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What is Professional Risk Manager (PRM)?

A Professional Risk Manager (PRM) manages the risks that could affect an organization or project. They usually possess a background in finance, economics, accounting, or a related field and are knowledgeable about risk management tools and methods.

Further, they have a good understanding of the organization’s industry, operations, products, and services. Professional Risk Managers use various tools and techniques to detect, assess, and monitor risks, and they are assigned to develop and implement risk-mitigation strategies.

Role of Professional Risk Manager

The primary duties of a Professional Risk Manager involve analyzing financial statements, creating risk reports, and overseeing the organization’s activities and investments to identify potential sources of risk.

PRMs play a crucial role in helping organizations navigate the uncertainties and challenges of the business environment by developing risk management policies and procedures, communicating risk assessments to senior management, and implementing strategies to mitigate risks. They work closely in sync with other departments in the organization, such as legal, compliance, and audit, to ensure that risks are properly addressed.

PRM Exam Infographic

How to Become a Professional Risk Manager?

Here are some suggestions in order to become a professional risk manager:

1. Education: Various organizations and institutions offer certification programs in risk management, such as the Professional Risk Manager (PRM) designation, awarded by the Professional Risk Managers’ International Association (PRMIA). This certification can help you exhibit your risk management expertise, enhancing your job prospects.

2. Skill Development: It is important to develop the required skills, such as analytical, communication, and problem-solving abilities.

3. Experience Building: One can acquire experience in the field of risk management by working in positions such as risk analyst, risk consultant, or internal auditor.

4. Staying Updated: Furthermore, one must also stay up-to-date with regard to the latest developments and best practices involved in risk management.


Professional Risk Managers’ International Association (PRMIA) offers a PRM certification program, which can be registered via the following steps:

PRMIA offers various study packages, e.g., self-study, online instructor-led, and classroom courses.

The registration fee varies depending on the study package you choose.

You will now gain access to the PRM study materials, which include textbooks, practice exams, and other resources.

To earn the PRM certification, you must pass a series of four exams that cover topics such as risk management theory, financial instruments, and operational risk.

PRM Exam Overview

The PRM exam is an internationally recognized risk management certification program covering financial instruments, risk measurement, and risk management frameworks. It is divided into four levels that gradually increase knowledge and abilities through multiple-choice questions and a case study test.

Exam Title

Test Length (number of test questions)

Testing Time Limit

Exam 1 60 questions 4 hours

Exam 2 84 questions 4 hours

(Source: PRM Guidebook)

Eligibility & Requirements

Having a current sustaining membership with PRMIA is necessary.

The candidate must have completed graduate school (i.e., MBA, MSF, MQF, etc.) or be a current CFA charter holder.

The following are the requirements concerning experience in the absence of a Master’s degree:

Two years of full-time work experience along with a bachelor’s degree

Four years of full-time work experience

The work experience must be related to finance or risk management departments.

Candidates must pay the required fees to opt for the exam.

The program must be concluded within three years of enrollment. One must pass the exams within a period of two years, although exemptions can apply.


Individuals who have designations of (CFA) Chartered Financial Analyst or Certified International Investment Analyst (CIIA) can get an exemption from Exam 1. CFA holders are also exempted from any experience requirement.

New PRM applicants can apply for an exemption in the application form. Although there is no extra exemption fee, the total program fee must still be paid.

Current PRM candidates who want to apply for an exemption should upload the required paperwork to the “PRMIA Certification Profile” tab in their member profile.

Exam Dates

*Scheduling Window – the time frame in which you may contact Pearson VUE and fix the date you will sit for the exam (testing window).

