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Businesses use proxies to improve security and protect their web scraping bots from being detected for various purposes, including web scraping, SEO monitoring, ad verification, etc. There are many proxy server types, and different purposes necessitate using a different proxy server type. 

In this article we examine shared proxies in-depth to inform readers about under which circumstances they are beneficial for businesses. 

What is a shared proxy?

A shared proxy is an IP address used and controlled by multiple users simultaneously. Multiple users share the same IP address assigned by a shared proxy to mask and hide their real IP addresses while going online.

How does a shared proxy work?

Every computer has an IP address that identifies its location on the local network. IP addresses are used for direct communication between computers online. Proxies are servers that act as an intermediary between users and the target website, allowing them to remain anonymous while surfing the web. The basic shared proxy workflow (see Figure 1) is as follows: 

With shared proxies, many users request to access the same or different websites at the same time. 

Shared proxies receive user requests, mask and hide their IP addresses, and then forward the requests to the website. 

The website receives requests and gives users access to the website and the requested information.

Figure 1: Representation of a proxy server process

Source: AIMultiple


Bright Data’s shared proxy network offers high anonymity for extracting web data from various web sources and gaining access to geo-restricted content.

Shared Proxies Vs. Dedicated (Private) Proxies Performance

The main difference between a shared proxy and a dedicated proxy is the number of users. A dedicated proxy, also known as a private proxy, can only be used by a single user, as opposed to a shared proxy. A dedicated proxy provides users with a private IP address. 

In shared proxies, all users share the same IP address and use it to access websites. As the number of users increases, the speed and performance of a shared proxy server decrease. On the other hand, a dedicated/private proxy server assigns an IP address to only one user, who benefits from the IP address alone in terms of speed and performance.


Shared proxies are highly anonymous. It is hard being detected by website servers when using shared proxies. Multiple users share the same IP address with you at the same time (see Figure 2). Even if your activity is tracked, it is impossible for someone to identify your real identity due to a large number of users’ activities. You can benefit from shared proxies in terms of security if you use them correctly.


A shared proxy assigns the same IP address to all users when they browse and make requests. You cannot see what others are doing and have no control over their actions. Because you have no control over the activities of other users, it is easier to get blocked compared to dedicated proxies. You cannot ensure that all users understand how to use proxies while online. 

A dedicated proxy allows the user to take control of each activity. Because no one else uses the same IP address as you, you will be solely responsible for your actions.


Because dedicated proxies are featured, they are more expensive than shared proxies. Shared proxies are less costly than other types of proxies since they assign the same IP address to multiple users. You shoulder the entire cost of a dedicated proxy alone.

Figure 2: Shows how a shared proxy server works

Source: AIMultiple

Figure 3: Shows the key differences between a shared proxy and a dedicated proxy

Source: AIMultiple

Top use cases of shared proxies with challenges and recommendations The most affordable method of data extraction

You need to extract data from multiple websites for market research, lead generation, competitor analysis, SEO monitoring, and other purposes. However, it is not all about data collection. Businesses still have many difficulties scraping web data from different web sources. A proxy server allows individuals and businesses to avoid difficulties during web data scraping. Shared proxies enable users to simultaneously make multiple requests with the same IP address. If you 

Scrape web data on a small scale, 

Do not have enough budget, 

And the destination website does not use anti-bot tools. 

shared proxies might be a good option for your web scraping project.

Smartproxy offers 50M+ residential, mobile, and datacenter shared IPs for with rotating IP and extended sticky session options. Since multiple users are using the same IP address, it can be more challenging to attribute activity to a particular user.


Many web scraping challenges can arise when collecting web data from web sources, such as 


IP blockers

CAPTCHA blockers

Dynamic content

A shared proxy server makes requests for websites with the same IP address. This increases the risk of being identified as a web scraping bot by the website. If the destination websites or web sources are well protected and use anti-scraping tools such as CAPTCHAs, your web scraping bot will most likely be detected and denied access.

Tip for solution

A shared proxy is incapable of dealing with such issues. You can use shared residential proxies for the highest quality IP addresses. Residential proxies offer greater anonymity because they assign real IP addresses to users. 

If you scrape the whole website with the same IP address, the web scraping bot will be blocked by the website. Another option is to divide the web scraping project into different times. You should limit the number of requests to the same website. 

