From the above graph, we can clearly understand that if the stock price does not fall below $47.5, i.e., the strike price. A put option will be worthless, and the trader must bear the loss. There will be a partial loss if the price falls between $47.5 and $47.06. At $47.06, there will be no profit, no loss. And if the price falls below $47.06 at expiration, the trader will reap profit due to the difference between the strike price and the stock’s current market value.

How would Put Option Make Money?

A put option gives the trader the right to exercise or sell the option at an agreed price and date. The option holder can reap the benefit while speculating the downward movement of the pricing of the underlying stock.

In a put option, the trader makes a profit when the underlying asset’s price falls below the strike price before the expiration date. Therefore, if a trader is expecting a fall in the price of a certain underlying stock below a certain level, they can purchase the put option and make a profit from the difference between the strike price and the underlying stock’s market value.


Following are the benefits as given below:

A put option carries a limited level of risk when compared to short selling of stock.

A put option must be paid only when exercised and requires less initial capital than common stock.

They generally offer a higher percentage of return.

They have a variety of underlying assets traded under their umbrella, like stocks, currencies, commodities, bonds, etc.


Put option helps investors with limited risk appetite reap the benefit of trading in various financial instruments under one umbrella. If used diligently, it can reap a great return for its owner. To trade in options, one must understand the options market well.

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Make Money Selling Your Old Tech

The good news is, you can probably find a market for the gear you no longer want. Unloading spent gadgets can put cash in your pocket that you can reinvest toward the latest technology.

Companies shedding old electronics used to have to pay other companies to help with disposal and with legal compliance. Now, however, you have numerous options for handling the process yourself.

In addition to the broader online marketplaces of Craigslist and eBay, specialized Web-based services will pay you for, and then resell or recycle, used electronics. In many cases the amount they’ll pay for goods that are only several seasons old can amount to more than half of the initial ticket price. What’s the best way to navigate this market?

How to Sell

For the greatest resale value later, when you buy new, keep the original box, cables, and software intact. When you’re ready to give your gear a new home, polish that laptop up and send it packing with its manual enclosed.

It takes only minutes to look up a quote for an item on a reselling service’s Website and then request a prepaid shipping envelope. Within a few days you can send away the unwanted stuff and then receive the money via PayPal or a check in the mail.

What to Sell

Smartphones and laptops–particularly from Apple–tend to fetch the highest prices. Digital cameras, MP3 players, HDTVs, storage drives, and inkjet printers are among the hardest sells. If you hold on to any product for long enough that its resale value evaporates, you might as well donate it to a school, or maybe to a tech museum.

Cell Phone Recycling

You can find a plethora of phone-recycling services that pay a pretty penny for relatively new smartphones. To start, EcoSquid lets you search multiple Websites to compare offers for old handsets, and then takes a share if you make a transaction with a referred service. A number of sites specialize in iPhone recycling and trade-ins.

I found it hard on both sites to browse listings casually, however. CelltradeUSA provides a form through which you can contact other users, and charges $20 if you complete a trade. Once you list your phone and service contract, you have to wait for potential takers to reach you. I could find only one iPhone owner with an AT&T contract similar to my own, and no BlackBerry users with the equivalent. On CellSwapper, searches weren’t working after I made several attempts of seeking someone to switch early out of a 24-month contract with AT&T to new Verizon service.

Among the services that pay for old phones but don’t deal with contracts, Sell Your Cell, and Simply Sellular offered some of the highest quotes–up to $144 for a 16GB iPhone 3G, and $110 for a BlackBerry Bold 9000. (See the chart at right for more details.) If you want to sell more than phones, sites with a broader focus, such as BuyMyTronics, Gazelle, and NextWorth (more below), offered competitive price quotes.

It’s wise to wipe text messages, contacts, calendar items, and other data off a phone even if you’re sending it to a service that promises to do the same–especially when those security pledges are vaguely worded. Remote wiping is available for the iPhone with a MobileMe account, and for the BlackBerry 6 operating system. For businesses, software such as that of AirWatch can provide deeper device management.