**Testing Window – days you can sit for your exam.

Scheduling Window*

Testing Window**

January 1 – March 10, 2023 February 13 – March 10, 2023

March 11 – June 16, 2023 May 22 – June 16, 2023

June 17 – September 8, 2023 August 14 – September 8, 2023

September 9 – December 15, 2023 November 13 – December 15, 2023

January 1 – March 8, 2024 February 12 – March 8, 2024

March 9 – June 14, 2024 May 20 – June 14, 2024

June 15 – September 6, 2024 August 12 – September 6, 2024

September 7 – December 13, 2024 November 11 – December 13, 2024

January 1 – March 7, 2025 February 10 – March 7, 2025

March 8 – June 13, 2025 May 19 – June 13, 2025

June 14 – September 5, 2025 August 11 – September 5, 2025

September 6 – December 12, 2025 November 10 – December 12, 2025

Syllabus and Structure




1. Finance Theory

Arbitrage Pricing Theory

The CAPM and Multifactor Models

Capital Structures

Mean-Variance Portfolio Theory

Performance Measures

The Term Structure of Interest Rates

Regulatory Frameworks

Trade Terminology

2. Financial Instruments


Forward and Futures Contracts



Credit Derivatives

Hedging Strategies

3. Financial Markets

Participants in and the Structure of Financial Markets

Bond Markets

Money Market Securities

Stock Market

Foreign Exchange Markets

Energy Markets

Commodities Markets

Real Estate Evaluation

Futures Markets

4. Mathematical Foundations of Risk Measurement

Algebraic Methods

Calculus Methods Related to Risk Management

Basic Statistics Related to Risk Management

Numerical Methods

Matrix Algebra

Probability Theory in Finance

Regression Analysis in Finance

Compounding Methods

5. Risk Management Frameworks and Operational Risk

Risk Governance

Risk Management Framework

Risk Assessment

Risk Information

Risk Modeling

6. Credit Risk and Counterparty Credit Risk

Classic Credit Life Cycle

Classic Credit Products

Classic Credit Risk Methodology

Counterparty Risk

Credit Derivatives and Securitization

Credit Portfolio Management

Credit Risk Modeling

Valuation Adjustments (XVA)

Leverage Ratio

Risk Mitigation

7. Market Risk, Asset Liability Management and Funds Transfer Pricing

Asset Liability Management

Liquidity Risk

Interest Rate Risk

Market Risk Management and Stress Testing

Market Risk Monitoring

8. Case Study Practicum

Risk Taxonomy

Historical Case Studies

9. Prmia Standards and Governance

Group of Thirty Best Practices

PRMIA Governance Principles and Bylaws

PRMIA Code of Conduct and Ethics


Domains Assessed

Number of Stand-Alone Test Questions [1]

Number of Practicum-Based Test Questions [2]

Proportion Across Both Exams

PRM Exam 1 PRM Exam 2

I. Finance Theory




II. Financial Instruments




III. Financial Markets




IV. Mathematical Foundations of Risk Measurement




V. Risk Management Frameworks and Operational Risk




VI. Credit Risk and Counterparty Credit Risk




VII. Market Risk, Asset Liability Management and Funds Transfer Pricing




VIII. Case Study Practicum [3]


20 [4]


IX. PRMIA  Standards and Governance








[1] Stand-alone test questions are questions intended to be answered based on the information provided in the question’s stem or prompt. The answer to the question will refer only to the content provided in that specific question.

[2] Practicum-based test questions are questions intended to be answered based on the information provided in the scenario that precedes the question. The question’s stem or prompt may require additional information to be identified from the provided scenario in order to answer the question.

[3] The Case Study Practicum portion of PRM exam 2 includes test questions that assess the application of knowledge from domains I through VII. Due to the nature of the practical application of the lessons learned from the case studies, different skill sets and knowledge will be assessed with each practicum. As a result, each exam form may contain different sets of test questions assessing these areas.

[4] The Case Study Practicum includes 4 sets of 5 test questions, to make up the 20 total test questions that assess the application of the lessons learned from the PRMIA Case Studies. Each set of test questions may include between 0-2 questions related to domains I-IV and will include between 4–7 questions related to domains V-VII.


To commence the enrollment process for the PRM Program, an Application Fee of US$150 must be paid.

Upon the approval of the application, the person must pay a PRM Program fee of US$1080.

In addition, a Sustaining Membership is mandatory, which amounts to US$225.

Please note that there can be an extra charge for retaking exams, expired exam authorizations, or if a scheduled exam was missed without prior notice.

Study Resources

PRM Handbooks and Study Guides: The PRM Handbook covers the syllabus for the PRM exams and provides detailed information on risk management-related concepts, principles, and practices. Likewise, PRM study guides are particularly designed for PRM exam preparation. They outline the key concepts and provide practice questions and exercises to reinforce the content learned.

Practice Exams: Practice exams are crucial for exam preparation, as it introduces the exam format, time constraints, and types of questions. PRMIA offers official practice exams that simulate the actual exam experience for the students.

Online Courses: Several online platforms offer PRM exam preparation courses. These courses comprise video lectures, study materials, practice questions, and mock exams. They provide structured learning and allow you to study at your own pace.

Reference Books: Several books on risk management can be used as reference materials for the PRM exam. Some recommended books are “Financial Risk Management: A Practitioner’s Guide to Managing Market and “Risk Management and Financial Institutions” by John C. Hull.