To help you select the right residential proxy service, we compared different residential proxy vendors in terms of key features, performance, and pricing.

NetNut offers 150K shared datacenter IPs, can be used for SEO monitoring, ad verification or accessing geo-restricted content. However, if you intend to access a website that have robust security measures in place, residential proxies are ideal for tasks that require a high degree of security. NetNut provides 52M+ rotating and static residential proxies are used for high-volume tasks such as web scraping.

Providing high anonymity when accessing geo-restricted contents

Different countries use various content suppression methods to block or filter public access to various resources such as social media channels/accounts, television, radio, etc (see figure 4). The main goal is to gain control over who can access which information. It can be done either by a government or a business (self-censorship). The content is accessible in certain countries. 

Proxies are mainly used to gain access to such blocked websites. They enable users to bypass geo-restricted content imposed by their country’s censorship system.

Geo-blocking issues can be overcome by using shared proxies. The website to which you want to make a request can identify the location of your IP address and track your activities, such as how long you browse the website and how many times you visit it. While browsing, a shared proxy keeps you anonymous and protects your real IP address.


Your connection speed decreases as the number of clients sharing the same IP address increases. 

Tip for solution

You can utilize a shared residential proxy to boost your speed.  In shared datacenter proxies, fewer people share the same IP address. Shared datacenter proxies set limits to ensure connection stability and speed. 

However, keep in mind that they will be more expensive than other regular shared proxies. When you need to complete tasks quickly, a shared datacenter proxy is preferable to shared residential proxies.

Figure 4: YouTube blocking by countries

Further Reading

If you want to learn more about web scraping and how it can benefit your business, feel free to read our articles on the topic:

If you still have any questions about how to choose a shared proxy service that is suitable for your specific application, feel free to read our data-driven whitepaper on the topic:

Also, don’t forget to check out our sortable/filterable list of proxy service / server.

For guidance to choose the right tool, reach out to us:

Gulbahar Karatas

Gülbahar is an AIMultiple industry analyst focused on web data collections and applications of web data.





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What Is Cloud Mining & How It Works?

What is Cloud Mining?

Cloud mining is a mechanism to mine cryptocurrency such as bitcoin, using rented cloud computing power without installing or directly running the hardware and related software. The mining rigs are housed, and it is maintained in a facility owned by a mining company, and the customer just need to need to register and purchase mining contracts or shares.

It is an alternative to the traditional cryptocurrency mining system. Mining maintains the security of the Proof of work blockchain by ensuring transaction validations are decentralized. Users are awarded block rewards as users validate transactions. In the earlier Bitcoin cloud mining days, miners used sophisticated mining equipment. As the number of miners increased, block rewards decreased, and block rewards are halved at intervals.

Bitcoin Cloud mining firms help you to open an account and remotely participate in cryptocurrency mining for an essential cost, making mining accessible to many people across the world. As, this form of mining is done via the cloud, it reduces equipment maintenance or direct energy costs.

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How does Cloud Mining Work?

Connected miners

Cloud mining works on the basic principle of Cryptocurrency mining. In Cloud mining, miners pool their mining power together to solve complex mathematical problems using shared equipment.

In the crypto cloud mining process, you pay for mining shares while the mining company caters to the technical aspect of the mining process. The mining rigs are usually housed and maintained in a facility owned by the mining company. These companies provide hash rate contracts, and one purchases a specific hash rate for a specified period.

The whole mining operation is important for ensuring the security of a distributed ledger like a blockchain. Part of the cryptocurrency mining process involves adding new transactions or blocks. Moreover, miners take extra steps to double-check that there are no errors or that the transactions are correct.

Bitcoin miners ensure that the repetition does not occur during mining bitcoin. There feature of digital currencies known as “double-spending.”

The possibility of a cryptocurrency being used twice, or more is known as double-spending. It is possible to manipulate the history of transactions on a blockchain. Changes to the blockchain are possible if certain requirements are met; the adjusted individual may then claim any previously lost coins to the system. In a decentralized fashion, miners employ their processing capacity to solve cryptographic riddles that prevent double-spending.

Getting Started with Cloud Mining

The process involved in cloud mining is easier than conventional cryptocurrency mining.

Step 1) Decide To begin cloud mining, you must choose a cloud mining company.

It would be ideal for you to do proper research to find the best cloud mining platform for your interest.

