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This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon


You must have come across news articles, update rallying, stocks falling, and so on. Stock markets are volatile. Stock prices daily go up and down. Keeping a track of such changes and trends can be tedious for a data professional. In this article, we will perform a stock market analysis of a few popular internet tech companies.

Analysing the stock prices demands a dataset that is continuously updating. In such scenarios, pandas have a special library called pandas-datareader. Pandas-datareader helps us import data from the internet. Do check out more about the pandas data-reader library from here.

We will use Yahoo Finance to import stock market data for our analysis. We’ll study stocks of popular 5 tech companies. The list of stocks for the analysis is as below:






Let’s take a look at the data from the last 5 years to have an understanding of how stocks have behaved. First, we will search for tickers of the above companies on Yahoo. Ticker is a unique stock symbol with a series of letters assigned to a particular stock for trading purposes.

tickers = ['GOOG','AMZN','MSFT','AAPL', 'FB']

Now, we will import pandas-datareader and necessary libraries. If you haven’t installed it, then install it in your notebook with the below command.

!pip install pandas-datareader

Then, we import the necessary libraries.

import pandas_datareader as data import pandas as pd Getting the Data

We get our data from Yahoo for the last 5 years. For each stock, we import data separately. We concat all the stocks data into a single dataframe for our analysis.

We give names to our columns for better data interpretation.

df.columns.names = ['Stock Ticker', 'Stock Info'] df.head()

Our data is in multi-index format. We have to take a cross-section of the data for analysis. Read more about dealing with multilevel indexing here.

df.xs(key='GOOG', axis=1, level='Stock Ticker') Data Visualisation

We will use the cross-section to pull stock data and visualise stock movements in the last 5 years. We will use graphic charts to understand the stock movements.

For visualisations, we will use a library called Plotly. Plotly is a graphing library popular for creating interactive charts. With Plotly, we can understand the stock movement in real-time.

Let’s import the necessary visualisation libraries below:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import as px import plotly.graph_objects as go %matplotlib inline

We analyse Google’s closing price over the last 5 years with the below code.

px.line(df.xs(key='GOOG', axis=1, level='Stock Ticker')['Close'])

Let’s see stock movement for a specific time period and analyse price fluctuations in that particular period.

px.line(df.xs(key='GOOG', axis=1, level='Stock Ticker')['Close'], range_x=['2023-01-01','2023-12-31'])

Comparisons between two stocks can be helpful to understand which stock is performing better. We compare Google and Amazon stocks below.

px.line(df.xs(key='Close', axis=1, level='Stock Info')[['GOOG', 'AMZN']])

After analysing each stock, we can analyse all of them by taking a cross-section of their closing price or opening price.

df.xs(key='Close', axis=1, level='Stock Info').head() c = df.xs(key='Close', axis=1, level='Stock Info') c.head()

Let’s look at the chart containing all stocks movement for the given time period.

plt.figure(figsize=(20,10)) fig = px.line(c)

We understand each stock behaviour separately with the below chart. This helps us differentiate between underperforming stocks and better-performing ones.

plt.figure(figsize=(20,10)) fig = px.area(c, facet_col='Stock Ticker', facet_col_wrap=3)

Amazon and Google are clearly outperforming other stocks. There is consistent growth in both stocks over the last 5 years.

Specify the time period for which you want to see the stock performance. During the Covid-19 outbreak, we can see stocks crashing and then recovering after a certain time.

fig = px.line(c, range_x=['2023-01-01','2023-12-31']) Candlestick Charts:

Candlestick charts are popular in stock market analysis. They are helpful in understanding the past stock movements. Candlestick charts give us insights into stock’s open, close, high, low prices. Green candlesticks show positive movement and red shows a decline in the stock.

A candlestick has a body in the middle and sticks at its ends. The body showcases the opening and closing price of the stock. Two ends which are called shadows represent the high and low values of the day respectively for a particular stock.

Let’s look at the code for creating a candlestick chart for Google:

plt.figure(figsize=(24,16)) fig = go.Figure(data=[go.Candlestick(x=df.index, open=df['GOOG']['Open'], high = df['GOOG']['High'], low = df['GOOG']['Low'], close = df['GOOG']['Close'])]) fig.update_layout(xaxis_rangeslider_visible=False)

For a visually appealing candlestick chart, we can use cufflinks. Cufflinks is a library that connects Plotly to pandas for better visuals. Let’s import Cufflinks and create a candlestick chart for the year 2023.

import cufflinks as cf cf.go_offline() google = df['GOOG'][['Open', 'High', 'Low', 'Close']].loc['2023-01-01':'2023-11-30'] google.iplot(kind='candle') Conclusion:

And just like that, we completed our stock market analysis. First, we imported the pandas-DataReader library. We mentioned the source of our data, time period, and stocks list for analysis. We import ata and created a separate dataframe. The data has multilevel indexing. We took a cross-section of the dataframe to analyse each stock and its movement.

We created interactive visualisation charts with Plotly and compared a few stocks for a specific time period. Candlestick charts are important to get a better understanding of the past stock movements. Plotly and Cufflinks can be used to create visually appealing Candlestick graphs. With this article hope you’re now equipped to do stock analysis on your own. Good luck!

Image credit: Photo by Maxim Hopman on Unsplash

The media shown in this article is not owned by Analytics Vidhya and are used at the Author’s discretion.


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Visualizing Covid Data With Plotly

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


The graphical or pictorial representation of data and information is called Data Visualization. Using different tools like graphs, charts, maps, etc, data visualization tools provide a very effective and efficient way of finding trends, outliers, and patterns in data, which might seem nonexistent to human eyes.

 Data visualization tools and technologies are highly essential in the world of Big Data, to access and analyze massive amounts of information and make data-driven decisions.

Quickens the Decision-making process

Easily identify hidden patterns

Getting business insights

Finding errors in beliefs

Storytelling about the data is more engaging

Helps non-technical background people understand the data better

Identify new trends

Data visualization can be described as another form of art, that grabs our eyes and attention, and keeps us focused on the underlying message. While viewing a chart we can easily and quickly see upcoming or ongoing trends, outliers, etc. And this visual representation helps us digest the facts faster.

