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Apple calls the interconnectivity features between macOS and iOS the “Continuity System.” Continuity is the universal name for many small wireless interconnections between your Mac and your iPhone. Continuity’s features let you create and transfer media between your devices seamlessly, in specific ways and contexts.

To use most Continuity features like AirDrop and Handoff, the devices must be on the same Wi-Fi network with Bluetooth enabled. The maximum range of service depends on the quality of the Bluetooth connection. Closer is generally better. All features (except AirDrop) also require both devices to be logged into the same Apple ID.

You’ll also need a relatively recent Mac: check if your device is compatible with Continuity. Note that different features have different minimum requirements, both in software and hardware. To access all features, make sure your Mac and iOS devices are updated to the most recent version of their operating systems.

1. AirDrop

AirDrop allows you to wirelessly transfer media between any two nearby Apple devices. The recipient will need to approve the share on their end, and they’ll see a preview of the content being shared. Once accepted, the shared media will be open in the appropriate app immediately. It’s a great way to quickly share notes or pictures with your Mac or with other Apple users.

If you have trouble getting AirDrop working, make sure both devices are on the same Wi-Fi network and in Bluetooth range. It’s also more reliable when AirDrop discovery is not limited to contacts. If you’re having trouble finding a recipient you know you should see, make sure the AirDrop discovery on the recipient’s device is set to “Everyone” rather than “Contacts Only.”

Universal Clipboard

With Universal Clipboard, copy text on one device, then paste it onto another. This is an automatic feature without an interface. There is no way for the user to trigger Universal Clipboard manually.

On the source device, copy content as normal.

The copied content will be automatically added to the clipboard of nearby device. Copying something else on either the source or destination device will overwrite the Universal Clipboard buffer.

On the destination device, paste the content as normal.

Continuity Camera

With Continuity Camera, you can use your iOS device’s camera to capture images directly to a Mac running macOS Catalina or later or ingest them directly into supported applications.

Continuity Sketch/Markup

iPhone Cellular Calls

You can make calls using your iPhone’s cellular connectivity, even while the phone is stuffed in the bottom of your backpack. Provided your phone can get a Bluetooth signal from your device, you can place a call using your iPhone’s cell connection but your Mac’s speakers and microphone. This uses the FaceTime app to essentially “pipe” the call through your cellphone but forwards all the interaction to your Mac. For detailed instructions on setting up this process, learn how to set up your Mac to make phone calls through your iPhone.

Instant Hotspot

Instant Hotspot provides a way to share your cell phone’s data connection with other devices. It sends your iPhone’s wireless data connection (typically 4G LTE in most areas) through a Wi-Fi hotspot. Most devices need to enter a password to use the hotspot.

However, if your Mac and your iPhone are logged into the same Apple ID, your device can share Internet with your Mac without a password. To use instant hotspot, enable your Personal Hotspot on your iOS device with cellular connectivity. Then, select the device’s name from the list of wireless networks on your Mac. Once connected, the Wi-Fi icon in the menu bar will show a set of chain links to indicate an Instant Hotspot connection mediated by your Apple ID.


The most rudimentary form of wireless connectivity, Handoff allows you to open media or links on your iPhone, then transfer them to your Mac. It’s an automatic system, and there’s no way the user can actively trigger it. If a Handoff-eligible situation is detected, the appropriate user interface elements will appear. Handoff requires the following conditions:

Eligible content has focus on your iPhone

iPhone is awake and unlocked

Mac is awake and logged in to the appropriate user

Mac has an app that can read the eligible media

Basic Continuity requirements are met (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, same Apple ID)

Strong connection between devices (largely outside user control)

It’s also possible to get content from your Mac on your iPhone. Swipe up from the bottom to the middle of your screen and hold until you see the App Switcher. At the bottom, you’ll see any Handoff links.


Use your iPad as an additional display with Sidecar. With macOS Catalina and iOS 13, users can connect their iPad to their Mac as a supplementary display. If your devices are eligible, you can select your iPad as a secondary display under the Airplay menu bar icon or use Sidecar preferences to connect.

The above are the various ways that macOS and iOS connect to each other. Which ways do you use most often?

