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What is SAP PI?

SAP PI (Process Integration) is an enterprise integration platform that provides seamless integration between SAP and non-SAP applications within the organization A2A (Application to Application) or even outside the organization B2B (Business to Business). It allows organizations to exchange information between internal softwares within the company and external systems outside the company.

The SAP PI full form is Process Integration.

What is SAP PO?

The SAP PO full form is Process Orchestration.

Understanding SAP PI/PO with an Example


SAP PI connects different platforms like

SAP and Non-SAP systems

B2B and A2A Scenarios

Asynchronous and Synchronous Communications

Cross-component business process management

In this SAP PI/PO tutorial, we will learn


Prior to SAP PI, business would connect with each other through point-to-point communication. But this process is not used for multiple and complex processes. For smooth communication between multiple businesses, Mediated communication or Integration broker is used, and SAP PI adapts this system very well. It enables interconnection of a different process via a central location known as Integration Broker, unlike the point to point connection which is more like a spider web. The integration broker or server is an integral part of mediated communication consist of Java based Advanced Adapter Engine (AAE) and an integration engine for routing. Mediated communication is based on an integration broker which is executed by exchanging XML messages.

SAP PI PO Overview

Let see how SAP PI handles the XML messages by the help of Integration Broker. The exchange of data or message in SAP PI occurs in this four phases.

Message Transformation: During message exchange, it transforms the structure of the business data

Message Routing: Forwarding a message sent by a sender system to one or more receiver systems

Connectivity Adapters: Connecting the integration broker and receiver system, the adapter will transform the incoming message into an inbound message and later convert it to the format of the receiving system at the other end

Integration Processes: Cross component Business Process Management (ccBPM) consists of functions for enhanced service orchestration.

Next in this SAP PI tutorial, we will learn How SAP PI/PO works.

How SAP PI/PO works

SAP PI performs three basic functions

Connect: SAP PI has an ability to integrate with all application regardless of whether it is an application from a 3rd party or from the SAP. It uses the adapter framework to integrate 3rd party solutions.

Co-ordinate: It can define a path/workflow for each business transaction that is integrated. It ensures that each message is correctly delivered from the source to the target destination

Communicate: It can translate files into any format whether an internal file format or any business to business integration standard.

Next in this SAP PO tutorial, we will learn about SAP PI PO architecture.

SAP PI/PO Architecture

SAP PI/PO Architecture

SAP PI is not a single component responsible for the integration of SAP and Non- SAP application, but it is a cluster of components that together make SAP PI functional. This architecture of SAP PI or components is used during design time, configuration time and at run time. The various components of SAP PI include

System Landscape Directory:

It is a central information provider in a system landscape. SLD contains two types of information, “Component Information (Installable & Installed) and Landscape description.”

Integration Builder:

It is a tool-set which contains a set of tools for accessing and editing integration objects

Integration Repository:

To develop, design and maintain data types, message structures, mappings, interfaces, integration processes and integration scenarios independently of system landscape, integration repository is used.

Integration Server:

It is a central processing engine of the PI. All messages are processed using this server.

Central Monitoring:

With the help of this monitoring of PI domain is done, and “workbench” is the tool that is used for monitoring.

Adapter Engine:

It acts as a connector to connect the integration engine to SAP systems and other systems.

Message Processing Technique by PI:

To access data from SAP and Non-SAP application this technique is used. SAP PI uses an intermediate document like IDoc to Flat files to transfer their data.


Process Integration (PI) uses integration repository to design message structure


Integration Directory (ID) is used to configure technical parameters for objects created in IR ( Integration Repository)

Message Processing:

Once the IDOC is activated in SAP system, PI takes in charge and convert messages into XML format for its internal processing

Message Monitoring:

The messages can be monitored and traced using “Run Time Workbench”. This tool can be useful in monitoring sender and receiver adapters, Outgoing and Incoming messages, End to End monitoring of complete scenario and error traces.

Connectivity: Proxy Framework & Adapter Framework Adapter Framework:

SAP PI connects with any external systems (SAP or Non-SAP) using the Adapter Framework. The adapter framework is based on the AS Java runtime environment and the connector architecture (JCA) version. The adapter framework consists of two default module chains if message processing is to be executed entirely within the adapter, default module chain for the adapter can be used.

One for the sender direction

One for the receiver direction

There are four types of Adapters used in SAP PI

File adapters: It exchanges files with external systems

JMS adapters: It communicates with a messaging system

SOAP adapters: It communicates with providers and clients of web services

JDBC adapters: It is an extended pack for SAP PI

Other interfaces supported by adapter framework are

Configuration Services ( API and Adapter metadata xsd)

Administration Services

Various service APIs provided by Adapter framework- Thread Manager, Transaction Manager)

Adapter framework includes a message audit log API. The API can be used for the technical trace and logging to write trace statements that describes the execution of the code.

How adaptor framework works?

The data is received from the wire through a receive location that is listening for messages at certain protocol at a specified address

After the message is received by the receive location, a message is sent to the adapter. It creates a new BizTalk message, attaches the data stream to the message.