You know how much more effective data visualization can be if you’ve ever stared at a massive excel sheet, and couldn’t make out the head or tail of it.

Today we will do Data Visualization of covid datasets across the world. This dataset can be found on Kaggle, linked here.

Image Source: Times of India


We will use Plotly for this. It is an open-source graphical library for Python, which produces interactive, publication-quality graphs. Its headquarters are located in Montreal, Quebec, which develops online data analytics and visualization tools.

They provide online graph creation, analytics, and statistical tools for individuals as well as corporations, along with scientific graphing libraries for Python, R, MATLAB, Perl, Julia, Arduino, and REST.

Image Source: Wikipedia

Importing Libraries

First, we install the chart-studio, for interfacing with Plotly’s Chart Studio services( Both Chart Studio cloud and Chart Studio On-Perm).

!pip install chart_studio

Next, we import the necessary modules and libraries:

import pandas as pd import numpy as np import chart_studio.plotly as py import cufflinks as cf import seaborn as sns import as px %matplotlib inline # Make Plotly work in your Jupyter Notebook from plotly.offline import download_plotlyjs, init_notebook_mode, plot, iplot init_notebook_mode(connected=True) # Use Plotly locally cf.go_offline() Loading the Country wise Dataset

Let’s take a look at the dataset first:

country_wise = pd.read_csv('/kaggle/input/corona-virus-report/country_wise_latest.csv') print("Country Wise Data shape =",country_wise.shape) country_wise.head()

The last column is named “WHO Region“. Due to some technical glitches, it was not visible in the screenshot. Histogram Plot

Let us visualize total deaths from all the countries. Due to a large number of countries, I have divided them into different plots.

A) Deaths in first 50 countries import plotly.graph_objects as go # Display death due to covid data for various countries fig =, y='Deaths', x='Country/Region', text='Deaths', color='Country/Region') # fig.update_traces(texttemplate='%{text:.2s}', textposition='outside') # Set fontsize and uniformtext_mode='hide' says to hide the text if it won't fit fig.update_layout(uniformtext_minsize=8) # Rotate labels 45 degrees fig.update_layout(xaxis_tickangle=-45) fig B) Deaths in the next 50 countries fig1 =[50:101], y='Deaths', x='Country/Region', text='Deaths', color='Country/Region') # Put bar total value above bars with 2 values of precision fig1.update_traces(texttemplate='%{text:.2s}', textposition='outside') # Set fontsize and uniformtext_mode='hide' says to hide the text if it won't fit fig1.update_layout(uniformtext_minsize=8) # Rotate labels 45 degrees fig1.update_layout(xaxis_tickangle=-45) fig1 C) Deaths in the next 50 countries fig1 =[101:151], y='Deaths', x='Country/Region', text='Deaths', color='Country/Region') # Put bar total value above bars with 2 values of precision fig1.update_traces(texttemplate='%{text:.2s}', textposition='outside') # Set fontsize and uniformtext_mode='hide' says to hide the text if it won't fit fig1.update_layout(uniformtext_minsize=8) # Rotate labels 45 degrees fig1.update_layout(xaxis_tickangle=-45) fig1 D) Deaths in the rest of the countries fig1 =[151:], y='Deaths', x='Country/Region', text='Deaths', color='Country/Region') # Put bar total value above bars with 2 values of precision fig1.update_traces(texttemplate='%{text:.2s}', textposition='outside') # Set fontsize and uniformtext_mode='hide' says to hide the text if it won't fit fig1.update_layout(uniformtext_minsize=8) # Rotate labels 45 degrees fig1.update_layout(xaxis_tickangle=-45) fig1 E) Pie chart for total deaths in all the Asian Countries worldometer = pd.read_csv('/kaggle/input/corona-virus-report/worldometer_data.csv') worldometer_asia = worldometer[worldometer['Continent'] == 'Asia'] px.pie(worldometer_asia, values='TotalCases', names='Country/Region', title='Population of Asian continent', color_discrete_sequence=px.colors.sequential.RdBu) F) Code for the animated transition of confirmed cases from 22 Jan 2023 to July 2023

Note: The animation could not be added to this article, but if you write the code and run it, it will play seamlessly.

full_grouped = pd.read_csv('/kaggle/input/corona-virus-report/full_grouped.csv') india = full_grouped[full_grouped['Country/Region'] == 'India'] us = full_grouped[full_grouped['Country/Region'] == 'US'] russia = full_grouped[full_grouped['Country/Region'] == 'Russia'] china = full_grouped[full_grouped['Country/Region'] == 'China'] df = pd.concat([india,us,russia,china], axis=0) # Watch as bars chart covid cases changes fig =, x="Country/Region", y="Confirmed", color="Country/Region", animation_frame="Date", animation_group="Country/Region", range_y=[0,df['Confirmed'].max() + 100000]) fig.layout.updatemenus[0].buttons[0].args[1]["frame"]["duration"] = 1 fig

The end result of the animation

Now we plot a histogram for deaths across all the Asian Countries.

# bins represent the number of bars to make # Can define x label, color, title # marginal creates another plot (violin, box, rug) fig = px.histogram(worldometer_asia,x = 'TotalDeaths', nbins=20, labels={'value':'Total Deaths'},title='Death Distribution of Asia Continent', marginal='violin', color='Country/Region') fig.update_layout( xaxis_title_text='Total Deaths', showlegend=True )

So as you can see, India had the most number of deaths, around 40-45k, which is really sad.