Step 3) Afterward, you should select the coin you intend to mine. Once you are certain about it, you should register for an account with your preferred cloud mining company.

Step 4) Next, decide how many resources you intend to commit. Then, you go to sleep and keep earning income passively.

Mining Setup

Requirements for Cloud Mining

Cloud mining does not need the same setup level as traditional cryptocurrency mining, and you do not have to purchase expensive hardware, store it, or pay for electrical bills. Instead, you need to choose a good mining company, rent equipment from them, and wait for them to start making money.

Cloud mining services and sites vary from site to site, as do the prices. It is surely ideal if you took the time to examine which service provider suits you.

You can also buy contracts or shares from the service. With these contracts, the user may use the mining services while also profiting from them! After meeting the platform-specific minimum withdrawal requirement, you can transfer your profits to your wallet.

Different Types of Cloud Mining Models

Two types of Cloud Mining Models are:

Host Mining:

It is the more common type of cloud mining model. Miners have to buy or lease mining rigs on mining. The miner then pays for the setup and maintenance. Host mining reduces the overhead costs associated with access to electricity. Also, this model gives miners greater control of the rig allowing for redirecting of generated hashing power to mining pools.

Utilization of this model gives you complete control over your earned rewards. A mining farm’s economies of scale reduce the costly mining expenses, like power and storage. However, the initial cost may be high, and the cost reduces with time, and you can hope to make a good profit.

Leasing Hash Power:

A good hash rate is necessary for success while mining. In this cloud mining model, you do not get charged for either maintenance or setup. To get your share of the profit generated by the mining far, you need to sign up for a suitable plan offered by the mining company.

Profits earned from newly discovered blocks are distributed to all users in proportion to their respective shares of hash power. Altcoins get mined with this type of cloud mining compared to bitcoin.

Is Cloud Mining Profitable?

Cloud mining can be very profitable. The costs you must bear include rent payment and mining pool charges. Despite all these, you can still earn profits. The amount of profit you make varies depending on the mining pool model, the power of miners, and the market state.

Newer miners and models generate more profit than older ones. However, in a bearish market, holding bitcoin instead of selling it for regular money can reduce your profit, while a bullish market increases your profit.

Profit is also largely dependent on the reward per hash, which varies for different coins. Find out which coins are the most profitable and target these for a more significant profit.

How Much a Miner Earns?

The reward for each new block is a combination of new cryptocurrencies and transaction fees for the miner who created it. Most people refer to the block reward as the block subsidy since it is nearly wholly comprised (without accounting for the fees).

Consider a wide range of factors while analyzing mining equipment and profitability. An essential measure to look at is the mining rigs’ ability to generate and test random nonces quickly. The hash rate is a crucial factor in a Bitcoin miner’s performance. Faster testing of these random inputs will be possible if the hash rate increases.

Additionally, mining rig energy consumption is a critical factor. If you spend more money on power than you make from mining, you will be out of business sooner than later.

Is Cloud Mining Risky?

Yes, cloud mining could be risky. As you do not own the equipment, you have no say in their use. As a result, you may be unable to recoup your costs. While it may seem convenient to mine cryptocurrencies, cloud mining is problematic since you depend on someone else’s gear to do the actual mining for you.

Cloud mining contracts’ profitability fluctuates widely, and it’s impossible to predict. Therefore, it doesn’t matter whether the miner finds a trustworthy supplier and signs crypto cloud mining contracts with that firm, and the latter will only supply the services and hash rates stated for the given period.

Therefore, no one can be sure whether it will make money for the miners. On top of that, any earnings made by miners can get slashed by additional costs they may owe the supplier over the cloud mining contracts’ time.

Pros And Cons of Cloud Mining

Here are some Benefits/Advantages of Cloud Mining:


You have the option to mine any of your preferred cryptocurrencies.

The firm takes care of all of the typical mining issues.

Cloud mining reduces the expenses associated with operating a mining rig.

In general, using “someone else’s” equipment yields more profits than using your own.

Without equipment failure and consequent loss of revenue, fast scaling (capacity increase) is not an option.


Mining profits get reduced because of the commissions associated with renting a storage facility.

You should keep an eye on the market and respond to the crypto sector’s going on.

The cost of renting more capacity rises as the network becomes more sophisticated.