Instant Quotes, Simple Shipping

Comparing quotes for the same products, I saw few drastic differences among the sites. A 16GB, first-generation iPod Touch would fetch $51 on Gazelle, a dollar more on BuyMyTronics, or $63 on NextWorth. The same kind of iPod in varying levels of condition was going for between $100 and $200 on Craigslist in the San Francisco Bay Area, and had sold for between $58 broken and $148 in great shape on eBay.

Price quotes showed a bigger range for larger and less-popular items. BuyMyTronics quoted $41, NextWorth quoted $66, and Gazelle quoted $95 for a 1GHz, 60GB Apple iBook G4. A Garmin Nuvi 785T GPS device, not found on BuyMyTronics, would garner $35 at Gazelle and almost $84 at NextWorth. For older, less desirable goods, such as a Canon SD400 Elph digital camera, you’d be lucky to get $10. I couldn’t find any takers for a year-old Canon inkjet or an older HP laser printer.

As for security, each service pledges to wipe data from your equipment, but the details are relatively slim.

Brett Mosley, CEO of BuyMyTronics, says his company resells tens of thousands of units–more than two-thirds of what it buys–on other sites, including Amazon and eBay. It refurbishes another 15 percent of the items it receives, and sends another 15 percent off for recycling in first-world countries.

Vendor Trade-In Programs

If you’re a brand loyalist, trading in a product through the company that made it can help you afford a same-name upgrade. Apple offers gift cards toward new purchases if you send an approved Mac or PC laptop or desktop to partner PowerON, which provides a prepaid shipping label and a box. On the other hand, recycling a PC or monitor through Apple partner WeRecycle involves paying a $30 charge.

If you’re buying a new PC from Dell, that manufacturer will take any other old computer from you for free. The quarterly Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics can tip you off to recycling options from other big electronics brands, although most don’t provide payment or credit.

Selling on Craigslist Selling on eBay

eBay users were willing to pay a range of prices for a 16GB, first-generation iPod Touch: from $56 for a broken device up to $148 for one with cosmetic wear and tear. An Apple iBook 1GHz G4 fetched between $40 and $170, depending on the condition. Don’t forget to review eBay’s fees before launching an auction.

Selling Media Items on Glyde

If you have a surplus of DVDs, CDs, video games, and books, Glyde is an up-and-coming service for selling and buying media. Unlike with eBay, users involved in a transaction don’t learn each other’s identity; and unlike with Craigslist, buyers can pay by credit card. Red Dead Redemption for the PlayStation 3, for example, is selling on Glyde for about $41, including shipping. NextWorth says it will pay $28 for the same game with normal wear and the original case. Amazon offers store credit for used games.

Selling on Amazon In-Store Programs

RadioShack accepts some equipment that other services do not, such as car stereo amplifiers, radar detectors, and mice. In exchange for a store gift card, its Trade & Save program offers prepaid shipping of phones, GPS devices, cameras and camcorders, gaming consoles, games, and MP3 players.

The TechForward program at RadioShack, Office Depot, and online via Tiger Direct and CompUSA stores offers a resale program of sorts for consumers who upgrade frequently. You buy a TechForward plan at the time of a new product purchase. Six months later, you can return the product and receive half of its initial price, which you can use toward a newer model.

Printer-Cartridge Recycling

Makers of printers increasingly offer free mail-in recycling for empty ink cartridges, but you can earn back some of the fortune you lost buying printer consumables. Staples stores offer modest coupons for bringing in spent ink cartridges.

Donate Gear for a Tax Break

Giving away tech for resale through a group such as Goodwill can result in tax deductions for charitable contributions, with the side benefit of enhanced community relations. The nonprofit TechSoup has information on giving equipment to other nonprofits.


Businesses must take extra steps to ensure that their getting rid of old gear complies with the law. In some municipalities you can be fined for tossing electronics into Dumpsters. The federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act makes it illegal to carelessly dispose of goods containing hazardous materials, such as lead-laced CRT monitors. Electronics make up 2 percent of municipal waste and are the fastest-growing portion of the waste stream, according to the Environmental Protection Agency.

Saying good-bye to old computers and hard drives isn’t just about getting rid of the equipment, but also clearing the data they store. Companies dealing with sensitive financial information have to consider the Sarbanes-Oxley and Gramm-Leach-Bliley acts. Those who work in healthcare must follow HIPAA regulations.