G) A box plot to represent total cases distribution across Asia and Europe # A box plot allows you to compare different variables # The box shows the quartiles of the data. The bar in the middle is the median # The whiskers extend to all the other data aside from the points that are considered # to be outliers # Complex Styling fig = go.Figure() # Show all points, spread them so they don't overlap and change whisker width fig.add_trace(go.Box(y=worldometer_asia['TotalCases'], boxpoints='all', name='Asia', fillcolor='blue', jitter=0.5, whiskerwidth=0.2)) fig.add_trace(go.Box(y=worldometer[worldometer['Continent'] == 'Europe']['TotalCases'], boxpoints='all', name='Europe', fillcolor='red', jitter=0.5, whiskerwidth=0.2)) # Change background / grid colors fig.update_layout(title='Asia vs Europe total cases distribution', yaxis=dict(gridcolor='rgb(255, 255, 255)', gridwidth=3), paper_bgcolor='rgb(243, 243, 243)', plot_bgcolor='rgb(243, 243, 243)') Bonus: Creating an interactive globe map

This is one of my favourite features from Plotly and another module called Pycountry. We can create an interactive Global Map, which displays all the deaths due to the Coronavirus, in different regions. I highly urge you to run this code and see how this map works.

import pycountry worldometer['Country/Region'].replace('USA','United States', inplace=True) worldometer['Country/Region'].replace('UAE','United Arab Emirates', inplace=True) worldometer['Country/Region'].replace('Ivory Coast','Côte d'Ivoire', inplace=True) worldometer['Country/Region'].replace('S. Korea','Korea', inplace=True) worldometer['Country/Region'].replace('N. Korea','Korea', inplace=True) worldometer['Country/Region'].replace('DRC','Republic of the Congo', inplace=True) worldometer['Country/Region'].replace('Channel Islands','Jersey', inplace=True) exceptions = [] def get_alpha_3_code(cou): try: return pycountry.countries.search_fuzzy(cou)[0].alpha_3 except: exceptions.append(cou) worldometer['iso_alpha'] = worldometer['Country/Region'].apply(lambda x : get_alpha_3_code(x)) # removeing exceptions for exc in exceptions: worldometer = worldometer[worldometer['Country/Region']!=exc] fig = px.scatter_geo(worldometer, locations="iso_alpha", color="Continent", # which column to use to set the color of markers hover_name="Country/Region", # column added to hover information size="TotalCases", # size of markers projection="orthographic") fig

You can rotate the globe using your cursor and view all the deaths in every country. A very tidy and neat visualization in my opinion.

End Notes

Plotly is one of my favorite goto libraries for visualization, apart from Matplotlib or Seaborn. I would like to write a blog about it someday as well. If you like what you see and want to check out more of my writings, you can do so here:

I hope you had a good time reading this article. Thank you for reading, Cheers!!

The media shown in this article on visualizing covid data in plotly are not owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used at the Author’s discretion. 


How To View The Report Stock Ageing Analysis In Tallyprime


Managing inventory is a very crucial part of every business. You need to keep a track of the age of every stock item and manage their shelf-life accordingly. Stock Ageing Analysis in TallyPrime displays the age of the stock-in-hand. You can view the Stock Ageing Analysis as per your business requirements and configure the display of the report. report also provides the Item Inwards Details of the selected stock item. helps you in determining the age based on various valuation methods and ageing styles. You can display the bills of your company age-wise as well. For instance, in the Ledger Outstandings, Group Outstandings or Bills Receivables/Payables you can apply the Ageing by Bill Date or Ageing by Due Date method and view the report accordingly. 

By applying the correct ageing method, you will be able to determine which bill has been pending from a longer period and which debtor should be contacted accordingly. 

In TallyPrime, the Stock Ageing Analysis lists out items batch-wise, that have already expired or may expire in the near future. You can decide if you want a condensed or detailed format of the report. Various valuation methods are available in the report which will help you in displaying the stock items based on its value. The bills can be sorted age-wise according to their due date or bill date. Ageing styles according to the date of purchase, manufacture or expiry date allow you to display the report accordingly. Varied configurations in the report will enable you to display the report as per your business . 

Stock Ageing Analysis helps you in maintaining a proper track of the ageing of the stock items. The report is displayed in a columnar format showing item details like Total Quantity and age-wise breakup of the Quantity of the stock items in the group. Negative stock of the particular stock item, if any, is also displayed in the report. Based on the information provided in the report you can decide which batch of stock items should move outwards before or list discounts on items approaching the expiry date. 

us suppose that you want to know which batch of Amul Dark Chocolates has a longer shelf-life, 

Select the Group for which Ageing Analysis is required, in this case, Chocolates.

Select a stock item and drill-down further.Thescreen appears.

If you want to view the Stock Ageing Analysis for all the stock items in your company, select Primary from the List of Groups.

(Show Value) to include thecolumn in thereport and display the Value of the stock item alongside the Quantity.

Format of Report: You can view the report in the condensed or detailed mode by selecting the required format in this option. Alt+F5 will also give you a detailed format of the analysis report. 

Display name for Stock Items: By default, all the stock items in the Stock Ageing Analysis are displayed according to the stock item name. However, you can change the way in which a stock item name is displayed in the report by selecting the required display names in the option.

Note: You will get the options Ageing Style and Expired Batches, only if you have activated Batch processing under F11 (Features). Set the options Enable batches and Maintain Expiry Dates for Batches to Yes.

Item Inwards Details

Age Analysis is done for stock-in-hand on the basis of its purchase date. The Item Inwards Details report provides further information of aged stock such as date of purchase and supplier and allows you to drill-down to the actual transaction voucher.

You can drill down further and view the transaction voucher for the selected item. 

Thescreen appears as shown below:You can drill down further and view the transaction voucher for the selected item.

F6 (Ageing Period): It offers you the flexibility of selecting the period to be displayed as the age slab for the stock items.

Press(Ageing Period)Thescreen appears wherein you can enter from and to which days you want to view the expiry dates. By default, the range for the days are 0-45, 45-90, 90- 180 and 180-0. However, you can enter the required number of days to be displayed in the age slab.

F4 (Stock Group): This will enable you to switch between stock groups while you are already in the Stock Ageing Analysis report.

Ctrl+H (Change View): You can change the view of the Stock Ageing Analysis depending on your business requirements. Various reports related to Stock Ageing Analysis such as Monthly Summary, Movement Analysis, Cost Analysis and Cost Estimates are also available in this section. 