It adds any meta-data pertaining to the end-point over which the data was received and then the message is submitted to the message engine

Message engine sends the message to the receive pipeline where the data is transformed into XML, here the message sender is authenticated, a message is decrypted and the XML is validated

Next, the messaging engine published the message to the message box. The message box is a Microsoft SQL table containing messages to be processed

The messaging engine sends the message to either the orchestration or send port.

SAP PI/PO Security

For messages, SAP PI provides the message level security for XI message protocol, for the SOAP adapter, for the RosettaNet protocol, for mail adapter, for the CIDX protocol and for connectivity with WSRM (Web Service Reliable Messaging) enabled systems. In SAP PI message level security enabled through the use of encryption, digital signature, SAML Assertion, Username token, Certificate token, etc. Authentication methods supported by WS infrastructure for transport level includes basic authentication (Password and Username), SAP assertion ticket, and HTTP over SSL.

Connecting Integration Server with WSRM (Web Service Reliable Messaging) Enabled System

To connect with WSRM enabled system you use a communication channel of adapter type WS.

You use a sender agreement with an assigned WS sender adapter to connect the Integration Server to a WS consumer

You use a receiver agreement with an assigned WS receiver adapter to connect the integration server to a WS provider

Benefits of Security in SAP PI/PO

Permissions of the receiver application are checked against the original user

In the receiver system, a user can be audited

Dynamic configuration at the PI receiver channel

New Features in SAP PI/PO

The new features in SAP PI include

Centralized monitoring based on SAP solution manager.

Very large (binary) file to file transfer

IDOC ( Intermediate Document ) and HTTP adapters in AAE (Advance Adapter Engine)

User Centric perspective in the ESR

Interface and Mapping based message split on AAE

Time Out configuration per communication channel

Automated Transport for Schema Validation

Replacing Trex, user-defined message search

User Centric perspectives in the ESR

Add-on for SAP PI: Secure Connectivity add-on (SGTP Adapter, PGP module) & B2B add-ons (OFTP adapter, AS2 adapter, EDI separator, EDI XML converter etc.)

Advantages of SAP PI/PO

In comparison to any other middleware product monitoring in SAP PI is better. It offers monitoring features like a message, performance, component monitoring and so on, all of which can be used to track and rectify the errors.

SAP PI supports various SAP components which are required while integrating with SAP PI

Adapters and mappings are good as compared with any other middleware product

Asynchronous and Synchronous communication is possible

SAP PI vs. BizTalk

SAP PI BizTalk

Mostly used only by SAP customers to enable SOAP-based integration

BizTalk is completely built on .Net, certified by Microsoft and SAP to Integrate with SAP directly without the need of any middleware

ESB product designed and implemented to integrate SAP systems with Non- SAP Systems

More generalized product, ability to integrate a variety of systems including SAP and other products

SAP PI has pre-delivered message monitoring system

Not available

SAP PI can do multiple data transfer

Not available

In SAP PI automation can be manual as well as scheduled

Not available

SAP uses net weaver portal solution

BizTalk uses MS SharePoint as a portal solution

SOA architecture paradigm for SAP is eSOA ( Enterprise Service Oriented Architecture)

SOA is on basis of .NET and BizTalk

SAP PI Base Engine is priced based on the overall processed message volume expressed in Gigabytes/month. SAP PI is free to use between SAP-to-SAP

MS BizTalk server is priced based on the server capacity. It has four different version Enterprise, Standard, Branch, and Developer

When SAP PI/PO is not recommended in enterprise SOA (Service Oriented Architecture)

SAP PI is not recommended for synchronous communication as it will put a significant load on the infrastructure service for servicing asynchronous request

SAP PI is not recommended for UI driven scenarios if the backend is exposed as enterprise services

SAP PI is not needed for intermediation if a non-SAP backend like J2EE or .NET platform is exposing business services in a UI scenario

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Soap Web Services Tutorial: What Is Soap Protocol? Example

What is SOAP?

SOAP is an XML-based protocol for accessing web services over HTTP. It has some specification which could be used across all applications.

SOAP is known as the Simple Object Access Protocol, but in later times was just shortened to SOAP v1.2. SOAP is a protocol or in other words is a definition of how web services talk to each other or talk to client applications that invoke them.

SOAP was developed as an intermediate language so that applications built on various programming languages could talk easily to each other and avoid the extreme development effort.

In this SOAP Web services tutorial, you will learn-

SOAP Introduction

In today’s world, there is huge number of applications which are built on different programming languages. For example, there could be a web application designed in Java, another in .Net and another in PHP.

One of the methods used to combat this complexity is to use XML (Extensible Markup Language) as the intermediate language for exchanging data between applications.

One of the methods used to combat this complexity is to use XML (Extensible Markup Language) as the intermediate language for exchanging data between applications.

Every programming language can understand the XML markup language. Hence, XML was used as the underlying medium for data exchange.

But there are no standard specifications on use of XML across all programming languages for data exchange. That is where SOAP software comes in.

SOAP was designed to work with XML over HTTP and have some sort of specification which could be used across all applications. We will look into further details on the SOAP protocol in the subsequent chapters.