Responsible Recycling

There’s no law against shipping electronics overseas to developing nations for unsafe recycling–and that’s a problem. Just because you’re selling electronics to a willing buyer doesn’t mean that the product will wind up disassembled in a way that doesn’t pollute or harm workers.

“Typically cell phones have a better reuse and recycling market than computers do,” says Sheila Davis, executive director of the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. And companies reselling phones to developing nations are usually doing the right thing environmentally.

Only 10 percent of obsolete computers, however, are recycled according to high human-rights and ecological standards.

Only recyclers certified through the Basel Action Network’s e-Stewards program are certified not to ship equipment overseas for unsafe labor, not to use prison labor, and not to incinerate items.

Follow Elsa Wenzel and TechAudit on Twitter.

I Regret Buying The Switch Lite And You Probably Will, Too

I regret buying the Switch Lite and you probably will, too

I’m a Nintendo Switch Lite owner and I have buyer’s remorse. It’s not that the Switch isn’t a great console, because it absolutely is. In fact, the console is so much better than I’d anticipated that I can’t ignore everything I’m missing out on. I love the Switch but I regret buying the Lite, and you probably will, too.

GameStop only had the Switch Lite in stock and I didn’t feel like driving across town in search of its larger sibling, so the choice was quickly made and soon lamented.

I loved the Switch Lite and don’t get me wrong, I still love it. But. But. In retrospect, I wish I had bought the main console for the extra features it offers, the ones I didn’t expect to want but that I now desperately need. The removable Joycons are great, but even better is the ability to play your games on the big screen — two features the Lite totally lacks.

There are some other good reasons to pick up the Switch rather than the Switch light — it has a larger 6.2″ display rather than the smaller 5.5″ offering, for example. The Switch Lite can only play games that support handheld mode without requiring the user to wirelessly connect a separate controller. As well, the Switch has an IR motion camera and HD Rumble whereas the Lite does not.

Some games run perfectly on the Switch, but are too visually complicated to play on the small screen — the small details are lost in the chaos and it gets frustrating trying to keep track of everything. That’s not a big deal for Switch owners, of course, as they can drop the console into its dock and fire up the game on the big screen. But try to play DOOM on the Lite and you’ll soon rage quit.

The other key loss is the ability to play with other people, something I didn’t anticipate wanting to do initially — I have a PS5, after all, and that could fit the bill. But whereas the PS5 is massive, the Switch is incredibly portable and there’s something special about being able to bring a small device with you, then fire it up on the big screen for an impromptu round of Super Smash Bros.

The simple fact is, the original Nintendo Switch can do everything the Lite can, but the Lite is a stripped down compromise to save $100. The savings aren’t worth it in the long-run — if you own a Switch, you’re already prepared to spend generously on games, and saving that extra money by going for the Lite instead of the original console seems to make less sense the first time you drop $50 on a single game.

I still own the Switch Lite and I still love it. But every time my eyes feel strained and I long to see Stardew Valley on the big 60″ TV, I’m reminded of the fact that saving $100 wasn’t worth it. I’ll eventually swap the Lite for the original Switch and regret nothing.

Monitor Buying Guide: How To Choose Your Next Display

If you want a quick, easy recommendation: Go for a 24-inch monitor with 1080p resolution or a 27-inch monitor with 1440p resolution. An IPS panel is preferable, though VA is also good. Gamers can spend a little more to snag either option with a 144Hz refresh rate, which offers a smoother and more responsive experience. For more concrete recommendations, be sure to check out our roundups of the best monitors overall, the best gaming monitors, and the best 4K monitors. We also have more specialized guides to the best USB-C monitors, the best monitors for graphic design, and the best monitors for programing. Our picks are the result of hundreds of hours spent testing the latest monitors from Acer, Asus, BenQ, Dell, LG, Samsung, and other major brands.

Not sure that’s right for you, or want to know more about the tech? Here’s the lay of the land.

Monitor types: TN, IPS, VA, and OLED panels

An eco-friendly monitor on a budget

Acer Vero BR277

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The technology behind monitors is complex but well understood. There’s just a handful of major “monitor types” available, each defined by the LCD panel technology used. Nearly all monitors available today fall into these groups.