Ctrl+J (Exception Reports): You can view the Negative Stock Items in your company in this section. 

Valuation of a stock helps in determining its at the given period. The value of any stock either increases or decreases with time. Ageing Analysis displays the stock items based on the valuation method that you select. It will help you in determining which of the items is valued more than the other and which valuation method of the stock item is adding more value to the available stock item. You can then decide which batch should be sold out at the earliest since its value is decreasing. It will also help you in deciding the best valuation method for your company.  

Let us suppose that you want to analyse the value of stock-in-hand based on the monthly average cost of the items. To select the required Valuation Method,

In the Stock Ageing Analysis, press F7 (Show Value)

analysis is done to identify the bills for which amount is due for a long period of time. These bills can be classified as bad debts or provisions can be created for such losses in the books of accounts depending on the results of ageing analysis. There are two methods to view the bills in age-wise format namely: Ageing by Due Date and Ageing by Bill Date. While passing a sales transaction, the due date entered while filling in the Bill-wise details indicates the credit days for the party to clear the payment. The payment should be made on or before the due date mentioned in the voucher. Based on the due date, you will be able to view the ageing of the bills. In this scenario, Ageing by Due Date method can be applied to view the report as per the due dates. In the absence of a due date, the bill date becomes the due date, and you can select Ageing by Bill Date and view the report accordingly. For sellers who do not provide credit to the buyers, this will be the best suited ageing method. In TallyPrime, the Stock Ageing Analysis can be applied on Ledger or Group Outstandings and Bills Receivables or Payables screens.

In this section

It might be possible that there are varied bills generated against a single party and you want to know which bill is aged more than the other. On selecting the ageing method, the report will be displayed based on the ageing dates of the bills. 

Select the required ledger account. 

The Ledger Outstandings report appears with the applied ageing method.

If you have sub-groups created as per the location of your debtors, then you can use this report for Age-wise analysis. Let us suppose you want to find out a group’s pending bills, 

Select a Group, for example Sundry Debtors.

Thereport appears with the applied ageing method.

The Group Outstandings report displays the Age-wise Analysis for the selected Group.

 Note: You cannot print Reminder letters to a group from here. Use Multi-Account Printing available in Gateway of Tally to print the same.

Irrespective of a ledger or groups, the ageing of all the pending bills in your company can be viewed using this report. Let us suppose you want to know how many bills are pending for ten days or more, 

The Stock Ageing Analysis report gives you an insight into the age of the stock item based on varied ageing styles. You will be able to distinguish between batches of stock items that have already expired or are yet to be expired. The items can be listed based on the purchase date of the item or the manufacturing date. This report helps in managing the inventory and you can decide as to which item needs to be disposed of quicker, based on these ageing styles. With TallyPrime, you can view the Stock Ageing Analysis report based on four Ageing Styles namely, By Date of Purchase, By Expiry Date, By Mfg. Date and To be Expired. The stock items are displayed based on the selected Ageing Style. It is very useful for industries dealing with perishable goods where goods past the expiry date are of no value. Based on this information you can put out the items nearing expiry on sale and list them at a discounted price. The stock items are displayed in columns under which the expiry of the item is <10 days, 10- 15 days, 15-20 days and so on. 

Let us suppose that you want to sell items from the batch which is going to expire in the next 10 days. You can display the stock items based on varied ageing styles to know how many days are left for that batch to expire. To select the required Ageing Style, 

Select the Group for which Ageing Analysis is required.

Set the Show only Expired Batches option to Yes if you want to display only those batches which have already expired for the given period. 

By Expiry Date: Displays stocks with batches in age-wise break-up for all batches, on the basis of the date of expiry. For instance, if there are multiple batches of the one stock item or different stock items, filtering the report by selecting By Expiry Date as the Ageing style, will help you identify the expiry date of each batch. 

By Mfg. Date: This ageing style takes the manufacturing date of the stock item into account and displays the age-wise break-up accordingly. This will help you in identifying the batches that have been created recently or that are approaching expiry, on the basis of the ageing period (F6) and the reporting period (F2) set.

To be Expired: Displays the age-wise break-up for batches that will expire in the future. The report will be displayed according to the expected expiry date of the stock item. Based on this information you can decide which batch of the stock item needs to be sold off at the earliest. 

With Stock Ageing Analysis in TallyPrime, manage your business well and prevent your company from incurring loss due to expired stock item or depreciation of the stock item’s value by these varied methods. 

A Brief Analysis Of The State Of Drone Market In India

Where do we stand in the drone industry in terms of investments and growth opportunities?

In today’s world,

Investment deficiency

At present, though

New Beginnings

Earlier Indian Government relied on the Chinese market to buy drones for its military and civilian applications. This because of the affordability of the drones of Chinese startups, which is low because of high investments in this market. Also, the Indian Government has imposed a strict ban on the use of UAVs in 2014. Fortunately, it realized its folly, and in October 2023, to support the growth of drone-based services, the Director-General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) first unveiled draft norms for the usage of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS). This came into effect in December 2023. After the announcement of this policy, a huge wave of excitement buzzed in the drone market and industry stakeholders (investors, end-consumers, startup community, and enterprises). This is because

Growth Drivers

The primary reasons why India has a chance to dominate this industry are, 1. Willingness to try new technologies to address new challenges. 2. Increased awareness about the scope and potential of this technology. Awareness can foster engagement that, in turn, encourages adoption. 3. Presence of knowledgeable and highly-skilled workforce to can reap maximum profits from the drones. This shall also bring immense employment opportunities for the interested youth.