Online Forums: Engaging in online forums and discussion groups dedicated to PRM exam preparation can be quite useful. One can connect and correspond with other candidates, exchange study materials, ask queries, and obtain insights from their experiences.

PRM Results and Passing Rates

The PRM passing rates are estimated to be around 65%. Moreover, the pass rates for individual exams range from 59% (Exams I and III) to 78% (Exam IV).

Career Prospects

There are various career prospects available for individuals with Professional Risk Manager designation, such as:

Risk Analysts or Consultants

Compliance Officer

Portfolio Manager

Risk Modeler

Quantitative Analyst


Here is a graph outlining the average salaries pertaining to the domain of professional risk management:

(Source: Payscale)

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

Q1. Is the PRM certification recognized globally?

Answer: Yes, the PRM certification is globally recognized in the domain of risk management. Financial institutions, organizations, and risk management specialists hold value for it across the world.

Q2. What are the prerequisites for taking the PRM Exam?

Answer: There are no prerequisites for the PRM Exam. Nonetheless, a good foundation in statistics, mathematics, finance, and economics can be quite useful for comprehending the concepts in the exam. Please check out the eligibility criteria in the sections mentioned earlier in the article.

Q3. Can we retake a failed PRM Exam?

Answer: Yes, if you do not attain a passing score, you can retake the exam. The number of times you can retake an exam is unlimited. However, the exam fee must be paid every time.

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Top 10 Behavioral Finance Books(Updated For 2023)

Best Books for Reading about Behavioral Finance

Behavioral finance books explain the psychology of investors affects the market. It studies the psychological prejudices of investors and financial practitioners. Understanding Behavioral Finance can help economists understand consumers’ financial decisions and how it affects the market.

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Below is the list of books through which professionals and beginners can enhance their understanding of behavioral finance.

Now we will go through the reviews individually.

Book #1:  Behavioral Finance What Everyone Needs to Know

Authors: Greg Filbeck, H. Kent Baker, John R. Nofsinger

Get this book here.


John R. Nofsinger is a renowned expert in behavioral finance. This book on Behavioral Finance explains people’s common mistakes while investing and managing their finances. The book gives an insight into the social and cultural biases of the consumer and how they interpret and process financial information.

Key Points

The book tells readers how to correct their mistakes.

It deals with the events that escalated into the 2007-08 recession and how it prompted the common people’s understanding of financial decisions.

Book #2: Behavioral Finance and Wealth Management

Author: Michael M. Pompian

Get the book here.


Having certain biases while investing or before making a financial decision is natural. This book will help its readers understand Belief Perseverance Biases, Information Processing Biases, and Emotional Biases, along with other biases. It talks about how these biases affect financial decisions. In addition, this book will also help in strategizing investment and wealth management in specific ways.

Key Points

This book provides great insights into cognitive and behavioral biases and how to overcome the biases while investing and financial planning.

The book explains relevant and practical issues with ease, which will help professionals and beginners in the financial realm.

Book #3: Value Investing and Behavioral Finance

Author: Parag Parikh

Get the book here.

Review Key Points

The author has focused on the mistakes people make while investing and has tried to rectify the errors based on his in-depth research of the Indian capital market.

This book explains how behavioral biases affect investment decisions. It also describes how long-term value investing and contrarian investment strategies can give good returns.

This book highlights how to pick good investment opportunities in the form of growth and commodity stocks. It teaches how to identify a “crisis” or “bubble” in the market.

Book #4: Thinking Fast and Slow

Author: Daniel Kahneman

Get the book here.

Review Key Points

The book emphasizes the thinking process of the human brain. It shows how 2 systems of the brain fight for supremacy with real-life examples.

This book shows the pros and cons of slow and fast thinking and how we overestimate our ability to predict the future.

It helps formulate strategies to prevent mental lapses that frequently result in difficulty.

Book #5: Predictably Irrational

Author: Dan Ariely

Get the book here.


This book explains why we make irrational decisions considering them as rational and logical decisions. It is a witty and genuine take on human thinking. The author tries to answer the basic questions of why we do what we do. The book gives real-life examples of relativity and how our attraction to the words “free” and “zero” affects decision-making.

Key Points

The book talks about how using real-life examples helps understand the psychology behind decision-making.

It uses everyday experience to explain the concept of behavioral finance to its readers.

It is a true companion for those who want to explore behavioral finance.

Book #6: Behavioral Investing: A Practitioner Guide to Behavioral Finance

Author: James Montier

Get the book here.