Monitor manufacturers will list panel type in a monitor’s specifications, but you may have to dig a bit to find it. Take the extra time to find out. Panel type can tell you a lot about a monitor.

In-Plane Switching (IPS)

IPS rules the world of computer monitors. A typical IPS monitor is bright and crisp, with good sharpness and great viewing angles. Color performance ranges from acceptable to truly spectacular. Modern IPS monitors can support fast pixel response times and high refresh rates, which is good news for gamers.

IPS monitors have disappointing contrast and black levels, however, which can make them appear hazy when viewing dark images. This is most noticeable in a dark room.

Vertical Alignment (VA)

Increasingly popular, VA monitors are as bright and colorful as their IPS counterparts and have a better contrast ratio and darker black levels, which improves overall image quality. VA monitors designed for gaming can offer excellent motion clarity, and Samsung’s best VA panel monitors are particularly crisp.

Viewing angles are more limited, however, so the VA monitor image quality can degrade if not viewed straight-on. IPS monitors also have better motion clarity at most price points.

the best budget monitor for graphic design

NZXT Canvas 27Q

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Twisted Nematic (TN) technology

TN panels are known for being inexpensive to make. They also have very quick pixel response times, which improves motion clarity.

Unfortunately, TN has limitations in contrast and color performance that make it unattractive, so I can only recommend TN to extremely hardcore gamers. BenQ’s Zowie line is a good choice for those on the “path to pro.”

Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

OLED isn’t based on LCD technology at all. It instead uses organic pixel elements that emit their own light (a trait often referred to as “self emissive”). OLED is the king of contrast and black levels, since an OLED pixel that’s turned off emits no light at all. OLED generally beats other panel types in color performance and also has best-in-class motion clarity. Viewing angles are great, too.

OLED panels aren’t as bright as the competition at the top end, and OLED can suffer permanent image retention over time (though this takes many thousands of hours). The technology is also very expensive in PC monitors.

So…what’s the best monitor type?

OLED wins out on image quality, but high pricing and limited availability mean I can’t recommend it for everyone. It’s too expensive and too hard to find.

That leaves IPS with the crown for most people, though a VA panel monitor could be a better choice if you don’t view from an angle and want improved image quality in movies and TV shows.

A note about Mini-LED

Matt Smith/IDG

A handful of monitors are now available with Mini-LED technology. This is a backlight technology, not a panel technology, but still important.

Mini-LED uses an array of independent LED lighting zones behind the display panel to precisely control the backlight. In my testing, a Mini-LED monitor can offer a 300 to 600 percent improvement in contrast when compared to similar monitors that lack Mini-LED. It’s extremely noticeable.

You’ll find Mini-LED available with both IPS and VA monitor types. The traits of each panel type still otherwise apply. OLED is not used with Mini-LED because the panel creates its own light, making a backlight unnecessary.

Mini-LED has a few flaws. The backlight zones can cause bright halos to appear around objects, an issue known as blooming. It’s most noticeable in a dark room. It’s also expensive to make, so you’ll only find Mini-LED in premium monitors.

The number of Mini-LED lighting zones matters. A basic Mini-LED monitor like the Sony InZone offers 96, while the extravagant and awesome Asus ROG Swift PG32UQX has 1,152. More zones means better overall contrast and less blooming.

Monitor size: Pick what feels comfortable to you

A 4K HDR display with a smart TV built-in

Samsung M8 Smart Monitor

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Most monitors consist of a 24-inch, 27-inch, or 32-inch widescreen panel. It’s easy to assume bigger is better, but it’s also important how a display fits within a person’s field of view. This means all parts of the display are visible without eye strain or head movement.

Still, monitor size is very much a matter of personal preference. I tend to like smaller displays that don’t take up too much desk space and can be used easily in a multi-monitor setup. Others may like one big display that takes up the entire desk.

Monitor resolution: 1080p is common, but 4K is obtainable

Most budget monitors have a native resolution of 1080p (1920×1080). This is okay for 24-inch monitors, but the lack of sharpness becomes obvious on larger displays.