In today’s world, drones have the power to propel a nation’s economy to new heights. These flying robots can contribute to the economy of developing countries like India too. As the global leaders are scrambling on how to restart economy post- COVID -19, drones present a great opportunity here. Since the regulations regarding airspace management are becoming more relaxed and rounded, given adequate avenues of investments, India will be set to soar into a new form of growth and open new markets using these UAVs . But how true is it in reality?At present, though India is one of the top countries among the drone importing nations, funding and innovation have dried up Indian drone startups. According to Inc42 DataLabs’, research report, “ Drone Technology: India Opportunity Report 2023 ”, the total funding raised by drone startups in India from 2014 to 2023 was just US$16.56 million which accounts for a mere 2.26% of the total deep tech funding (US$732 million) in the same period. Meanwhile, our neighbor nation China ramped up its investments up to 14x more (US$239 million) than India during 2014-18. This raises an important question that is our nation conducive to the drone market.Earlier Indian Government relied on the Chinese market to buy drones for its military and civilian applications. This because of the affordability of the drones of Chinese startups, which is low because of high investments in this market. Also, the Indian Government has imposed a strict ban on the use of UAVs in 2014. Fortunately, it realized its folly, and in October 2023, to support the growth of drone-based services, the Director-General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) first unveiled draft norms for the usage of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS). This came into effect in December 2023. After the announcement of this policy, a huge wave of excitement buzzed in the drone market and industry stakeholders (investors, end-consumers, startup community, and enterprises). This is because drones offer a plethora of use-cases like surveying and monitoring public and traffic to gathering precise spatial data that can help in India’s smart city planning and administration. Local affiliates and startups are also using drones for agriculture, aerial surveillance of forests, film making, and many more. According to a study conducted by UnearthInsight, it is predicted that the market for commercial end-use of drones in India might hit the US$1 billion mark by chúng tôi primary reasons why India has a chance to dominate this industry are, 1. Willingness to try new technologies to address new challenges. 2. Increased awareness about the scope and potential of this technology. Awareness can foster engagement that, in turn, encourages adoption. 3. Presence of knowledgeable and highly-skilled workforce to can reap maximum profits from the drones. This shall also bring immense employment opportunities for the interested youth. At the same time, drones are turning into B2B and B2C segments for higher scope and investments. E.g., Skylark Drones, a Bengaluru-based data analytics startup, has teamed up with Tata Steel to deploy drones at Tata’s Noamundi iron ore mines in Jharkhand, for compliance reporting and monitoring volumetric production. Zomato, one of India’s largest food-tech firms, has acquired TechEagle to deliver its promise of drone delivery in the country. These examples highlight that things are about to get favorable from the domestic drone industry and therefore drive its growth and R&D investments.

How To Use Canva: Tutorial For Beginners

Are you just starting out with Canva and trying to learn how to use the platform as as seamlessly as possible?

If so, this is the guide for you.

We’ve covered everything a Canva beginner needs to know needs to know to get up and running with this incredible online design tool.

Let’s dive right in.

Jump to a specific section:

What is Canva?

There’s a very good chance that everyone reading this already knows what Canva is, but just in case you don’t here’s a quick introduction for you.

Canva is an online graphic design software that was created to allow anyone, regardless of their design skills and experience, to create professional-looking visuals with ease.

The tool is designed to be as beginner-friendly as possible, so you should have no problems learning how to use it.

With Canva you can create a huge range of designs including posters, logos, videos, social media content, printables, banners, websites, and so much more.

Essentially Canva is the ultimate tool for creating high-quality designs and marketing assets quickly and easily.

Canva homepage

Part 1: Steps to get started with Canva

Below are 10 steps you can take to quickly go from a beginner Canva user to having a solid grasp of the platform.

Step 1: Sign up for an account

You can use Canva without signing up for an account but to get access some important basic features such as being able to save your designs we highly recommend you sign up for a free Canva account.

Signing up for a Canva account

Step 2: Starting a design

To start off a design you can choose between two methods. Either you can start from a blank canvas or a simply choose a predesigned template as the starting point for your design.

Blank canvas

Starting from a blank canvas

You can also select a specific design type under the ‘you might want to try’ header:

Choosing from the ‘You might want to try…’ section

Any of these options will take you to the editor area (which we’ll cover in the next step).


As mentioned you can choose an existing template to start your design from.

To find your ideal template you can either go to the ‘Templates‘ tab via the left side of the homepage and scroll through some of the existing template options:

Link to template area

Templates area

Or you can search for specific templates in the search bar e.g. ‘YouTube thumbnail’ and find a template from the search results page:

Searching for templates

One good method of finding free templates on Canva is to choose a specific design size e.g. ‘Facebook post’, go to the editor with a blank canvas, and then select a template from the side panel.

The templates with a crown icon are the ones only available to Canva Pro users, and the ones without a crown icon are free to use for all users:

Choosing a template from the editor

Step 3: The editor area – basics

To get started with the Canva editor, there are a few basic areas to cover:

Modifying existing elements

If you choose an existing template, there will be various elements already on the canvas. These can be easily modified and customized to your liking.

Adjusting an element on the canvas

You will also see some additional customization options for your selected element above the editor. Depending on the type of element that you’ve selected there will slightly different options here.

For example with a text element you’ll see options such as font type, text size, color, alignment, uppercase, effects (we’ll cover these later), and a few other options:

Text customization options

With a graphic element you’ll see different options depending on the type of element that you’ve selected but the basic options normally include color, flip (e.g. horizontally or vertically), and effects:

Graphic customization options

Whatever element you select you’ll have additional options at the top right of the editor including position – which allows you to align the element to a specific area of the page (e.g. top, middle, bottom, etc.), and transparency – which allows you to change the opacity of a specific element:

Adjusting the position Adjusting the transparency

Grouping elements

Grouping elements

Selecting all elements

Working with layers

If you have several different elements in your design each element will be on its own layer. Sometimes it can be tricky to select a particular element if it’s on a layer that is near or at the bottom of the layers hierarchy.

Selecting deeper layers

You can also adjust the layer position of an element if you select it, then go to ‘Position’ and you can choose to move it forwards, backwards, to the front, or to the back:

Moving a layer forward or backward

Lock elements

If you like how a specific element or group of elements looks within your design, you can make sure they stay exactly how and where they are by locking them in place.