Advantages of SOAP

When developing SOAP based Web services, you need to have some of language which can be used for web services to talk with client applications. SOAP is the perfect medium which was developed in order to achieve this purpose. This protocol is also recommended by the W3C consortium which is the governing body for all web standards.

SOAP is a light-weight protocol that is used for data interchange between applications. Note the keyword ‘light.’ Since SOAP programming is based on the XML language, which itself is a light weight data interchange language, hence SOAP as a protocol that also falls in the same category.

SOAP is designed to be platform independent and is also designed to be operating system independent. So the SOAP protocol can work any programming language based applications on both Windows and Linux platform.

It works on the HTTP protocol –SOAP works on the HTTP protocol, which is the default protocol used by all web applications. Hence, there is no sort of customization which is required to run the web services built on the SOAP protocol to work on the World Wide Web.

SOAP Building Blocks

The below diagram of SOAP architecture shows the various building blocks of a SOAP Message.

SOAP Message Building Blocks

The SOAP message is nothing but a mere XML document which has the below components.

An Envelope element that identifies the XML document as a SOAP message – This is the containing part of the SOAP message and is used to encapsulate all the details in the SOAP message. This is the root element in the SOAP message.

A Header element that contains header information – The header element can contain information such as authentication credentials which can be used by the calling application. It can also contain the definition of complex types which could be used in the SOAP message. By default, the SOAP message can contain parameters which could be of simple types such as strings and numbers, but can also be a complex object type.

A simple SOAP service example of a complex type is shown below.

Suppose we wanted to send a structured data type which had a combination of a “Tutorial Name” and a “Tutorial Description,” then we would define the complex type as shown below.

A Body element that contains call and response information – This element is what contains the actual data which needs to be sent between the web service and the calling application. Below is an SOAP web service example of the SOAP body which actually works on the complex type defined in the header section. Here is the response of the Tutorial Name and Tutorial Description that is sent to the calling application which calls this web service.

SOAP Message Structure

One thing to note is that SOAP messages are normally auto-generated by the web service when it is called.

Whenever a client application calls a method in the web service, the web service will automatically generate a SOAP message which will have the necessary details of the data which will be sent from the web service to the client application.

As discussed in the previous topic of this SOAP tutorial, a simple SOAP Message has the following elements –

The Envelope element

The header element and

The body element

The Fault element (Optional)

Let’s look at an example below of a simple SOAP message and see what element actually does.

SOAP Message Structure

As seen from the above SOAP message, the first part of the SOAP message is the envelope element which is used to encapsulate the entire SOAP message.

The next element is the SOAP body which contains the details of the actual message.

Our message contains a web service which has the name of “Guru99WebService”.

The “Guru99Webservice” accepts a parameter of the type ‘int’ and has the name of TutorialID.

Now, the above SOAP message will be passed between the web service and the client application.

You can see how useful the above information is to the client application. The SOAP message tells the client application what is the name of the Web service, and also what parameters it expects and also what is the type of each parameter which is taken by the web service.

SOAP Envelope Element

The first bit of the building block is the SOAP Envelope.

The SOAP Envelope is used to encapsulate all of the necessary details of the SOAP messages, which are exchanged between the web service and the client application.

The SOAP envelope element is used to indicate the beginning and end of a SOAP message. This enables the client application which calls the web service to know when the SOAP message ends.

The following points can be noted on the SOAP envelope element.

Every SOAP message needs to have a root Envelope element. It is absolutely mandatory for SOAP message to have an envelope element.

Every Envelope element needs to have at least one soap body element.

If an Envelope element contains a header element, it must contain no more than one, and it must appear as the first child of the Envelope, before the body element.

The envelope changes when SOAP versions change.

A v1.1-compliant SOAP processor generates a fault upon receiving a message containing the v1.2 envelope namespace.

A v1.2-compliant SOAP processor generates a Version Mismatch fault if it receives a message that does not include the v1.2 envelope namespace.

Below is an SOAP API example of version 1.2 of the SOAP envelope element.

The Fault message

When a request is made to a SOAP web service, the response returned can be of either 2 forms which are a successful response or an error response. When a success is generated, the response from the server will always be a SOAP message. But if SOAP faults are generated, they are returned as “HTTP 500” errors.

The SOAP Fault message consists of the following elements.

SOAP-ENV:VersionMismatch – This is when an invalid namespace for the SOAP Envelope element is encountered.

SOAP-ENV:MustUnderstand – An immediate child element of the Header element, with the mustUnderstand attribute set to “1”, was not understood.

SOAP-ENV:Client – The message was incorrectly formed or contained incorrect information.

SOAP-ENV:Server – There was a problem with the server, so the message could not proceed.

Example for Fault Message

An example of a fault message is given below. The error is generated if the scenario wherein the client tries to use a method called TutorialID in the class GetTutorial.

The below fault message gets generated in the event that the method does not exist in the defined class.

Failed to locate method (GetTutorialID) in class (GetTutorial)


When you execute the above code, it will show the error like “Failed to locate method (GetTutorialID) in class (GetTutorial)”

SOAP Communication Model

All communication by SOAP is done via the HTTP protocol. Prior to SOAP, a lot of web services used the standard RPC (Remote Procedure Call) style for communication. This was the simplest type of communication, but it had a lot of limitations.