27-inch and 32-inch models are better at 1440p (2560×1440) resolution. Most people will notice the increase in sharpness even when browsing the web. It’s a great resolution for gaming as well, though PlayStation fans be warned: the PS4 and PS5 don’t support this resolution.

4K (3840×2160) is ideal for larger monitors. It’s also a great upgrade for 27-inch and 32-inch monitors. The added sharpness isn’t a must-have, but it’s noticeable, especially if you like to use a small font size on your monitor. Games and 4K movies will look razor-sharp.

Pricing is a consideration. Lower resolutions mean lower pricing, which is why 1080p remains so popular. The gap has narrowed in recent years, however, with 4K monitors now starting just below $300.

What about ultrawide monitors?

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Alienware AW3423DW

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Ultrawide monitors, which have a 21:9 aspect ratio, are widely available. A 34-inch ultrawide is about as tall as a 27-inch widescreen but seven inches wider. This works out to a 25 percent larger display overall.

This is excellent for people who want more display space but don’t want the hassle of a multi-monitor setup. Ultrawides are awesome for games and movies, too, providing an immersive experience. You’ll pay more for an ultrawide, with quality models starting around $400.

Intrigued? Our guide to ultrawide monitors lists all the perks.

Monitor refresh rate: To 144Hz, and beyond!

Top-tier gaming on a 1080p monitor

Acer Nitro XV272

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A monitor’s refresh rate is the number of times it can update the display’s image each second. Most monitors have a 60Hz refresh rate, but some have a 144Hz, 240Hz, or 360Hz refresh rate, with 500Hz models on the way.

Higher refresh rates look smoother when images are in motion. It also lowers input lag because a new image appears on the display more frequently. The benefits improve as refresh rates go up, though the differences may become more difficult to notice.

Those who don’t care about gaming can safely stick to 60Hz, while most gamers will appreciate the upgrade to 144Hz. Refresh rates beyond that are smoother but an optional luxury rather than a must-have.

Adaptive sync: Common and useful

Adaptive Sync can synchronize a PC’s video output with the refresh rate of a display. This offers perfect frame pacing with no hitches, hesitations, or screen tearing (so long as the PC’s hardware is up to the task at hand, at least). Adaptive Sync is a must-have feature for PC gamers, but it’s common even on budget monitors meant for productivity and office work.

AMD FreeSync and Nvidia G-Sync are common standards. They’re designed to work with each company’s respective video cards, so it’s important to pay attention to which standards a monitor supports. There’s also a third-party standard called VESA AdaptiveSync. AMD, Intel, and Nvidia all support VESA AdaptiveSync in their latest graphics solutions, though functionality may be more limited than using the company’s in-house standard.

Though mostly for gaming, Adaptive Sync is common and has no real price premium attached to it. It’s an easy feature to recommend.

Monitor ergonomics: Adjustable stands rule

Monitors ship with a variety of stands ranging from fixed plastic bases with no adjustment to complex monitor arms that can hold a monitor at almost any angle and orientation.

I recommend a stand that at least adjusts for height and tilt. This will let you find a comfortable viewing angle. If the monitor is a second display, look for swivel (which adjusts the angle horizontally) and pivot (which can rotate the monitor 90 degrees). 

Look for monitors that have a 100x100mm VESA mount. This will let you add a third-party monitor stand or arm later. Most monitors sold today have this—but some budget models don’t.

Monitor HDR: It’s (usually) a trap

A big, brilliant monitor that’s held back by HDR

Dell G3223D

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The key is a “great HDR display,” and…most monitors aren’t that. HDR support merely means a monitor can accept and display an HDR signal. It promises nothing about the quality of the experience which, in most cases, is not good.

If you do want great HDR, look for a monitor with OLED or Mini-LED technology. These can deliver the range of contrast and color performance needed to make HDR truly stand out. Both are expensive, putting quality HDR out of reach for most people.

Already have an HDR monitor, or plan to buy one? Our guide to HDR on Windows will help you get started.

Monitor features: Speakers are nice, but look for USB-C

A winning debut for an IPS Black monitor (with usb-C)

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Most monitors don’t offer many added features that stand out from competitors. Some have speakers. Many don’t. A few models offer a remote control. Still, most monitors are similar.