This book intends to cover the applications of behavioral finance. The book deals with applied psychology and emphasizes biases and market issues. It describes in-depth research on applied psychology to challenge the prevailing market theories and practical applications, which makes investing more accessible.

Key Points

The book covers the learnings on “The Tao of Investing,” “The Seven Sins of Fund Management,” and “Investment Myth Busting.”

Real-life examples of how psychologically influenced investment models can benefit an individual’s wealth.

This book can be helpful for investment professionals and financial aspirants.

Book #7: Behavioral Finance and Your Portfolio

Author: Michael M. Pompian


This book’s author is a seasoned campaigner in the field of behavioral finance, i.e., Michael M. Pompian. The book’s prime focus is to maximize and manage the portfolio while dealing with cognitive, emotional, and anchor biases.

Key Points

Learn the difference between emotional and cognitive biases with the help of several case studies and quizzes mentioned in the book.

The readers will learn how investor bias prevents them from maximizing their wealth.

Learn the art of investing even when the market is challenging and unfavorable.

Book #8: The Psychology of Money

Author: Morgan Housel

Get the book here.


Morgan Housel is the 2-time winner of the Best in Business Award. The book deals with the complicated relationship between humans and money. The author emphasizes the importance of long-term investing, patience while investing, and time and savings. It explains the difference between being rich and being wealthy.

Key Points

Your behavior with money is often more important than how intelligent you are.

It is a book that will teach you about financial decisions.

It will also tell you how making the right decision will help you amass a good amount of savings in a reasonable time.

Book #9: Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics

Author: Richard H. Thaler

Get the book here.


Richard H. Thaler is the renowned Noble Prize winner author in economics and one of the founders of the field of behavioral economics. This book of his covers the core concept of behavioral economics. The book explains how our cognitive biases affect decision-making, often proving irrational. The author has used his personal experience to overcome emotional and cognitive biases.

Key Points

This book explains how different types of information affect people’s decisions and how their biases, herd mentality, and cognitive rationality influences social and economic outcomes.

It explains the rationale behind any decision and why we take it.

This book is a humorous account of behavioral economics with real-life examples. It explains the history and evolution of behavioral economics as a subject.

Book #10: Beyond Greed and Fear

Author: Hersh Shefrin

Get the book here.


In this book, Hersh Shefrin discusses the psychology of fear and mistakes. Mistakes are part and parcel of life. No matter how experienced a person is, they are bound to make mistakes. And when some lucrative opportunity arrives, we tend to let bias, overconfidence, and emotions cloud our judgment. The author uses the latest research to understand human behavior while selecting stocks, investments, etc. This book will explain the minuscule details of behavioral finance.

Key Points

Everyone is prone to make mistakes, whether a common person or a wall street professional.

An in-depth explanation of “market inefficiencies”, “heuristic biases,” and “frame dependence”.

Holistic explanation of Behavioral Finance.

Recommended Books

Our top 10 Behavioral Finance Books article aims to help you. For more such articles, EDUCBA recommends the following,

Conditional Formatting For Dates In Excel

Conditional Formatting for Dates in Excel (Table of Contents)

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Conditional formatting for dates in Excel means it formats the particular data per your criteria. Here we will discuss formatting dates to highlight/format the dates we want in a particular format. The selected dates, i.e., the dates before today, dates of Sundays, weekends, and many more.

Step: 1

First of all, we need to select the data which we need to be formatted.

Step: 2

Now the options available for us are many, but here we have to use them to format the dates.

Step: 3

Here we have an option to highlight the Date from yesterday to next month, and we also have the built-in option of how we want these dates to be highlighted. Like the color of the text and the colored cell, there are some fixed options. Kindly see the following image for the reference of the options available.

How to Use Conditional Formatting for Dates in Excel?

As we have seen in the above examples, the conditional formatting for dates can be used in situations like Found duplicate dates or highlighting the required dates of the week by making formula, and we can highlight the dates which are on Monday, Sunday or any other day of the week.

Using built-in options, we can highlight the dates of Yesterday, Today Next Month, or if the built-in option is not usable for us, we can make our own rules. We can format the data as we want using formulas like a weekday, today, date, and Now.

You can download this Conditional Formatting for Dates Excel Template here – Conditional Formatting for Dates Excel Template

Example #1 – Highlight the Dates of Next Week

For this example, we will see the basic example highlighting last week’s dates.

Suppose we have data on the drug with its expiry dates as follows.

Now we will select all dates, go to the conditional formatting tool from the Home menu, and select the A Date Occurring.

As we want the next week’s dates, we have selected the “Next week” option, and for formatting, we have selected the “Light Red Fill with Dark Red text.”