Now in this SOAP API tutorial, let’s consider the below diagram to see how this communication works. In this example, let’s assume the server hosts a web service which provided 2 methods as

GetEmployee – This would get all Employee details

SetEmployee – This would set the value of the details like employees dept, salary, etc. accordingly.

In the normal RPC style communication, the client would just call the methods in its request and send the required parameters to the server, and the server would then send the desired response.

The above communication model has the below serious limitations

Not Language Independent – The server hosting the methods would be in a particular programming language and normally the calls to the server would be in that programming language only.

Not the standard protocol – When a call is made to the remote procedure, the call is not carried out via the standard protocol. This was an issue since mostly all communication over the web had to be done via the HTTP protocol.

Firewalls – Since RPC calls do not go via the normal protocol, separate ports need to be open on the server to allow the client to communicate with the server. Normally all firewalls would block this sort of traffic, and a lot of configuration was generally required to ensure that this sort of communication between the client and the server would work.

To overcome all of the limitations cited above, SOAP would then use the below communication model

The client would format the information regarding the procedure call and any arguments into a SOAP message and sends it to the server as part of an HTTP request. This process of encapsulating the data into a SOAP message was known as Marshalling.

The server would then unwrap the message sent by the client, see what the client requested for and then send the appropriate response back to the client as a SOAP message. The practice of unwrapping a request sent by the client is known as Demarshalling.

Practical SOAP Example

Now in this SoapUI tutorial, let’s see a practical SOAP example,

Probably one of the best ways to see how SOAP messages get generated is to actually see a web service in action.

This topic will look at using the chúng tôi framework to build an ASMX web service. This type of web service supports both SOAP version 1.1 and version 1.2.

ASMX web services automatically generate the Web Service Definition Language (WSDL) document. This WSDL document is required by the calling client application so that the application knows what the web service is capable of doing.

In our example, we are going to create a simple web service, which will be used to return a string to the application which calls the web service.

This web service will be hosted in an chúng tôi web application. We will then invoke the web service and see the result that is returned by the web service.

Visual Studio will also show us what the SOAP message being passed between the web service and the calling application.

The first pre-requisite to setup our Web service application which can be done by following the below steps.

Please ensure that you have Visual Studio 2013 installed on your system for this example.

Step 2) In this step,

Ensure to first choose the C# web template of chúng tôi Web application. The project has to be of this type in order to create SOAP services project. By choosing this option, Visual Studio will then carry out the necessary steps to add required files which are required by any web-based application.

Give a name for your project which in our case has been given as webservice.asmx. Then ensure to give a location where the project files will be stored.

Once done you will see the project file created in your solution explorer in Visual Studio 2013.

Step 3) In this step,

We are going to add a Web service file to our project

Step 4) Add the following code to your Tutorial Service asmx file.

Code Explanation:

This line of code provides a name for your web service file. This is an important step because it gives way for the client application to call the web service via the name of the web service.

Normally a class file is used to encapsulate the functionality of a web service. So the class file will have the definition of all the web methods which will provide some functionality to the client application.

Here [WebMethod] is known as an attribute which describes a function. The subsequent step creates a function called “Guru99WebService”, but with the inclusion of this step of adding a [WebMethod] attribute makes sure that this method can be invoked by a client application. If this attribute is not in place, then the method can never be called by a client application.

Here we are defining a function called ‘Guru99WebService’ which will be used to return a string to the calling client application. This function is a web service which can be called by any client application.

We are using the return statement to return the string “This is a Guru99 Web service” to the client application.

If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


The output clearly shows that the name of our web service is “Guru99 Web Service” which is the result of giving a name for our web service.

The above output,

It clearly shows that by invoking the web method, the string “This is a Guru99 Web service” is returned.

Visual Studio also allows you to view the SOAP message request and response which is generated when the above web service is called.

The SOAP request which is generated when the web service is called is shown below.

Code Explanation:

The first part of the SOAP message is the envelope element which is what was discussed in the prior chapters. This is the encapsulating element which is present in every SOAP message.

The SOAP Body is the next element and contains the actual details of the SOAP message.

The third part is the element which specifies that we want to call the service which is called ‘Guru99WebService.’

Code Explanation:

The first part of the SOAP message is the envelope element which is what was discussed in the prior chapters. This is the encapsulating element which is present in every SOAP message.

The SOAP Body is the next element and contains the actual details of the SOAP message.

The interesting part you will see now is the ‘string’ attribute. This tells the client application that the web service being called returns an object of the type string. This is very useful because if the client application which otherwise would not know what the web service returns.


SOAP is a protocol which is used to interchange data between applications which are built on different programming languages.

SOAP is built upon the XML specification and works with the HTTP protocol. This makes it a perfect for usage within web applications.

The SOAP building blocks consist of a SOAP Message. Each SOAP message consists of an envelope element, a header, and a body element.

The envelope element is the mandatory element in the SOAP message and is used to encapsulate all of the data in the SOAP message.