Numerous reasons led to the development of cloud mining. Some of these reasons include:

Short Supply in Mining Coins: This, along with the growing value of cryptocurrency, has sparked many new developments in the crypto mining industry.

Increased demands for network hashing power: Decreased reward offsets increased difficulty in cryptocurrency algorithms. Owners of mining operations understood that they required additional computing power to be competitive in the market.

Attractive Mining Returns: Cloud mining businesses often give huge payments and returns to entice customers and investors.

There are several characteristics of cloud mining.

The main characteristics include:

Cloud mining is carried out by renting out computing power from a third party.

Cloud mining overcomes power outages, hosting troubles, or installation and maintenance hassles.

Miners have to access their direct control over their coins.

The miner can access their equipment from anywhere globally through an internet control panel.

Cloud miners may only expect monetary compensation as an investor in a mining enterprise. Miners may purchase or rent a portion of the farm’s hashing power from the cloud mining firm, maintaining a mining rig-based farm.

In hardware mining, miners use their mining rigs and must select whether to mine alone or join a mining pool and contribute to the pool’s computing power in return for a piece of the profits. Therefore, maintaining and updating the gear and having a dependable internet connection are two of the most important things they must take care of.

Cloud mining providers and companies profit by renting out their hardware in exchange for money. Selling mining hardware resembles a futures contract. If you know that you will produce tons of maize at B cost, it is good business to already sell at A+B. where B is enough to cover what feels good for you. Cloud mining companies usually make more than Y, which is a great profit.

Hash rate is simply a measure of the computational power per second used when mining. Simply put, it is the speed of mining. The higher the hash rate of one individual Bitcoin mining machine, the more bitcoin that machine will mine. A good hash rate will give a mining machine more rewards and better profit while covering the overhead cost of hardware maintenance.

ParametersCloud MiningTraditional MiningDefinitionCloud Mining involves mining coins with a third party.Traditional mining involves mining coins with one’s hardware.CostsCloud mining is less expensiveTraditional mining is time and money-consuming.LocationYou can carry out this type of mining chúng tôi involves owning one’s hardware and other equipment that have a specialized position.ProcessesIt is simplerIt is more difficult

How To Use Shared With You In Ios 15 And Ipados 15

Thanks to dozens of instant messaging apps, sharing contacts, links, music, etc., has become easier. But, when the time finally comes to open the item shared with you, everything seems lost. Either the link would’ve gone too up in the chat, or you’ll be lazy to search for it. There should be a dedicated section where all the shared items are stored! Enters the Shared with You feature in iOS 15 and iPadOS 15.

In this article, let’s learn about Shared with You and how you can use it to make your experience better.

What is Shared with You in iOS 15?

Messages have got a big upgrade in iOS 15, and one of its most talked-about features is Shared with You.

It segregates the content that people send into different sections. For example, all the websites shared with you are in the Links section, images in the Photos section, etc.

And it doesn’t stop here — Shared with You also adds the items shared into the proper apps. This means that if someone shares a link on Messages, it will not only show in the Messages’ Links section but also in Safari.

Similarly, if someone shares a photo, it will not only show up in Messages as a separate section but also in the Photos app.

How to use Shared with You in iOS 15

By default, Shared with You is enabled in iOS 15 and iPadOS 15. It doesn’t require any sort of setup or toggling to work. However, it is only compatible with the Messages app in iOS and iPadOS for now.

There are several Shared with You integrations in iOS 15, some of which are mentioned below:

Apple Music and Podcast: Music and podcast links shared via iMessage show up in the Shared with You section in the Listen Now tab in the Apple Music and Podcast app.

Apple TV: When someone sends a movie or a TV show link via iMessage, the TV show or the movie will appear in the Shared with You section of the Watch Now tab so you can start watching it quickly.

Apart from Shared with You, you can use SharePlay to watch movies and TV shows together in iOS 15. To learn more, check out our detailed guide on how to use SharePlay.

How to turn off Shared with You on iPhone

Alternatively, if you just want to prevent a specific conversation from appearing in Shared with You, you can simply hide it.

Hide content from appearing in Shared with You

Don’t want every message thread to appear in the Shared with You section of the app? You can easily hide it! However, you can’t select the content type. It will hide all types of content in Shared with You from that particular message thread.

Open Messages → long-press the conversation you don’t want to see in Shared with You → choose Hide in Shared with You. That’s it!