As we can see from the screenshot below, two drugs have an expiry date of next week, highlighted with Light Red and filled with Dark Red text as required.

Similarly, we can do the same to highlight the dates of Yesterday to Next Month from built-in options.

Example #2 – Highlight Dates of Weekends

For this example, we must explore making new rules, as no built-in option exists to highlight the weekend dates. Suppose we have data on the drug with its expiry dates as follows.

As no built-in option is available to highlight the weekends, we need to make a rule which identifies the weekend from the given dates and then format and highlight the weekends.

So first of all, here we need the formula to identify the dates weekends from the given dates; we can use the formula =weekday.

The logic we can use with this formula is =weekday(serial_number, [return_type])

Here we have serial number C2 to C9, return value will be in column # 2,

The logic for this formula is we highlight the date for which the weekday is greater than 5.

The output is given below.

Select the option. Use a formula to determine which cell to format.

A box, “Format Cells,” will open, and we can fill any color we want.

As per the results, three expiry dates are at weekends.

Example #3 – Highlight the Dates Past Today

Suppose we have the data for this example as per the image below.

We want to highlight the dates past today (09/04/2023), so which dates before 09th April 2023 will be highlighted.

So for this operation, we do not have any built-in option available.

Here we can do this operation by using the =NOW() function

The steps will be as follows:

Select the Expiry Dates from the column.

A box will open, selecting the Rule type Format only Cells that contain.

In the rule description, select Cell Value in the first box and Less than in the second box, and type =NOW() function in the third box.

Here, for example, we have used a Green color.

As per the below image, we can see that the dates which are in the past tense are now formatted in Green color.

You might think that it is much easier to do this manually, but when we have larger data, it will be very useful, and also, we can use it on a very large scale.

Things to Remember about Conditional Formatting for Dates in Excel

To apply this conditional formatting, there are things to remember.

Before applying the formatting, we have to select the columns for which the formatting needs to be applied.

While creating a new rule, the formula should be applied before applying the formatting to verify the logic.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Conditional Formatting for Dates in Excel. Here we discussed using conditional formatting for Dates in Excel and practical examples, and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

Top 25 Ruby Interview Questions & Answers Updated For 2023

Ruby Interview Questions and Answers

The following article provides an outline for Ruby’s Interview Questions. So if you have finally found your dream job in Ruby but are wondering how to crack the 2023 Ruby Interview and what could be the probable Ruby Interview Questions. Every interview is different, and the job scope is different too. Keeping this in mind, we have designed the most common Ruby Interview Questions and answers to help you get success in your interview.

Ruby is a dynamic, open-source programming language focusing on simplicity and productivity. It has an elegant syntax that is natural to read and easy to write. Ruby is a language of careful balance. Ruby is a pure object-oriented programming language. Ruby is simple in appearance but is very complex inside, just like our human body. In Ruby, everything is an object.

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Below is the list of the top 2023 Ruby Interview Questions and Answers:

Part 1 – Ruby Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Ruby Interview Questions and Answers:

Q1. How will you define Ruby’s programming language?


Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, general-purpose, open-source programming language focusing on simplicity and productivity. Ruby is a pure object-oriented programming language with simple in appearance and complex inside.

Q2. Can you explain the different features of the Ruby Programming Language?

Below is the list of features offered by Ruby:

Ruby is open-source and is freely available on the Web.

Ruby is a general-purpose and interpreted programming language.

Ruby is a true object-oriented programming language.

Ruby is a server-side scripting language that is very much similar to Python and PERL.

Ruby can be used to write Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts.

Ruby can be embedded into Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

Ruby has a clean and easy syntax that allows a new developer to learn very quickly and easily.

Ruby has a syntax similar to that of many programming languages, such as C++ and Perl.

Q3. What are the different Ruby editors?


Below are different editors for Linux and Windows:

You can use Notepad or Edit Plus on Windows.

You can use VIM on Linux.

RubyWin is a Ruby Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for Windows.

Ruby Development Environment IDE for Windows users.

Q4. What is the difference between raise/rescue and throw/catch in ruby?


Raise and rescue is used to raise and handle exceptions which are often used for exception handling, whereas throw and catch accept only matching symbols as arguments and are considered as a control-flow structure and not used for exception handling in common. Raise and Rescue is the fundamental part of the Ruby language.

Q5. What are Ruby variables, and explain each?


There are four types of variables in Ruby:

Global Variables: These variables start with $, and their scope is available for the entire Ruby program.

Class Variables: These variables start with @@ and are accessible by all instances of the class that is defined.