The header element can be used to contain information such as authentication information or the definition of complex data types.

The body element is the main element which contains the definition of the web methods along with any parameter information if required.

What Is Dism Host Servicing Process? How To Fix High Cpu Usage

DISM Host Servicing Process High Disk, CPU, and Memory usage mainly happen when your PC is infected by malware. Viruses could disguise as this system process and replicate themselves while consuming a large amount of resources.

Dismhost.exe folders sometimes keep appearing in large numbers in the temp folder. Aside from malware, this can also happen because of errors with Windows maintenance tasks like scheduled Disk Cleanups or Windows Defender scans.

DISM (Deployment Image Servicing and Management) is a command-line tool for configuring Windows image (.wim) files, Full-flash utility (FFU) files, or virtual hard disks (VHD). chúng tôi is the executable file while it’s called DISM Host Servicing Process when it runs as a background process.

Its most commonly used to prepare images for Windows PE (Preinstallation Environment), WinRE (Windows Recovery Environment), and Windows Setup. In English, this means it’s used to enable/disable Windows Services and repair system errors.

DISM has been built-in with Windows since Vista. It is available through the command line or from Windows PowerShell. DISM commands can be used on offline images, while some can also be used on a running operating system.

If DISM Host Servicing Process is using high CPU, Memory, or Disk usage, it’s either malfunctioning or infected with malware. In such cases, you can force quit this process via Task Manager.

In the case of malware, it’s likely Dism will keep returning no matter how many times you quit or delete it. Read our guide to figure out how to fix Dism Host Servicing Process issues at their root.

The first step to fixing DISM Host Servicing Process issues is to use an Antivirus or Windows Defender and scan for malware. High CPU, Memory, and Disk usage by this process are usually caused because of viruses.

If no malware is detected, you should scan and repair system files and perform a clean boot. You can see detailed steps for these and other solutions below.

Malware often disguises itself as system or application files by taking their name and replicating itself. Navigate to C:WindowsTemp and C:UsersYourUsernameHereappdatalocaltemp and look for files named DismHost.exe.

Large numbers of chúng tôi files in these locations suggest that your PC may be infected. You should scan your PC for viruses using an Antivirus or Windows Defender. The exact steps will slightly differ for every antivirus. The steps for Windows Defender are as follows:

Press Windows + I to launch Settings.

Open Update and Security.

Press Scan Now.

The System File Checker is a built-in utility that scans for and repairs any corrupt or missing system files. It’s normally used with DISM and CHKDSK to find and repair system errors. But it can also help fix DismHost issues. To use it:

Press Windows + R to launch Run.

Type cmd and press CTRL + Shift + Enter to launch Elevated Command Prompt.

The scan typically takes 5-10 minutes. Once it’s complete, check if the issue is resolved.

A clean boot is similar to Safe Mode, except you can handpick which services and programs to run. This can be useful to figure out the cause of any problem. Log in as an admin before using the following steps to perform a clean boot.

Press Windows + R to launch Run.

Type msconfig and press Enter to launch System Configuration.

Press Disable All.

Switch to the Startup tab and open Task Manager.

Disable all of your startup programs and press OK in the System Configuration Startup window.

When you restart your PC, it will perform a clean boot. Once you’re done troubleshooting, launch System Configuration again and follow the steps below to reset your PC to normal functionality.

Select Normal Startup in the General tab.

Switch to the Services tab and uncheck Hide all Microsoft services, then press Enable all.

Switch to the Startup tab and open Task Manager.

Enable all of your startup programs and press OK.

Press Windows + R to launch Run.

Type  chúng tôi  and press Enter.

Press OK and reboot your PC.

To re-enable the service later, follow the same steps and change Disabled to Automatic.

If required, you can also disable Superfetch from Windows Registry by modifying the EnableSuperfetch value. To do so,

Press Windows + R to launch Run.

Type regedit and press Enter to launch the Windows Registry Editor.

Press OK and close the Registry Editor.

Keeping your system up-to-date is always a good practice. It can also help fix the DISM Host Servicing Process issues. To update windows,

Press Windows + I to launch Settings.

Open Update and Security.

Download and install any available updates.

Restart your PC and check for changes.

You can disable or remove DISM Host Servicing Process from your PC as a last resort. To disable DISM Host Servicing Process at startup,

Press CTRL + Shift + Esc to launch Task Manager.

Switch to the Startup tab.

To remove DISM Host Servicing Process,

Navigate to C:WindowsSystem32 and delete the DISM folder located there.

Press Windows + R to launch Run.

Type regedit and press Enter.

Look for the DISM folder and delete that as well.

If your temp folder is still occupying a lot of space, follow these steps to use the Disk Cleanup tool.

Type disk cleanup into the search bar and press Enter.

Finally, navigate to: C:UsersYourUsernameHereAppDataRoamingMicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup

This will auto-clean your temp folder at boot from now on so it won’t occupy tons of space anymore.

Note: User-reported fixes are anecdotal and may not always be helpful. But they are still worth checking if no other solution works.