Alexander Fox

Alexander Fox is a tech and science writer based in Philadelphia, PA with one cat, three Macs and more USB cables than he could ever use.

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Apple Releases Seventh Ios 10.3 And Macos 10.12.4 Betas

Apple is rolling out the seventh iOS 10.3 beta for developer testing on iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. The upcoming software update includes Find My AirPods support, CarPlay improvements, Apple’s new filesystem, and more.

Apple is also rolling out the seventh macOS 10.12.4 beta for developer testing. The upcoming version of macOS Sierra is the first to bring Night Shift to the Mac. We’ll update and highlight any additional changes discovered below.

iOS 10.3 is currently only available in beta for registered developers and public beta testers. The public beta version of each update usually follows a few days after the developer version if not the same day.

iOS 10.3 is the first version to include Find My AirPods in the Find My iPhone app, Wi-Fi Calling for iCloud-connected devices for Verizon customers, and a new 32-bit alert that suggests iOS 11 could be 64-bit only.

Apple will also introduce a way for developers to reply to app reviews with iOS 10.3, and a new system-wide app review request feature will be added. iOS 10.3 includes iCloud Analytics for the first time as well.

Here’s an overview of changes discovered so far:

Find My AirPods added to Find My iPhone app

Siri support for cricket scores from Indian Premier League and International Cricket Council

Safari support for Reduced Motion preference

Prominent user security section in Settings app

iOS 10.3 uses new Apple File System (APFS) which may free up some space

Podcasts app has a widget like Music app, same app design

New system level way for developers to request app rating, opt out option in Settings

CarPlay status bar has persistent quick access to media, communication, and travel apps for quick switching without accessing the Home screen

CarPlay gains quick access to albums from songs in Music, new Up Next screen

Weather data in Maps app now has 3D Touch forecast

You can see our hands-on with the first iOS 10.3 beta below:

Subscribe to 9to5Mac for more videos

Learn More link on 32 bit app warning, new 32 bit app section in Settings

— Paul Haddad (@tapbot_paul) February 20, 2023

iOS 10.3 beta 4 included an restart message whenever a button is hit during the update installation process.

Apple’s Feedback app is still bundled in this version which suggests this will not be the final version before release. We’ll update with any changes found in iOS 10.3 beta 7.

macOS Sierra 10.12.4 beta is currently only available to developers and public beta testers. Public beta versions usually come a few days after developer versions if not the same day.

macOS 10.12.4 beta also includes changes to Siri, Dictation, and Apple’s PDF API:

Night Shift now available on the Mac.

Dictation support for Shanghainese.

Ask Siri about cricket scores, schedules and player rosters. Siri knows about statistics and data from the Indian Premier League and International Cricket Council.

Updated PDFKit APIs for better displaying of PDFs in apps that use the framework.

This is how Apple describes its Night Shift feature:

Night Shift adjusts the color of your display after sunset. Many studies show that exposure to bright-blue light in the evening can affect your circadian rhythms and make it harder to fall asleep. After sunset, Night Shift will shift your display colors to the warmer end of the spectrum, making the display easier on your eyes. In the morning, your display returns to its regular settings.

See how to enable Night Shift and how the feature works on the Mac here.

Subscribe to 9to5Mac for more hands-on videos

These changes were added in macOS 10.12.4 beta 2:

iCloud Analytics is now present as an opt-in step at setup

Mac App Store gains Touch Bar support, Volume slider now visually indicates levels

We’ll update with any new changes found in the latest macOS update.

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How To Factory Reset Mac And Do A Fresh Install Of Macos

Recently, I had to reset my old 2023 MacBook Pro. It was showing its age and was really slow when doing anything. So, I thought of giving it a fresh start by purging all the old data and doing a fresh install of macOS Big Sur. While doing that, I thought of cataloging my experience to share it with our readers. So, in this article, I am going to show you how you can factory reset Mac to erase all data and do a fresh install of macOS. I will also share my experience and tell you how hard or easy the process was. So, without further ado, let’s get started.