Local Variable: These variables start with a lowercase letter or an underscore, and the scope is within the function or code construct where it is declared.

Instance Variable: These variables start with @ and are similar to class variables, except class variables are local to a single class instance.

Q6. What are the different variables in Ruby?


Ruby has four types of variables:

Local Variables: Local variables are the variables that are defined in a method. Local variables are not available outside the method.

Instance Variables: Instance variables are available across methods for any particular instance or object. That means that instance variables change from object to object.

Class Variables: Class variables are available across different objects. A class variable belongs to the class and is a characteristic of a class.

Global Variables: Class variables are not available across classes. If you want to have a single variable available across classes, you need to define a global variable.

Q7. What is the command to get the installed Ruby version in your system?


The command to get the installed Ruby version in your system is Ruby –v.


Ruby is an open-source language, 100 percent free, with a large developer community.

Ruby is well-suited for Metaprogramming, it provides the ability to write code that depends on other code.

Ruby has simple and easy syntax; users can develop complex programs within in few lines of code. The code is human-readable and easy to follow and understand.

Q9. What are the different operators used in Ruby?


The different operators in Ruby are:

Unary operator

Arithmetic operator

Bitwise operator

Logical operator

Ternary operator

Q10. What is the difference between a statement and an expression in Ruby?


In Ruby, all statements are expressions; every statement will return a value. A statement is a simple way to refer to any syntax.

Q11. Why use “each” instead of “For/in” Ruby?


Q12. What are the different class libraries used in Ruby?


Text processing

CGI Programming

Network programming

GUI programming

XML Programming

Q13. What are the different data types used in Ruby?


The different data types used in Ruby are:







Part 2 –Ruby Interview Questions (Advanced) Q14. What are the different iterators used in Ruby?


The different iterators used in Ruby are:

each iterator

times iterator

upto and down to the iterator

step iterator

each_line iterator

Q15. What is the use of Super?


Super has the following forms of implementation.

Calling only the super means

Call the parents to initialize

Q16. Describe the method name resolution process in Ruby


Below are the steps to follow for method name resolution:

First, we need to check the eigenclass for singleton methods, including the inheritance of eigenclasses on class objects.

Next, we need to check for instance methods and instance methods for any included modules.

Next, we need to check instance methods and instance methods for any included modules in an inheritance hierarchy manner.

Q17. Explain the role of thread pooling with respect to the thread lifecycle in Ruby.


Q18. What is the difference between Block, Proc, and Lambda in Ruby?


Q19. How can you declare a block in Ruby?


In Ruby, the code in the block is always enclosed within braces ({}). You can invoke a block by using a yield statement.

Q20. What are the levels of method access control for classes in Ruby?


There are three levels of method access control for classes:

Public Methods: It can be called by all objects and subclasses of the class in which they are defined in.

Protected Methods: It can be only accessible to objects within the same class.

Private Methods: It is accessible in the same instance.

Q21. How does the symbol differ from the string?


Multiple symbols representing a single value are identical, which is impossible with the Strings.

Symbols and strings are used interchangeably by various developers, and You can consider Symbols as faster & immutable strings.

Q22. What is an interpolation in Ruby Programming Language?


Interpolation is a very important process in Ruby. Interpolation is the process of inserting a string into a literal. There is only one way in which you can interpolate a string into a literal by placing a Hash (#) within {} open and close brackets. This refers to a new name by referring to the copy of the original method.

Q23. What is the difference between calling super and super() in Ruby?


In Ruby, calling super invokes the parent method with the same arguments as passed to the child method. If arguments passed to the child, don’t match what the parent is expecting, then an error will be thrown.

In Ruby, calling super () invokes the parent method without any arguments, as expected. As always, being explicit in code is good.

Q24. What is the difference between nil and false in Ruby?


In Ruby, nil cannot be a value, whereas false can be a value.

Nil is not a Boolean data type, whereas false is a Boolean data type.

Nil is an object of the nil class, whereas false is an object of a false class.

Q25. What is the difference between NIL and FALSE in Ruby?


The differences between NIL and FALSE in Ruby are:

FALSE is a boolean data type, whereas NIL is not.

NIL cannot be a value, whereas FALSE can be a value.

A method returns true or FALSE in the case of a predicate.