One user reported that Windows Defender Scheduled Scan being interrupted was causing the DismHost problem. He fixed it by manually performing the scan. To do so:

Type Task Scheduler into the search bar and press Enter.

Make sure Allow task to be run on demand is ON.

Press Run to run the scan manually.

A few users found that disabling SilentCleanup Scheduled Task stopped the problem completely for them. To do the same:

Another user fixed the chúng tôi files building up on his home theater PC (HTPC) by removing the admin rights from the local HTPC account and using another account (Outlook e.g.) to log in. Thus, using a different account to log in may be helpful.

Integration Of The Jira Tool

Definition of Jira Tool

We know that essentially the Jira tool is utilized to deal with the whole improvement cycle of the task, as well as gives the various types of elements to the client to deal with the whole work process of the venture. In other words, we can say that the Jira tool depends on deft philosophy like Scrum and Kanban, or we can make another novel board according to our necessity. The dexterous load-up gives various types of elements to the client, like excesses and guides; we can likewise have the option to produce reports; at times, we want to incorporate different apparatuses or applications, track the undertaking issue, and so on.

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What is Jira Tool?

It’s not unexpected to ask, what is the Jira tool? It started as an IT gadget, but by and by, it maintains many purposes, from the ordinary assignment of the board to an IT labeling structure. It covers the endeavor and the board basics with an intensive gadgets suite, for instance, project orchestrating, task creation, and the leaders and enumerating.

The Jira tool stage supplements facilitated projects for the project manager. Use the Jira tool connected with the adroit capacities to exploit the contraption.

I every now and again projected my gathering’s Jira tool task list on a screen when we met for run organizing and other deft events, and it worked flawlessly to get the gathering incomplete understanding while at the same time streamlining these assigned tasks.

In programming improvement explicitly, the standard undertaking of the chiefs has been built up by new techniques, for instance, Agile, which revolves around the consistent transport of working things to clients. The agile organization is an umbrella term, and several subordinate methods have emerged. The two most prominent sub-strategies are Scrum, which emphasizes structured work in short iterations, and Kanban, which focuses on a continuous work flow with limited work-in-progress, resulting in reduced assumptions.

Consistent conveyances (made possible by iterative work runs) give the client progressive transports of working things. Subsequently, with client reviews, these persistent things convey license gatherings to surface deviations from essentials and various issues before the improvement cycle, which can help avoid cost or resource attacks.

Jira tool has various limits, and accepting its inclination the deficiency of a component you truly need, add it by visiting the Atlassian Marketplace. In this web-based store, you can find outcast programming to upgrade the Jira tool’s middle capacities.

One endeavor in the board model is the Trello-Jira tool consolidation. This part allows gatherings to execute projects with their inclined toward contraption, and data normally changes between the stages. Now let’s see why we need the Jira tool as follows.

The Jira tool provides the following aspect as follows.


The Jira tool is based on the agile methodology and effectively manages defects during project development as shown in the screenshot below.



The Jira tool’s workflow plays a fundamental role in project management as it facilitates key functions such as displaying the entire organization’s course, providing control over tasks, and tracking issues. During the development stage, a single task progresses through the stages of upcoming, in progress, and completion as the work is finished. So the Jira tool device permits us to deal with the whole work process according to the association’s necessity. To audit the stage then, we can add the survey stage.


Find effortlessly. Assume we have finished with an undertaking toward the start of January, and its variant is 2.0. Presently, we move to form 2.1 and finish toward the finish of January. We are adding new variants. Through the Jira tool, we can realize what occurred in the prior adaptations, the number of imperfections in the previous activities, and the gains we accomplished from the prior projects.



An assignment guide is a remarkable wellspring of information outlining orchestrating goals, requirements, and progress made for a long time. It’s a graphical, huge-level action plan that changes your gathering and various accomplices around your targets and guides out indispensable stages to achieve them.

Jira Export

At the point when we are dealing with a commodity, a lot of get-togethers can be a basic piece of your day. In ordinary stand-ups or numerous weeks audits, reports are integral for giving updates and showing the social affair and the associates where we are in the movement of a thing. Preferably, we acknowledge that these reports should show the information we truly need to show in the way we need to.

The uncovering choices in neighborhood Jira, such as board indicating and standard dashboard revealing, are restricted and lack flexibility.  Atlassian comprehends that innumerable of its clients will require more.

Jira tool also provides the API. Fundamentally, we know that with the assistance of JIRA API implies a blend of REST API JIRA instruments, we can construct various applications according to our necessity. On the opposite side, JIRA relies upon the multiple phases of JIRA. We can say that JIRA gives the cloud-based REST API to foster applications according to our prerequisite.


With the help of the above article, we try to learn about the Jira tool. From this article, we learn basic things about the Jira tool, and we also see the integration of the Jira tool and how we use it in the Jira tool.

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Sap Has Edge In Battle With Oracle

To say that SAP and Oracle are locked in an increasingly bitter competition is, at a minimum, the understatement of the year.