Reset Mac and Do a Fresh Install of macOS

How to Erase and Factory Reset Your Mac

If your Mac is showing its age or having problems, and you have tried all the troubleshooting methods, the final step is to reset it to its original state. This is also handy when you are selling your Mac to someone as it ensures that no personal data is left on the device.

That also means that you should create a backup of your data before proceeding with this tutorial as you will lose all your data. And you won’t be able to recover the deleted data. With that warning out of the way, let’s get started:

3. If you are running macOS Catalina, it will show up two partitions: Macintosh HD and Macintosh HD – Data. It’s because macOS Catalina runs separately on a read-only system so you cannot make changes to it (learn more here).

7. After the download is done, it will install the fresh version of the the macOS operating system and you can carry on with the set-up.

Install macOS Using a USB Bootable Drive

Using a USB Bootable Drive to reinstall macOS is very handy as you don’t have to download the entire macOS operating system again. I needed to use this method as the WiFi card on my Mac is not working, so I use an external WiFi dongle (Tp-link T2U Nano). And since this cannot work without its drivers, my WiFi was not working during the installation process.

1. The first step is to download the macOS operating system that we are going to use to create a bootable drive. To do that, either go to Apple Beta website to download the public beta of the operating system or search for the stable version of macOS on the App Store (here’s the link to macOS Catalina).

2. Once the OS is downloaded, connect the USB drive you want to use (should be at least 16 GB).

3. Now. launch Terminal using Spotlight.

4. In Terminal, type the following command for macOS Catalina. For other versions of the operating system, get the commands here.

sudo /Applications/Install macOS chúng tôi --volume /Volumes/MyVolume

Remember to replace “MyVolume” with the name of your USB drive.

6. It will ask for the final confirmation. Type y and hit enter.

7. Now, your Mac will create the bootable drive. You will see the progress in the Terminal app. Once it’s done, eject the drive.

8. Using the drive to reinstall macOS is simple. Just shut down your Mac and plug in the drive. Now boot your Mac while holding the option key, and it will show you the option for reinstalling the operating system. Select the install file and hit enter.

My Experience on going through the Process

Apple has made the process seamless. It might seem a bit hard at first, but if you follow the steps correctly, you won’t encounter any problem. The major issue with my computer was that I was using an external WiFi adapter. So, I had to first create a bootable drive and then erase the Mac. You can just go through the first tutorial and do both factory reset and fresh installation of the macOS operating system.

A problem which is not related to Apple that I encountered was that I first tried installing macOS Big Sur Beta. After going through the installation process, I realized that the WiFi adapter drivers are not compatible with the new operating system. Thankfully, I had a second Mac that allowed me to create a bootable drive of macOS Catalina, and I went through the entire process again.

Overall, I had a very positive experience. If you use the first method, you only need to work for the first two minutes. All the time it takes is to download and install the operating system. So, you can set it up and leave. And when you come back, it will be up and running.

Factory Reset Mac and Reinstall macOS Catalina

Body Cameras On Cops: Do They Work?

An NYPD officer wearing a body camera speaks with a woman during a traffic stop demonstration of the pilot program involving 60 NYPD officers dubbed ‘Big Brother’ at the NYPD police academy in the Queens borough of New York, December 3, 2014. REUTERS/Shannon Stapleton (UNITED STATES – Tags: CIVIL UNREST CRIME LAW SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY MEDIA) – RTR4GL9X. © Shannon Stapleton / Reuters

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The mere presence or absence of a camera does not deter violent behavior. We know this through decades of research on CCTV demonstrating that video monitoring has little to no effect on violent crime and modest effects on other types of crime. We also know this from our own observations of city-centers at the weekend: innumerable cameras, plenty of violence.

So if cameras don’t deter violence by the public, why would we expect that passively monitoring police-citizen encounters will cause behavior change? CCTV tells us part of this story, but dashboard mounted cameras, already widely used by police forces, and smart-phone films of police by members of the public, are much more informative.

The most salient example is the Eric Garner homicide. A bystander filmed the whole episode but this did not stop the events that led to his untimely and tragic death. There is also the recent example of a South Carolina state trooper who opened fire on an unarmed man at a gas station following a seat-belt law violation. The whole encounter was filmed on a police dashboard camera, but did not prevent the shooting (Thankfully for the man involved the officer was a terrible shot. One also has to wonder about the wisdom of opening fire in a gas station.)