Locking an element

Guidelines & Safezones

If you move around an object on a page, guidelines will appear on the canvas to show you how the selected element lines up with the other elements on the page and also how it lines up on the overall canvas:

Using guidelines

You can also go to ‘File’ and select to show rulers & guides, margins, and print bleeds which is particularly useful if you’re creating print collateral:

Showing the rulers, margins, and print bleed

Undo or Redo changes

Undo and Redo buttons

There’s also the ‘redo’ button if you want to reapply the alteration.

Adding new pages

Adding or duplicating pages

Viewing multiple pages

If you do have multiple pages within the same design file, you can quickly see how they all look together side by side by going to the ‘Grid view’ option.

This is particularly useful if you’re creating something like a Facebook or Instagram carousel post, you can quickly check if all the pages look together:

Grid view button

Grid view

Saving your designs

Before you save your design we’d recommend naming your design, this particularly useful if you plan to create lots of designs, so you can easily come back and find it, and also store in a relevant folder (we’ll cover this later on).

You can even name the individual pages within your design to keep things super clear and organized:

Naming your design files

Saving your design

Step 4: Further customizing your designs

Now that we have the basics covered, let’s dive into some more of the customization options that you have when designing with Canva.


Canva has an incredible amount of design elements that you can use. We’ll only cover the most widely used ones in this guide including graphics, shapes, and photo frames but there is an almost endless amount for you to choose from.

To find the elements that you need you can simply put in a search term to see what’s available e.g. ‘Flowers’.

If you only want to find free elements, you can filter your search results to only show free ones, this option is also available for templates, photos, audio, and video search:

Searching for elements Filtering for free elements

Canva also has ‘Collections’ which are groups of elements in the same style that you can use to keep your designs consistent:

Elements collections


Some of the graphics that you add to your design will allow you to alter the colors, whilst with other graphic elements you might not have that option.

To get around this you can go to ‘Edit image’ and select the Duotone or ColorMix options to alter the colors of these elements:

Going to the ‘Edit image’ area

Using the Duotone color effects


Canva has plenty of shapes, lines, and icons that you can add to your designs to spruce them up:

Line and shape elements


The frames and Grid elements are shapes in which you can add images too. They offer a really quick to create interesting and unique designs.

To use these, all you need to do is add one to your page, then go to the photos tab, find a photo that works for you and drag it over the frame or grid and the image when then appear inside it:

Frames and grids in Canva

Adding a photo to a frame

Other elements includes:

Graphs and charts


Stickers (animated elements)


And much more.

Seeing more elements from an artist, and also ‘Starring’ an element


The text elements on Canva are very easy to adjust and customize too. You simply go to the text tab on the left side of the editor, and you can add a heading, subheading, or body text element, and this will be added to the page.

Adding new text elements

You can choose from a range of text presets and combinations that Canva has already together. These already have some text effect applied to them.

Text presets and font combinations

If you’re looking to spruce up a text element in your design you can select it, and then go to the effects area. You’ll see a whole range of options here.

Text effects

For example, you could select ‘Shadow’ which adds a drop shadow effect to your selected text element and you get a few additional customizations options such as being able to change the opacity, the color, and more:

Adding a text shadow effect


Canva has a huge library of stock photos that you can utilize for your designs. Many of which are free to use for free Canva users.

You can put in a search term to find specific, and Canva also has some theme suggestions as well as trending photos to help you find the photos that you’re looking for:

Photos tab

Adding a new photo

There’s also the background remover tool, which is only available for Canva Pro users at the moment (we’ll cover this in the Canva Pro section):

Image effects

You can apply filters to the photo and add color effects such as Duotone and Colormix:

Image color effects

And you can crop photos too if you only want to use a specific section of the photo:

Image crop option

The image will appear in Canva for you to use (just make sure you’re allowed to use that image before you do this):

Photo from Unsplash

Pasting the photo directly into the Canva editor


In the backgrounds tab you unsurprisingly have a huge number of background images that you can use for your designs.

The are all categorized into themes such as landscapes, food, nature, etc. to make easy for you to find the kind of background you need. You can also search for one if you have something specific in mind.

Backgrounds tab

The backgrounds can be customized in the same way that any other image can be on the Canva.


If you’re in need of inspiration when it comes to color palette of your design, or even the font combinations that you should be using the ‘Styles’ tab in the Canva editor will be really useful for you.

They have a range of suggested color palettes, font sets, and also combinations of all these things that you can select and it will automatically apply those suggestions to your page or all the pages of your design if you choose that option:

‘Styles’ tab

There’s also the ‘Shuffle’ button which allows you to use the selected suggested color palette and font combinations but switch them around to see how they work best with your design:

‘Shuffling’ styles


You can then select one of the animations available and this will be applied to all the elements on the selected page:

Page level animations

You can do the same for individual elements too, so rather than animating everything on a page it will only apply to the selected element:

Element level animations

You can even upload files directly from other platforms including Dropbox, Facebook, Instagram, Google Drive, and Google photos:

Uploading from third party sources

The elements you upload can be customized in the same way as any other Canva element.

Utilize previous designs

If you have made designs before, these will be under the ‘All your designs’ tab. So, if you want to create a similar design you add a previous one to your page and modify it, or grab elements from it that you want to use for your new design:

Accessing previous designs

Related articles:

Step 5: Creating videos

To create videos in Canva, you can start off by choosing your video format with a blank canvas.

If you navigate to the videos tab on the Canva homepage you’ll see a range of video options including the standard 1920x1080px, mobile video, slideshow video, Instagram reel, and several others:

Video options on Canva

From a blank canvas you can add videos from Canva’s library (or upload your own videos), graphics, audio, etc. to start creating your video.

Alternatively, if you have a specific format in mind already e.g. an Instagram story video, you can search for templates, and choose one that you like to start off your video creation:

Instagram story video templates

The editing options available will be the same regardless of what video format or templates you choose.

To show you how to edit and create a video we’ll utilize a template.