Of course, the fact that Oracle’s 11i has been out for more than five years, and was DOA, as in massively bug-ridden, for the first several revisions of its life are largely forgotten in the Oracle FUD campaign. Also forgotten is the fact that, once the software was basically bug-free and ready to be installed without risk, Oracle announced a two-year de-support window for its previous version, 10.7. Oracle customers, rightly so, pushed the panic button and started fast-tracking their upgrades.

Meanwhile, SAP is trying hard to stake out the high ground. At a recent two-day analyst summit in Las Vegas, SAP further described the business process-driven future it is pushing for the industry. It’s a near-term vision that SAP shares with Oracle, but with one important difference. SAP has been spending literally half its R&D dollars on ‘decomposing’ its software into business processes. These business processes will form the core of what, by 2007, will be a 30,000-strong business process platform that will fundamentally redefine how enterprise software serves the needs of business — for the better.

The difference between SAP and Oracle (and IBM, for that matter) is that SAP’s business process platform will be built from a solid understanding of how real businesses in real industries accomplish their day-to-day tasks. That understanding is currently embedded in SAP R/3 and MySAP, and comes from literally decades of deep vertical industry experience. Exposing those underlying processes and making them available as building blocks in a service-oriented architecture like NetWeaver is the gist of SAP’s game plan going forward. The fact that no other competitor has this wealth of existing industry knowledge already embedded in their software makes the business process platform a powerful competitive wedge.

Of course, Oracle’s acquisition strategy is very much targeted at acquiring this vertical knowledge, but so far most of that is a future capability based on future acquisitions, whereas the SAP processes are already in place, and only need to be converted to fully-formed services. Conversion is not a trivial task, but it’s not rocket science either. And it’s certainly better to be working on converting known assets than promising to deliver on assets that have yet to be acquired.

In the end, FUD is a short-term strategy, and one that Oracle will only be able to take so far. As long as the dialogue is about the wrong issues — like the apples to oranges comparison of when upgrades in two vastly different customer bases and under vastly different economic and technological conditions take place — FUD will work. But Oracle will have a problem combating the business process surge that SAP is planning for 2006.

And all the FUD in the world won’t count when SAP can demonstrate functional leadership in the software it sells today, while Oracle customers have to wait for Fusion. Oracle needs to counter SAP with its own business process strategy, or get out the way. The business process train is about the leave the station.

Tensorboard Tutorial: Tensorflow Graph Visualization

What is TensorBoard?

TensorBoard is the interface used to visualize the graph and other tools to understand, debug, and optimize the model. It is a tool that provides measurements and visualizations for machine learning workflow. It helps to track metrics like loss and accuracy, model graph visualization, project embedding at lower-dimensional spaces, etc.

TensorFlow Graph Visualization using Tensorboard Example

The image below comes from the TensorBoard graph you will generate in this TensorBoard Tutorial. It is the main panel:

TensorFlow Graph Visualization

From the picture below, you can see the panel of TensorBoard graph visualization. The panel contains different tabs, which are linked to the level of information you add when you run the model.

TensorBoard Graphs

Scalars: Show different useful information during the model training

Graphs: Show the model

Histogram: Display weights with a histogram

Distribution: Display the distribution of the weight

Projector: Show Principal component analysis and T-SNE algorithm. The technique used for dimensionality reduction

During this TensorBoard Tutorial, you will train a simple deep learning model. You will learn how it works in a future tutorial.

If you look at the graph, you can understand how the model work.

Enqueue the data to the model: Push an amount of data equal to the batch size to the model, i.e., Number of data feed after each iteration

Feed the data to the Tensors

Train the model

Display the number of batches during the training. Save the model on the disk.

The basic idea behind tensorboard is that neural network can be something known as a black box and we need a tool to inspect what’s inside this box. You can imagine tensorboard as a flashlight to start dive into the neural network.

It helps to understand the dependencies between operations, how the weights are computed, displays the loss function and much other useful information. When you bring all these pieces of information together, you have a great tool to debug and find how to improve the model.

To give you an idea of how useful the TensorBoard graph can be, look at the picture below:

TensorBoard graph

A neural network decides how to connect the different “neurons” and how many layers before the model can predict an outcome. Once you have defined the architecture, you not only need to train the model but also a metrics to compute the accuracy of the prediction. This metric is referred to as a loss function. The objective is to minimize the loss function. In different words, it means the model is making fewer errors. All machine learning algorithms will repeat many times the computations until the loss reaches a flatter line. To minimize this loss function, you need to define a learning rate. It is the speed you want the model to learn. If you set a learning rate too high, the model does not have time to learn anything. This is the case in the left picture. The line is moving up and down, meaning the model predicts with pure guess the outcome. The picture on the right shows that the loss is decreasing over iteration until the curve got flatten, meaning the model found a solution.

TensorBoard is a great tool to visualize such metrics and highlight potential issues. The neural network can take hours to weeks before they find a solution. TensorBoard updates the metrics very often. In this case, you don’t need to wait until the end to see if the model trains correctly. You can open TensorBoard to check how the training is going and make the appropriate change if necessary.

How to use TensorBoard?

In this tutorial, you will learn how to open TensorBoard from the terminal for MacOS and the Command line TensorBoard for Windows.

The code will be explained in a future tutorial, the focus here is on TensorBoard.