Some have argued that Eric Garner’s death effectively sank any suggestion that police cameras should be used more widely. But other cases –- notably the death of Missouri teenager Michael Brown –- lead us to ask: could cameras ever reduce police violence? The truthful answer is: “maybe”.

What we know so far

In a recent study in Rialto California my colleagues and I studied the effect of body-worn video (BWV) on police use-of-force and citizens’ complaints against the police. The study randomly assigned officer shifts to wearing cameras or not. We found that both police use-of-force and complaints were reduced during shifts where cameras were used and more widely across the police force during the experimental period.

That is, each and every time police were wearing a camera they were supposed to inform the citizen that they were doing so and that their encounter was being recorded. We haven’t yet reviewed the thousands of hours of footage recorded as part of this experiment to assess compliance with this element. But if we assume that this was true most of the time, then excitable discussions about the effectiveness of cameras (or otherwise) are missing an important point. Namely, both officer and citizen are being reminded about the monitoring of their behavior prior to their interaction starting.

This verbal warning could sensitize people leading them to modify their behavior. It could also serve to remind people of the rules that are in play –- politeness being the bare minimum –- but other rules such as laws. Similarly, the verbal prompt may jolt individuals into thinking a little more before they act, becoming more deliberative and reflecting on future consequences. In short, there could be lots of mechanisms that account for changes in behavior when camera and verbal warning are used together.

The other limitation of our study, and one that has thus far been universally overlooked, is that the results we found may have been a fluke. In statistical terms we have only a single study showing an effect. It might be that this was a chance or even a so-called false discovery (i.e. we would expect to find a statistically significant effect some of the time). This is why Dr. Barak Ariel is undertaking a multi-country replication study: before claims of effectiveness can be made, we need to reduce the chance that the Rialto finding was the statistical equivalent of “luck.”

But all that work might come too late. President Obama recently requested US$263 million from Congress to buy 50,000 police cameras, help train police officers, and (apparently) restore trust in police.

Leaving aside the fact that trust cannot be bought and sold (it has to be earned as everyone’s grandmother tells them) what should that money be spent on? We would argue that if US$50 million is going to be spent on cameras, there is an ethical imperative to ensure that each time cameras are put in use somewhere new they are rigorously evaluated, as was the case in Rialto. Once these trials are completed and the evidence is in, we can add together all the grains of sand and draw firmer conclusions about whether cameras can be effective in reducing police use-of-force, but without verbal warning, we would argue that this is unlikely.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Windows 11 Se Vs Windows 11: How Do They Compare?

The market share for Chromebooks skyrocketed over the past couple of years, thanks to the adoption of remote learning fueled by the Coronavirus pandemic. While Chromebooks have created a niche for themselves with Google’s lightweight Chrome OS, Microsoft has now announced Windows 11 SE to compete against Chrome OS in the education sector. In this article, we have detailed everything you should know about Windows 11 SE and how it’s different from Windows 11. Apart from discussing Windows 11 SE vs Windows 11 in terms of the feature set, we will also take a look at compatible laptops, pricing, and whether Microsoft can rival Google’s Chrome OS with Windows 11 SE?

Windows 11 SE vs Windows 11: Differences Explained (2023) What is Windows 11 SE?

Windows 11 SE is Microsoft’s new cloud-first operating system aimed at students in K-8 classrooms (8th grade or up to age 14). It is essentially a stripped-down version of Windows 11 built with students and educators in mind. Strategically positioned as a Chrome OS alternative, Microsoft hopes to win over the education sector crowd with the launch of this OS variant.

Unlike what one would naturally assume, Microsoft says the SE in Windows 11 SE doesn’t stand for Student Edition. Instead, it is not intended to be short for anything and is just a means to clearly differentiate the OS from other Windows editions.

Naming aside, Windows 11 SE is Microsoft’s latest effort to offer a toned-down version of Windows after Windows 10 S, Windows 10 in S Mode, and the now-canceled Windows 10X. While Windows 10 in S Mode is also available for consumers, Windows 11 SE is exclusively meant for educational use cases.