Shared with You is an excellent feature on iPhone and iPad. It lowers the number of steps required to search for a shared item. However, it is limited by the iMessage-only functionality. Had Apple opened up its API to third-party developers, it would have been one of the best iOS 15 features.

Want to learn more about iOS 15 features and what it brings to the iPhone? Check out these iOS 15-related articles:

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Healthcare Hyperautomation: Use Cases & Best Practices

Hyperautomation was one of the top technology trends in 2023. According to IBM, healthcare in particular is a prime candidate to benefit from it, with so many repetitive processes and regulations to follow.

In this article, we’ll explore why hyperautomation is important for the healthcare industry, its use cases, its challenges and how to overcome them.

Why does the healthcare industry need hyperautomation?

Hyperautomation is an emerging approach to digital transformation that involves automating every business process possible while digitally augmenting those processes that can’t be automated fully. The need for hyperautomation is not different from the need for digital transformation: According to Gartner, hyperautomation is inevitable and is quickly becoming a condition of survival instead of an option for businesses.

The healthcare industry also has its own unique challenges that require hyperautomation to address:

Consumer preference is rapidly shifting to digital, and the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated this trend. Patients demand more convenient, transparent, and personalized healthcare services. Healthcare providers are aware of this trend as more than 90% of healthcare technology executives say achieving a better patient experience is their top desired outcome when implementing digital technologies.

Legacy systems are still the norm in the healthcare industry. 80% of healthcare organizations use legacy systems that no longer receive support from their manufacturers. Replacing these systems is a challenge because it can disrupt operations and lead to integration issues. By leveraging hyperautomation tools with screen scraping and OCR capabilities, healthcare businesses can integrate these systems with modern technologies and automate the operations relying on them.

What are the use cases of hyperautomation in healthcare?

We have explored use cases of individual hyperautomation technologies in healthcare, such as:

Hyperautomation combines these technologies for end-to-end process automation. Use cases include:

1. Patient services

A combination of conversational AI and intelligent process automation bots can handle most patient service tasks, improving patient experience and employee productivity. Bots can:

Interact with patients about their health problems through different channels,

Enable self-service scheduling by providing patients with suitable physicians and time slots,

Send reminders and allow rescheduling or canceling appointments,

Collect data from patient interactions to be analyzed for customer service improvement,

Assist human customer service reps during their customer interactions.

2. Regulatory compliance

Healthcare providers, health insurance companies, pharmacies, and other healthcare entities must comply with regulations such as HIPAA in the US and GDPR in the EU. Failure to comply with such regulations can lead to fines ranging from $100 to $100,000 per violation. Since a fifth of healthcare employees would be willing to sell patient data to unauthorized parties for as little as $500, adopting digital technologies is imperative for compliance.

Hyperautomation can help with ensuring regulatory compliance for healthcare organizations:

Intelligent bots can log every action in healthcare systems and document the activity log when demanded,

AI/ML models can be used to predict potential healthcare fraud,

Automating internal audit processes can help evaluate risks and internal controls more efficiently and frequently.

3. Research & development

Hyperautomation technologies such as AI models and digital twins can accelerate pharmaceutical R&D:

Drug discovery: Deep learning algorithms can be used to discover drug candidates for specific diseases.

Testing new drugs: To test new drugs and treatments, companies can use digital twins to build digital representations of tools, drugs, human organs, genomes, or individual cells.

4. Health insurance processing

Processing claims efficiently is important for health insurance companies since:

Nearly 90% of customers say effective claims processing influences their decisions when choosing a vendor,

In the US, claim submissions account for $4.5 billion of medical industry spending, representing 13% of all administrative transactions.

Around $300 billion is lost each year due to health care fraud in the United States.

By leveraging NLP methods and AI/deep learning models, a hyperautomation approach can help health insurance businesses:

Minimize manual work during preauthorization and claims processing,

Reduce human errors,

Detect and prevent healthcare fraud more accurately,

Ensure customer satisfaction with shorter claims cycles.

What are the challenges and how to overcome them?

Data privacy: Medical data contains highly sensitive patient information protected by data privacy regulations. This can create a roadblock on the path to hyperautomation for healthcare organizations. Businesses must invest in privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) to develop innovative products without risking patient privacy.