NIL is an object for NilClass, whereas FALSE is an object for FalseClass.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to the List of Ruby Interview Questions. Here we have covered the few commonly asked interview questions with their detailed answers so that candidates can crack interviews with ease. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

Top 10 Scenario Interview Questions & Answer Updated For 2023

Introduction to Scenario Interview Questions

In every job or industry, there are a certain set of opportunities and challenges that employee needs to face. So, the employers first assess the employee before hiring and in that case scenario, interview questions are used. The scenario interview questions help the employers to test the mental state of employees and how they think in that particular question. By this, the hiring process can become easy to select appropriate employees for the organization. Whenever in an organization, the hiring process is done the employer is asking about the situational interview questions.

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The scenario interview questions are used to test that how he will react in real-life scenarios when working for the organization. By this the person through the process can be assessed, problem-solving skills can be tested, and can also assess communication skills and self-management. As the employer can ask any type of scenario questions the person can train himself by using the STAR (Situation, Task, Action, and Result) model. This model can help the person to better prepare for scenario questions. The first thing any person needs to do is think of the challenges and obstacles faced in college and school time. Then using the past experience break down in the STAR model.

Part 1 – Scenario Interview Questions (Basic)

In the below section some of the examples of scenario interview questions are given:

Q1. In a situation in which you have made some mistake and no one sees you while doing the mistake what will you do? Would to accept the mistake or will let go of the things and focus on Project Activities?


According to me, accepting of mistake is the perfect solution and taking responsibility for the mistakes committed and then improve by the mistake is a good thing. The person can learn from the mistakes and try to not repeat them in the future. When I was working in any restaurant, I accidentally make the drink wrong and serve it to the customer. When I realized my mistake, I went directly to the customer and manager and apologize to them. My manager was proud of me that I accept my mistake.

Q2. In any situation, you are given a task that you have never done in the past, what will you do?


In my previous organization, I was a marketing guy and my manager told me to arrange a digital marketing campaign that I have never done. I asked my manager to not give me this task as I have no clue about this task and can’t able to lead the campaign. But then I take the job and research a digital campaign, ask other employees who have experience in it and then launch a digital campaign that was successful also. By this, I add one more skill to my skill set.

Q3. Give me the information about that time when you were failed and then how do you Overcome that Failure?


When it was working as an account manager in my previous organization, I met with one of the big clients and due to that excitement, I promised an unrealistic deadline. But as we don’t have appropriate resources and the timeline was inappropriate, we didn’t finish the task and at last, we lose the client. Then immediately I went to the client and take all the responsibility and explain everything to them. They were convinced and were ready to give me another chance. This time I didn’t do any mistakes and complete the task within the deadline. From this learned never to make any decision that can end up creating definite failure.

Q4. Tell me one important decision you have taken in your previous organization.

I was in the customer support team and one customer called at that time. And he wants to talk to the manager but my manager was on another call and that customer was angry with the service. So I decided to give a refund and that customer was then satisfied. When my manager gets to know about my decision he was proud of me that how peacefully I handle that customer.

Q5. Tell me When you get Scolded by your manager and then how do you react?


Part 2 – Scenario interview Questions (Advanced) Q6. Tell me when you get upset because of your colleague or manager?


Q7. How you Convince other People to do the Work?

Answer: I always choose the right people for the right work and try to give benefits of that work if they will do. By seeing the benefits everybody get convinced to take that work and finish that work.

Q8. If your manager assigns you some work and you think it is not possible within the assigned deadline what will you do?

Answer: First I will listen to all the stuff that my manager is saying and after that, I will analyze the work and if it is not possible I will immediately inform my manager that the deadline is unrealistic and change the deadline if possible.

Q9. Tell me how you do work under pressure?

Answer: I think the pressure situation extracts best from me. In the pressure situation, I do my best as I am more focused and more prepared when I work in the pressure situation.

Q10. Tell me how you Handle the Challenge?

Answer: I was assigned the work and I was having no clue about the work that I was assigned. But I prepare my mind to face this challenge. I managed to do the work by taking help from my fellow team members and somehow manage to do that work within the deadline.


The scenario-based questions are majorly used for assessing the mental state of the employee and how strong the employee is in thinking for any problems. By putting these questions, the employer can know that how the employee will react in the situation when he will encounter in the organization.

Recommended Article

This is a guide to a List of Scenario Interview Questions and Answers so that the candidate can crack down on these Interview Questions easily. Here in this post, we have studied top Scenario Interview Questions which are often asked in interviews. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

Top Hotels In Jamshedpur (Updated 2023)

About Jamshedpur

Several hotels in Jamshedpur are well popular for good accommodation and flexible booking. To make it easier for you to decide which hotel is best to relax in Jamshedpur, we have compiled a list of the best hotels.