USB-C is the one key exception. A monitor with USB-C can charge a connected device, such as a laptop, or be used to extend connectivity like a USB-C hub. I’ve detailed the many perks of USB-C in another guide.

Monitor shopping tips: Pricing matters

A monitor’s price is by far the most important single factor when shopping for a monitor.

Perhaps this seems obvious, but it’s more true of monitors than most consumer tech. Monitor pricing sees huge swings based on availability and sales events.

LG’s 27GL850-B is a great example. The chúng tôi price of this monitor swung between a high of $496.99 and a low of $299.99 in just three months between April 1, 2023 and June 30, 2023.

This pattern plays out across the entire monitor market, so it’s important to compare sales before buying. Shopping at one retailer could mean overpaying by hundreds.

How to buy a monitor: A recap

An affordable monitor for every occasion

Acer K242HYL

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I’ve tried to keep this monitor buying guide direct and to the point, but I’ll admit it can still be a lot to take in. Here’s a summary of what most people should look for.

Monitor type: IPS is the market leader, though VA is also good. OLED is spectacular but expensive. Avoid TN.

Monitor size: A 27-inch monitor is the go-to choice. Go bigger if you prefer.

Monitor resolution: 1440p is recommended, 4K is a nice upgrade.

Monitor refresh rate: 60Hz is fine for productivity, but 144Hz is awesome in games.

Monitor adaptive sync: It’s a must-have for gamers.

Monitor stand: Look for height and tilt adjustment, plus VESA mount support.

Monitor HDR: Only essential in Mini-LED and OLED monitors.

Monitor features: Look for USB-C if you want to use the monitor as a USB-C hub.

Ready to go even deeper? Once again, be sure to check out our roundups of the best monitors overall, the best gaming monitors, and the best 4K monitors. Our picks are the result of hundreds of hours spent testing the latest monitors from Acer, Asus, BenQ, Dell, LG, Samsung, and other major brands.

Understanding Advanced Data Modeling And How To Create The Right Relationships

After having an extensive discussion about the query editor, it’s time to move all that data into a Power BI report through data modeling. You may watch the full video of this tutorial at the bottom of this blog.

Data modeling allows you to connect different data tables in your Power BI report by creating relationships between them.

My core data model consists of all the tables I fixed in the query editor. This includes my Customers table, Locations table, Products table, etc.

Of course, this doesn’t mean that I won’t be going back into the query editor once I start working on data modeling. I would definitely be coming back into it a lot, especially if I need to make additional transformations or if I need to bring in new data depending on what my reports require.

The process of applying the queries into my Power BI model might take some time, depending on the amount of data I have.

But once the application is done, I’m going to end up on a fresh canvas where I can start creating my analysis.

Some people may jump straight into this part. But what I usually do is check the relationships built around the data I worked on when I was in the query editor.

This is the modeling area, which I can access through this particular icon here.

If you have no Power BI experience and were previously working on Excel, this will be completely unfamiliar to you. It’s important that you understand this part because it is crucial in developing anything within Power BI.

This is where I can make sure that the relationships across my data are set up in an optimal manner. Otherwise, it will be harder to get any calculation or analysis done correctly.

The relationships are represented by these lines and arrows running across the data tables.

Power BI normally guesses the relationships among the different tables automatically. Unfortunately, Power BI gets this part wrong most of the time.

So I usually start off by deleting these existing relationships, especially when I’m 100% unsure if the default relationships Power BI has placed make sense.

In Excel, you would normally have one huge file with hundreds of columns. But data modeling within Power BI is different.

Here, for example, I have a core set of information, and then I have separate supporting tables that have filtering information within them. So I end up with different tables with different data groups in each one.

This is the critical part in data modeling – identifying whether each table is a lookup table or a fact table. It’s important to understand what these two types of tables do so that you can understand what kind of relationships you can draw through them.

A fact table carries all the transactions, like in this sales table.

On the other hand, a lookup table carries filtering information.

Once I’ve identified where my tables belong, I organize them. I like lining up my lookup tables here on top in a single row.

As for my fact table, I like putting it below.

Of course, some people might do it differently. But this is the best practice I want to share because I have a philosophy of keeping things as simple as possible.