When you’re in the editor and you’ve selected a video element you’ll see the customization options above the editor, these will include the ‘Edit video’ section where you can remove the video background (Pro feature only) and also add light and color adjustments to the chosen video element:

Video background remover

Video adjustments

You can also trim the length of the video or choose which part of the video file you want to feature in your design:

Trimming the video length

Trimming the video length

The other options on the top bar are the playback options (e.g. auto play or loop video), crop (to adjust which part of the video file you want to show within your design), flip, and animate (although the animations will only effect the non-video elements of your design such as text, graphics, etc.):

Other video options

You can adjust the audio volume (if there is audio) from the top bar as well:

Adjusting the audio volume

Speaking of audio, Canva has a huge library of audio files that you can use for your video designs. A lot of their audio library is available to Pro users only but you can access a decent amount for free as well.

Once you’ve found an audio file that you like you can simply drag it onto your canvas, and you will get the options to adjust it and add effects to it:

Adding an audio file

Depending on the length of your video you will be able to adjust the audio file or choose a specific section of it to match up with your video:

Choosing a specific part of the audio file

And the effects that you can do at the moment include a ‘Fade in’ and ‘Fade out’:

Audio effects

At the bottom of the editor is the video timeline. Here you have the preview button so you can see how you’re video is looking as you’re editing it, and can also trim the video and audio elements from here too:

Adjusting the video length

There’s also the ‘add page’ button which adds a new scene to your video (You can upload a new video file to add to this page or grab a video from the ‘Video’s tab):

Adding a new page and video file

Adding a transition

The transition options will appear on the left side of the editor:

Transition options

When you’re happy with your video you can download it – usually this be as an MP4 file.

More elements you can add to your video

To spruce up your video you can add text elements, graphics, and stickers:

Adding graphics to the video

You can even add animations to specific elements too to make your videos even more engaging:

Adding animations to elements

Another useful tip when you’re creating video in Canva is to use reuse video elements that you’ve already created. For example, if you’re creating YouTube videos and you always use the same video intro, you can go the ‘All your designs’ tab, find that particular design and add it to your video timeline:

Reusing older video designs

Step 6: Downloading your designs

Downloading a design

You can then choose the format that you want for your download (e.g. PNG, JPG, etc.), if you’ve created a design that has some animation you’ll want to select the GIF or MP4 format for your download.

Choosing a file type

If you have multiple pages in your design, you can choose to only download a specific page:

Choosing the pages you want to download

You’ll notice the crown icon next to a few options in the download area. These are options that are only available to Canva Pro users – we’ll cover these a bit later on.

Step 7: Sharing your designs

You can share your designs in several ways on Canva, either to individuals or straight to social media platforms.

You can either invite someone to view or edit the design by entering their email under ‘Share this design’ or you can make the design ‘public’ copy the link to the design file and share it to anyone you like:

Sharing a design

Sharing with a team

You can also share your designs directly to various social media platforms including Facebook pages, Facebook groups, Instagram, and several others:

Sharing via social media

Step 8: Organizing your designs

From the Canva homepage, you can go to the ‘Projects’ area via the left side menu, navigate to the ‘Folders’ tab and you can create some folders to help organize the designs you’ve made or plan to make:

Folders area

Moving designs to a folder

Saving a design directly to a folder

We highly recommend creating folders for your designs, especially if you plan to create a lot of them, they can pile up quickly.

Step 9: Using Canva’s integrations

Canva has a lot of integrations with other apps and products. We won’t cover all of them here so be sure to browse through them all in your time, but we’ll cover some of most commonly used ones to help you get started with them.

When you’re in the Canva editor you can navigate to the ‘More’ tab on the left side panel and this will show you all the integrations that you can utilize whilst editing a design in Canva:

Adding Canva integrations

Two commonly used integrations are the Pexels and Pixabay ones, and these give you access to even more stock photos and videos that are available on these platforms, and these are available to free users too:

Adding Pexels an Pixabay

Here are some other commonly used and interesting integrations or add-ons:

YouTube – add YouTube videos to your designs

GIPHY – Add GIFs from GIPHY’s library

Canva Draw – scribble or sketch on your designs

QR code – add QR codes to your designs

Stipop – Add stickers from Stipop’s library

Import integrations

Canva also has integrations that allow you to import your Canva designs with other products that you might be using.

We’ve already mentioned the social media ones, but there are plenty of others. Again we won’t cover them all here, so be sure to investigate them all for yourself.

Import integrations

If your a Powtoon user, you can also import your Canva designs to be used in your Powtoon account to help you create amazing animations and videos

You can also import your Canva designs directly to your Mailchimp account if you use that platform for your email campaigns:

Mailchimp, Powtoon, and Smartmockups import integrations

Here are some other import integrations that we think could be useful for Canva beginners:

PandaDoc – proposals, contracts, and other docs

HeyZine – create animated flipbooks

OptiSigns – Digital signage

Related articles:

Step 10: Use shortcuts

We’ve mentioned a few of these already, but as you get used to using Canva you can use these common shortcuts to make your workflow even faster:

Zoom in: Command/control +

Zoom out: Command/control –

Delete: Delete key

Create a text box: T key

Select all: Command/control + A

Move 1 pixel: Arrow keys

Move 10 pixels: Shift + arrow keys

Undo: Command/control + Z

Redo: Command/control shift + Z

Copy: Command/control + C

Paste: Command/control + V

Here’s a full breakdown of all the Canva shortcuts:

Canva shortcuts

Related articles:

Part 2: Using Canva Pro features

For those of you considering upgrading to Canva Pro, here are some of the most useful features for beginners.

Pro templates, elements, photos, and more

With Canva Pro you’ll get access to the full range of design templates, elements, photos, videos, audio files, and fonts on Canva.

There is plenty on offer with a free Canva account but having full access gives you almost endless possibilities and inspiration when it comes to creating amazing visuals:

Pro templates Pro photos

Background remover

Canva Pro also allows you to use the background remover. This is extremely useful if you want to use elements from photos or bitmojis and add them on top of other designs.