Process understanding: Processes are often poorly documented, and businesses may lack a comprehensive understanding of them. Process mining tools and digital twins can help businesses understand how actual processes are carried out and how to improve them. In this way, healthcare organizations can prepare themselves for their journey toward hyperautomation.

Change management: Building a company culture around hyperautomation is just as important as selecting specific tools, since cultural deficit is one of the main reasons why digital transformation initiatives fail. Organizations should create opportunities for reskilling and upskilling and improve top-down communication about why these changes are needed. For more, check our article on the importance of organizational culture for digital transformation.

Check our article on intelligent automation strategy for more.

Further reading

If you have other questions about hyperautomation and its applications in the healthcare industry, feel free to reach us:

Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.





Jetpack Ai Assistant: Pricing, Features And Use Cases

Create compelling and professional content within WordPress with this powerful AI assistant.

About Jetpack AI Assistant

JetPack AI Assistant is an AI tool that creates engaging content within the WordPress Editor. It allows users to write blog posts, edit content, and adjust the tonality of the posts using AI. The tool can also suggest titles, generate summaries, and translate text into various languages.

JetPack AI Assistant has an intuitive interface with powerful AI capabilities to help users produce high-quality content faster. It can generate various types of content, including tables, blog posts, structured lists, or detailed pages. The tool is integrated into WordPress. So you can start using it immediately after creating your free account.

Jetpack AI Assistant Features

Jetpack AI Assistant offers several impressive features for WordPress users. Some of the best functionalities of this tool include the following:

It can easily be integrated into the WordPress editor.

It has an intuitive and beginner friendly interface.

It generates content on a diverse range of topics.

JetPack AI Assistant adjusts the tone to match the style and context of the blog post.

It detects and corrects spelling and grammatical errors.

Users can request the tool to generate a title or summary for a blog post.

It translates content into multiple languages.

It creates content faster, saving the time of writers and website owners.

Jetpack AI Assistant Use Case – Real-World Applications

JetPack AI Assistant can be used for various purposes. Some of its applications include the following:

Content creators can use it to write blog posts, articles, or website content.

Editors can use it to spot errors in the content and edit them.

Businesses can use it to ensure their content is of high-quality.

It can be used to produce content in various languages.

Jetpack AI Assistant Pricing

JetPack AI Assistant has a free and paid plan. The prices of its plans vary depending on the features and number of requests they can handle. Below is an overview of both JetPack AI Assistant plans:

Free – $0 per month – It can handle up to 20 requests, create tables, blog posts, lists, adjust tones, and solve grammatical issues.

Paid – $12.54 per month – It includes everything offered in the free plan, high-volume request access, and priority support.


Does the JetPack AI Assistant Premium Plan have a request limit?

No, the premium plan doesn’t impose any limit on the number of requests sent or processed by the platform. It supports an unlimited number of requests with priority access to the support team. However, the company says that it will impose an upper limit on the number of requests in the coming months. Keep checking their announcement page for the latest information.

Can the JetPack AI Assistant adjust the tone?

Yes, the JetPack AI Assistant allows users to modify the tone of their content. You can choose between a formal or conversational tone, and the tool will edit your content accordingly.

Is the JetPack AI Assistant available for free?

Yes, the JetPack AI Assistant is available for free. However, it only supports 20 requests and offers limited features. To enjoy all the premium features and get priority access to the support team, you need to switch to the premium plan.

Is the JetPack AI Assistant available within WordPress?

Yes, you can access the JetPack AI Assistant within your WordPress editor. It is integrated within WordPress and doesn’t require you to download any software or tool separately. You have to install the JetPack AI Assistant Plugin, and you will get all its features right within the WordPress editor.

Can I use JetPack AI Assistant to write blog posts for publishing online?

You can use the JetPack AI Assistant to write blog posts for your online blog. It can generate blogs on diverse topics and publish them online. It generates unique, plagiarism-free content that can be used for personal or commercial purposes.

JetPack AI Assistant is a powerful companion for writers and editors. It can rapidly write and edit various types of content within the WordPress editor. The tool is ideal for freelancers, editors, and businesses that want to save time while producing high-quality content.

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How Recursion Works In Prolog?

Introduction to Prolog Recursion

The prolog recursion is defined as, in prolog, the recursion seems when a predicate has some goal which referred to itself, the recursion is a function that can call itself until the goal succeeds, the predicates in prolog recursion are recursively defined because it has more than one rule in defining to refer itself, recursion is a powerful tool and it is widely used in prolog, it can also be used by many different data structures where the structures include sub-structures, it has two components one is base recursion and another is recursion itself, it mainly involves the predicates to calling itself, so prolog supports recursion.