I layer these tables like this because I want to visualize how the relationships go. I call this a waterfall of filters. This way, I have my lookup tables on top sending filtering information down into the raw data that I’m working with.

This is very basic stuff, but it’s crucial that you master this because it can make or break your calculations later on.

Understanding the basics of data modeling helps you make sure you’re getting the right results in your reports. It will save you the frustration of trying to find the root cause of errors that might result from the wrong relationships.

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Top Network Security Certifications And How To Choose The Right One

Network security is the foundation for protecting a company from the assaults of malicious hackers and other behavior that might occur online. Given the forecasts that cybercrime will cost the global economy $6 trillion by 2023, it is not difficult to see why network security has become such a hot subject in recent years. On the other hand, there is an overwhelming number of credentials for cybersecurity, which is to be anticipated given the vast number of different types of assaults.

Even though it is helpful to have a broad selection of alternatives to select from when it comes to cybersecurity problems, the sheer quantity and diversity of these choices can make it tough to navigate. Because there are so many options, settling on a selection will prove challenging. What kinds of credentials are considered to be the most essential when it comes to the protection of a computer network? Which one (or ones) are going to be the best fit for the needs that your organization has? Is there a certification in cyber security that is of the highest level and can be used in any environment?

Network Security

The latter can take the form of either staff being informed on best security procedures or trained specialists handling network security.

Best Network Security Certificates

You’ll need to acquire the necessary knowledge and experience in network security before you can expect to earn a high salary in the industry. This is when learning how to protect a network comes in handy. A course in network security certification will provide you with the foundational knowledge necessary for these roles and a certificate that you can show to potential employers.

Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH)

IT security specialists with the job description of trying to get into systems to identify flaws are sometimes called “white hat hackers.” They are hired by businesses and organizations to identify security flaws and provide mitigation strategies. It’s hardly surprising that this credential is in high demand, given the growing significance of cybersecurity.

CISSP stands for “Certified Information Systems Security Professional.”

This credential is intended for seasoned security experts who oversee the creation and implementation of an organization’s security practices, policies, and standards. IT security experts looking to further their careers will find this book indispensable.

Certification for Information Systems Managers (CISM)

This certification is a must-have if you work in IT and are responsible for managing security at the corporate level. In addition to developing corporate best practices, they collect, create, and supervise security systems.

Expert in Cloud Security (CCSP)

As more and more businesses move their operations to the cloud, this qualification has become increasingly desirable. IS and IT experts who are interested in applying industry standards to their work in cloud security architecture, design, operations, and service orchestration are the intended audiences for this training. This is required if you plan on utilizing cloud-based resources.

CISA” stands for “Certified Information Systems Auditor,

IT specialists whose expertise is mainly in auditing, quality assurance, and security would benefit most from this qualification. It teaches you how to manage and oversee enterprise IT systems and conduct a thorough security review.

COBIT 5 Certification Training

Obtaining Your COBIT 5 Certification Professionals in IT auditing, development, management, and leadership may all benefit from this certification in training. Using cutting-edge ideas and theories in corporate governance, COBIT 5 increases the worth of data. Trust in and appreciation for information systems are both boosted by this accreditation, which includes management practices and supplies universally accepted concepts, procedures, and analytical tools and models.

CompTIA Security+ How to Choose the Right Certificate

One of the best ways to show that your knowledge and abilities in the field of cybersecurity are respected and valued by employers is to get certified. When deciding on a credential, take these factors into account.

Step 1 According to your degree of expertise − First, get a credential that validates your expertise. By obtaining a certification, you are confident you can set yourself up for future success when attempting more challenging exams. If you’re starting in the field of information technology, it is helpful to familiarise yourself with some of the most basic certifications available.

Cost The certification process can cost several hundred dollars, not counting renewal fees. It’s crucial to make a well-informed decision when investing in certification because doing so might result in more excellent career opportunities or higher income.

Step 2 Focus − A more general certification may be preferable if you are starting in cybersecurity or aiming for a managerial position. You may reach a point in your job where you want to focus on one particular area. Employers will recognize your expertise more highly if you have earned a certification in your field of study.

Step 3 Possible Employers − Do some research on companies you’re interested in working for (or job titles you’re interested in applying for) to get a feel for the typical credentials they want from prospective employees.

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