If you select a photo in Canva, you simply need to go to ‘Edit photo’ and select the background remover, and it a matter of seconds the background will be gone:

Canva’s background remover

You can now also remove the background from videos which is an incredible feature. It works the same way, if you have a video element selected, you simply need to go to ‘Edit video’ and select the video background remover:

Canva’s video background remover

Design resize

If you plan to create multiple design assets in the same style e.g. Instagram post, Instagram story, Facebook post, etc. you can quickly resize a design you’re working on to be copied in your new chosen format.

Quick design resize

Additional download options

When you’re downloading a design, having a Canva Pro account gives you access to even more download options.

This includes being able to download designs with a transparent background, file compression (for smaller file sizes), SVG files, and also the ability to change the dimensions of a design before you download it:

Extra download options Download as an SVG

Upload your own fonts & logos

If you have fonts that you want to use that aren’t available on Canva, with a Canva Pro account you can upload your own.

Upload your own fonts

Version history

If you do a whole bunch of changes to a design but in the end you’re not too happy with the changes you’ve made, Canva Pro gives you access to the version history of your designs so you can revert back to a version you’re happy with.

Version history

Brand kit

You can create multiple brand kit’s with a Canva Pro account. It’s a useful area to add your brand color palettes, logos, and fonts:

Brand kit area

When you’re in the editor area, you can quickly access your brand assets if you’re changing the color of an element or the font of a text element.

It just saves you so much as you don’t have to search for you brand colors or fonts every time you want to use them:

Brand kit – fonts Brand kit – colors

Save your designs as templates

If you’re looking to optimize your workflow on Canva even more, you can create design templates for designs that you will create often.

For example, you might often share quotes on Instagram, so you could create a template for Instagram quote posts, and then use it every time you plan to create a new one.

Creating a template for your team

You can also create templates to share or sell.

Anyone who gets the link to your template will be able to access and edit it themselves within their own Canva account.

Creating a template to share/sell

Content planner

If you plan to create a lot of social media content on Canva, the Content Planner pro feature is going to be a game changer for you.

Schedule a design

You can then navigate to your content planner via the Canva homepage to see what post you have scheduled. It’s such a huge timesaver for users who are active on social media:

Content planner on Canva

Extra storage

With a free Canva account you get 5GB of storage, which is not bad at all. However, if you upgrade to Canva Pro you get up to 1TB of storage.

So, if you plan to create lots and lots of designs or upload many of your own files, videos, and images, it’s well worth upgrading so you can store all of it in the Canva cloud.

For the full range of Canva Pro features, check out the Canva pricing page.

Related articles

Part 3: What to use Canva for

Here’s just a taste of what you can use Canva for:

Selling your designs

You can also sell your Canva designs on websites like Etsy and Creative Market. It’s a good option for those of you looking to create a side income.

Here are a couple of helpful videos from people who are doing just that:

Related articles

Part 4: How to use the Canva app

Canva’s mobile app offers many of the same tools, templates, and functionality as the browser version. So, if you’re someone who likes to use your mobile for most things it could be a good option for you.

Here’s a video that gives you a good introduction to the Canva mobile app:

Canva mobile app introduction video

Wrapping things up

So, there you have it, that’s how to use Canva for beginners.

No matter what your experience is with design software you should have no problems learning how to use Canva, it’s such a user friendly tool.

3D Touch Tips And Tricks For The Stock Videos App

In this day and age of YouTube streaming and on-demand video, the stock Videos app feels a little outdated and way too limited in terms of features though it gets the job done.

With the Videos app, you can watch movies, televisions shows and music videos that you bought or rented from the iTunes Store, as well as enjoy your personal clips synchronized from iTunes on your computer.

On the iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus, using the Videos app is a little more engaging thanks to 3D Touch. In this tutorial, we’ll let you in on 3D Touch shortcuts and gestures that are available  in the Videos app.

Continue watching videos from the Home screen

Press the icon of the Videos app on the Home screen of your iPhone 6s or iPhone 6s Plus to access the shortcuts menu. There, you can access up to four most recently watched videos, including ones you haven’t finished watching, those you have watched through to the end and the videos you have recently downloaded from the iTunes Store and didn’t start watching yet.

iOS keeps your watching history synchronized across devices so you can start watching a movie on, say, your Apple TV and pick up right where you left off on another device. And with 3D Touch, continuing a video is as easy as selecting it in the shortcuts menu on the Home screen of your iPhone 6s.

The menu even lists the time remaining (for example, “5 min remaining”) and whether you have watched a video through to the end, in which case you’ll see “Watch again” below the video title.

Preview movies

Tap the Movies tab at the bottom to access the movies downloaded to your device as well as your cloud purchases (as denoted by a cloud icon) that you haven’t downloaded yet. To preview a movie, press it lightly in the movie list. Press a little harder to pop open the item in full screen mode.

Preview TV shows

Like movies, TV shows in the cloud and those you’ve downloaded to your iPhone 6s ore iPhone 6s Plus can be accessed by tapping the TV Shows button at the bottom. You can preview the whole series or individual episodes by pressing an item lightly.

While peeking at the episode, press a tad harder to go full screen. Pressing a TV show season in the list will peek at the available show seasons, as seen below.

Preview music videos

As you may have guessed, previewing music videos downloaded to your device or those in the cloud is the same as peeking at movies and TV show episodes. Just press an item lightly in the music videos list to preview a video, or press a little harder to go full screen.

As mentioned, you can also preview your personal clips with 3D Touch though you’ll need to synchronize them first from iTunes on your computer.

Hiding your cloud purchases

To hide your purchased movies, TV shows and music videos so that you see only the clips downloaded to your device, go to Settings → Videos and toggle the Show iTunes Purchases switch to the OFF position.

There, you can also choose where to resume playback the next time you open a video and sign into Home Sharing with your Apple ID to stream the videos from your computer.

Did you find this article useful? Are you going to be using these 3D Touch shortcuts and gestures in the Videos app?

3D Touch guides for other stock apps

We have covered 3D Touch shortcuts, gestures and tips and tricks in other stock Apple applications. If you’re interested in making the most from 3D Touch on your iPhone 6s or iPhone 6s Plus, check out our selection of 3D Touch how-tos in our archives:

Need help? Ask iDB!

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