Explore Hotels in Jamshedpur

Read the article and look at the best hotels in Jamshedpur to ensure the best accommodation.

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#1 The Sonnet

The sonnet hotel in Jamshedpur sits at the heart of the industrial center in a lovely, quiet, and characteristic area. Beautifully lined shops and buildings surround the hotel area. It is a premium business hotel that falls under the preferred hotel chain of India. In 20 years, the sonnet hotel has reached global standards of products and services and attained international standards.

Address: Inner Cir Rd, Contractors Area, Bistupur, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 831001

Free wifi

Air conditioning, a flat-screen TV, and blackout curtains

An on-site restaurant

Price: Rs 3077 per night

Ratings: 9 out of 5

#2  Ramada by Wyndham

The Ramada by Wyndham Jamshedpur Hotel brings business travelers near industrial centers in Jamshedpur. If you want to visit Jamshedpur for pleasure, you should explore the markets and shops here. The accommodating staff assists at this hotel offers convenient and friendly services and makes easy access to the best attractions.

Address: Ramdas Bhatta holding No 3, Bistupur, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 831001

Facilities and Amenities:

Free breakfast

Safety and security

Outdoor pool

Price: Rs 5000 per night

Ratings: 3 out of 5

#3 The Bizton Hotel

The Bizton Hotel sits 2.4 miles away from jubilee park. It provides an outdoor swimming pool, restaurant, and allergy-free rooms. It is one of the best 5-star hotels in Jamshedpur, where guests can benefit from 24-hour security, laundry room, and concierge service. All the rooms in this hotel have tiled floors.

Address: Golmuri Main Road Chowk, Golmuri, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 831003

Facilities and Amenities:

A rooftop bar

Safety and security

A minibar

Price: Rs 4950 per night

Ratings: 2 out of 5

#4 Ginger Hotel

Address: Sou, South Park, Plot no 678 & 1008, Opposite Voltas Building, Bistupur Main Rd, Bistupur, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 831001

Facilities and Amenities:

Business Center and Conferences

Laundry service

a minibar

Price: Rs 2,999 per night

#5 The Kannelite

Kannelite Hotel has come under the category of the domestic hotel trade, which offers you the right quality, blend, and standard services with efficiency and luxury.

This hotel sits in the heart of Jamshedpur city. It is the best hotel for those visitors who want to explore the Jamshedpur destination completely. This hotel’s proximity to major spots and retail of Jamshedpur city makes it the best location for visitors and business.

Address: Besides Sakchi Police Station, Ambagan, Sakchi, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 831001

Facilities and Amenities:


Laundry service

Free Wifi

Price: Rs 2982 per night

Ratings: 4 out of 5

#6 Treebo Tryst KC Manor

Treebo Tryst Kc manor hotel sits in the city’s heart, Jamshedpur. This enough space in hotel rooms helps the guests make mind-blowing memories, silent reveries, and colorful celebrations. You should book this hotel to host any event or function that leaves remarks on guests.

Address: 22, S.B. Shop Area, Main Road, opp. Ram Mandir, Bistupur, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 831001

Facilities and Amenities:

Free breakfast

On-site restaurant

Free Wifi

Price: Rs 2982 per night

#7 Treebo Trend Hotel Golden Nights

Treebo trend golden hotel heights sit in the bustling area of Jharkhand. It is a budget-friendly hotel equipped with essential facilities and modern amenities. The hotel has sanitized and well-furnished hotels, accessible by elevators and spread over four floors.

Address: Kasidih Chowk, Near Hotel Karnail, Jilabi Line, Rajiv Gandhi Chowk Sakchi 505, Binapani Complex, Kasidih, Jharkhand 831001

Facilities and Amenities:

Free breakfast

A flat-screen TV

Front desk (24-hour)

Price: Rs 1772 per night

Ratings: 5 out of 5

#8 The Mahal Inn

The mahal inn is one of the best hotels located 6.1km from jubilee park, Jamshedpur. It offers the best accommodation with free private parking, a restaurant, and a shared lounge.

This hotel has a 24-hour front desk, currency exchange room, and essential services for guests. Every room in this hotel has a seating area, private bathroom, air conditioning, slippers, flat screen TV, and many more best-class facilities.

Address: Pardih Rd, Chepapul, Mango, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 831012

Facilities and Amenities:

A seating area

Air conditioning

Free private parking, a restaurant

Price: Rs 2750 per night

Ratings: 2 out of 5


Jamshedpur is a beautiful city. The best part is that many of the best hotels in Jamshedpur provide top-class accommodations to guests.

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