First, you need to import the libraries you will use during the training

## Import the library import tensorflow as tf import numpy as np

You create the data. It is an array of 10000 rows and 5 columns

X_train = (np.random.sample((10000,5))) y_train = (np.random.sample((10000,1))) X_train.shape Output (10000, 5)

The codes below transform the data and create the model.

Note that the learning rate is equal to 0.1. If you change this rate to a higher value, the model will not find a solution. This is what happened on the left side of the above picture.

During most of the TensorFlow tutorials, you will use TensorFlow estimator. This is TensorFlow API that contains all the mathematical computations.

To create the log files, you need to specify the path. This is done with the argument model_dir.

In the TensorBoard example below, you store the model inside the working directory, i.e., where you store the notebook or python file. Inside this path, TensorFlow will create a folder called train with a child folder name linreg.

feature_columns = [ tf.feature_column.numeric_column('x', shape=X_train.shape[1:])] DNN_reg = tf.estimator.DNNRegressor(feature_columns=feature_columns, # Indicate where to store the log file model_dir='train/linreg', hidden_units=[500, 300], optimizer=tf.train.ProximalAdagradOptimizer( learning_rate=0.1, l1_regularization_strength=0.001 ) ) Output INFO:tensorflow:Using default config.

The last step of this TensorFlow visualize graph example consists to train the model. During the training, TensorFlow writes information in the model directory.

# Train the estimator train_input = tf.estimator.inputs.numpy_input_fn( x={"x": X_train}, y=y_train, shuffle=False,num_epochs=None) DNN_reg.train(train_input,steps=3000) Output INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn. INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn. INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook. INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized. INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op. INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op. INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 1 into train/linreg/model.ckpt. INFO:tensorflow:loss = 40.060104, step = 1 INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 197.061 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.62989, step = 101 (0.508 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 172.487 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 11.255318, step = 201 (0.584 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 193.295 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.604872, step = 301 (0.513 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 175.378 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.090343, step = 401 (0.572 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 209.737 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.057928, step = 501 (0.476 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 171.646 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.460144, step = 601 (0.583 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 192.269 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.529617, step = 701 (0.519 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 198.264 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 9.100082, step = 801 (0.504 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 226.842 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.485607, step = 901 (0.441 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 152.929 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.052481, step = 1001 (0.655 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 166.745 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 11.320243, step = 1101 (0.600 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 161.854 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 9.603306, step = 1201 (0.619 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 179.074 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 11.110269, step = 1301 (0.556 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 202.776 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 11.929443, step = 1401 (0.494 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 144.161 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 11.951693, step = 1501 (0.694 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 154.144 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 8.620987, step = 1601 (0.649 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 151.094 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.666125, step = 1701 (0.663 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 193.644 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 11.0349865, step = 1801 (0.516 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 189.707 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 9.860596, step = 1901 (0.526 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 176.423 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.695, step = 2001 (0.567 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 213.066 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.426752, step = 2101 (0.471 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 220.975 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.594796, step = 2201 (0.452 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 219.289 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.4212265, step = 2301 (0.456 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 215.123 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 9.668612, step = 2401 (0.465 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 175.65 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.009649, step = 2501 (0.569 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 206.962 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.477722, step = 2601 (0.483 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 229.627 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 9.877638, step = 2701 (0.435 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 195.792 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.274586, step = 2801 (0.512 sec) INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 176.803 INFO:tensorflow:loss = 10.061047, step = 2901 (0.566 sec) INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 3000 into train/linreg/model.ckpt. INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 10.73032. For MacOS user

For Windows user

You can see this information in the PyTorch TensorBoard.

Now that you have the log events written, you can open Tensorboard. Tensorboard Keras runs on port 6006 (Jupyter runs on port 8888). You can use the Terminal for MacOs users or Anaconda prompt for Windows user.

For MacOS user # Different for you cd /Users/Guru99/tuto_TF source activate hello-tf!

The notebook is stored in the path /Users/Guru99/tuto_TF

For Windows users cd C:UsersAdminAnaconda3 activate hello-tf

The notebook is stored in the path C:UsersAdminAnaconda3

To launch Tensorboard, you can use this code

For MacOS user tensorboard --logdir=./train/linreg For Windows users tensorboard --logdir=.trainlinreg

It could also be located at the following location.

Copy and paste the URL into your favorite browser. You should see this:

Note that, we will learn how to read the graph in the tutorial dedicated to the deep learning.

If you see something like this:

It means Tensorboard cannot find the log file. Make sure you point the cd to the right path or double check if the log event has been creating. If not, re-run the code.

If you want to close TensorBoard Press CTRL+C

Hat Tip: Check your anaconda prompt for the current working directory,

The log file should be created at C:UsersAdmin


TensorBoard is a great tool to visualize your model. Besides, many metrics are displayed during the training, such as the loss, accuracy or weights.

To activate Tensorboard, you need to set the path of your file:

cd /Users/Guru99/tuto_TF

Activate Tensorflow’s environment

activate hello-tf

Launch Tensorboard

tensorboard --logdir=.+ PATH

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