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The syntax of recursion by using the family relationship:

predecessor(M,O) :- parent(M,N),predecessor(N,O).

So, the first line as the parent(M, O) has some facts given from there it will get instantiated, which is also called a base case, the second line shows the recursive relationship.

The clauses are divided into facts and rules.

Facts: The clauses without a body is called facts,



Which can be equivalent to-

parent(M,O):- true.

Rule: The rule is a type of form, it has been used to call the predicates and as we know the predicates are in-built in prolog.

For example, we have the clause that ‘Brain:- Heart.’, so it means ‘Brain is true if Heart is true’.

How Recursion Works in Prolog?

The recursion is a very powerful tool in prolog, recursion is used by many programming languages. So we wish to perform some operations either over data structure or until a certain point to be reached, in prolog this repetition is called recursion. It can also be used by many data structures so recursive data structure is the one where the structures include the sub-structures whose function is the same as that of the whole structure.

The predicate we are using in recursion is recursive in nature. We will see the working of recursion with the help of one example,


is_eating(S, T):- just_cook(S, T). is_eating(S, T):- just_cook(S, R),is_eating(R, T).

Let us see the working of recursion in family relationship, so we know that what is recursion, recursion is having mainly two issues, first is that for starting inputs and outputs are known to us so it is known as base case recursion, in prolog it will be satisfied by the given facts and another issue is that a prolog program or the prolog function can call itself, so we will see when the prolog calling itself in its declaration, so this can also a good example of recursion. So in other programming languages, we might have used recursion and prolog supports recursion and here in a family relationship, we can use recursion. As we have already defined parent, male, mother, father, haschild, brother, sister, grandparent, wife, and uncle family relationship and now we will see predecessor relationship. If P is the parent of Q then obviously P can be treated as a predecessor of Q, but if we go one step that means if P is the parent of Q and Q is the parent of R then we can say that P is the predecessor of R, similarly, if P is the parent of Q1 and Q1 is the parent of Q2 and Q2 is the parent of R then P can be called as the predecessor of R. In this way, we can move up to n number of levels.

predecessor(P,R):- parent(P,R). predecessor(P,R):- parent(P,Q),predecessor(Q,R).

In the above clauses we have declared predecessor(P, R) clause, we can demonstrate or say the above clause as the predecessor(P, R) if a parent(P, R) otherwise predecessor(P, R) if the parent(P, Q) and predecessor(Q, R), so in this way in predecessor declaration we use recursion. In the case of recursion, it has two issues one is that recursion has some base case where the algorithm gets terminate, the recursion algorithm must have a calling instruction itself either directly or indirectly. The predecessor(P, R) will be nothing but if P is one level higher than R then it will work otherwise we will go for multilevel higher. We are using predecessor on left and right both so that why it is a good example of recursion.

Example #1


:-initialization(main). main :- write('Recursion'). sumlist([], 0). sumlist(Item, SumOfItem), Sum is First + SumOfItem.


sumlist([4, 2, 3], Answer).


In the above program, we use recursive procedure ‘sumlist’, in every recursive call of ‘sumlist’ there is a separate instance of variables First, Item, Sum, SumofItem, and these are distinguished by a subscript, so it created First1 instance for First to call ‘sumlist’ and also First2 instance created for First in first recursive calling to call ‘sumlist’. We wrote a program to show the sum by putting the input which is given above.

Example #2


:- initialization(main). main :- write('fact and rule in recursion'). hat(beautiful). item(X) :- hat(X).





In the above example, we explain the working of facts and rules in recursion by using prolog computer language. As prolog has an in-built predicate true/0 is always true. Hence to ask for given facts, we have given input as ‘hat(beautiful).’ it will give an output Yes. And when we give input ‘hat(X).’ then it will give the output with its value provided in code so it is ‘X=beautiful’ with yes, which is shown in the screenshot.


In the above article, we conclude that the prolog recursion is a technique to refer itself with some goal, it has declarative syntax with its rules, which has predecessor logic to show the relationship between family, we can also conclude that prolog is very comfortable with using recursive rules by using recursion we can easily find the ancestor.

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