How is Windows 11 SE Different from Windows 11?

Windows 11 SE vs Windows 11: App Availability and Installation

Windows 11 SE vs Windows 11: Snap Layouts

Microsoft improved the multitasking experience on Windows 11 with its new Snap Layouts feature. While you get six handy Snap Layout options in Windows 11, Windows 11 SE simplifies this by offering only two Snap Layouts. They let you use two apps side-by-side on your laptop at the same time. Speaking of app snapping, it’s also worth mentioning that all apps launch in fullscreen mode by default in Windows 11 SE. That seems right because most Windows 11 SE-backed budget laptops will ship with smaller screens.

Windows 11 SE vs Windows 11: Widgets

With Windows 11, Microsoft added a widgets panel that shows you the latest news, weather, photos, sports scores, and more. This Windows 11 feature is not present in Windows 11 SE, and that’s a good thing. Microsoft wants to keep things light with this education-focused version of Windows 11. Meanwhile, if you are not a fan of Windows 11 widgets, you can follow our guide to disable widgets on Windows 11.

Windows 10 vs Windows 11 vs Windows 11 SE: Feature Comparison Chart

Microsoft has published a handy comparison chart to give you a quick idea of what to expect from Windows 11 SE. As you can see below, notable omissions include the option to run all Windows apps, limited availability, and the option to upgrade from your existing Windows 10 PC or laptop. And as should be clear, you can only upgrade from Windows 10 to Windows 11 and not Windows 11 SE. Why? Well, we have explained that down below.

Image: Microsoft

Windows 11 SE System Requirements

Despite being a cloud-first OS, Windows 11 SE has the same system requirements as Windows 11. Microsoft says that’s because Windows 11 SE is built on the same core. You can check Windows 11 SE system requirements below:

Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster with 2 or more cores on a compatible 64-bit processor or System on a Chip (SoC)


Storage: 64 GB or greater

Graphics card: Compatible with DirectX 12 or later with WDDM 2.0 driver

System firmware: UEFI, Secure Boot capable

TPM: TPM Trusted Platform Module (TPM) version 2.0

Display: High definition (720p) display, greater than 9-inch and 8 bits per color channel support

Internet connection and Microsoft account

What Apps Can I Install on Windows 11 SE?

App installation on Windows 11 SE is managed through Intune for Education. Intune for Education is Microsoft’s cloud-based mobile device management (MDM) service for schools to let admins manage student devices. Hence, your IT admin can choose to deploy approved apps like Zoom using Intune for Education. Moreover, Azure Active Directory (AAD) and Microsoft Account (MSA) are the only identity authentication tools supported on Windows 11 SE devices.

Windows 11 SE supports Win32 and UWP apps in the following categories curated for education:

Content-filtering apps

Test-taking solutions

Accessibility apps

Apps that facilitate classroom communication

Essential diagnostics, management, connectivity, and supportability apps


Can I Install Windows 11 SE on my PC?

Another doubt that many of you might have is – How can you download the Windows 11 SE ISO? Well, sadly, you can’t. Since Microsoft is not publishing Windows 11 SE images, you can’t install Windows 11 SE on your PC at this moment. Microsoft states Windows 11 SE is unlikely to be available for retail users.

Considering the restrictions in place and the same system requirements, you are not gaining a lot by opting for Windows 11 SE instead of Windows 11. Microsoft asserts the same in an official support document. It says that “most customers buying personal devices would not want the app and management restrictions that these devices come with, so stores are not likely to sell them.”

Can I Switch from Windows 11 SE to Windows 11 Home or Pro on My Laptop? Windows 11 SE Compatible Laptops

Microsoft has listed the initial set of compatible laptops that will ship with Windows 11 SE out of the box. Check out the list below:

Surface Laptop SE

Lenovo 100w Gen3

Acer TravelMate B3

Dell Latitude 3120

Asus BR1100C

Lenovo 14w Gen2

Lenovo 300w Gen3

Dell Latitude 3120 2-in-1

Acer TravelMate Spin B3

Asus BR1100F

Dynabook E10-S

Is Windows 11 SE a Chrome OS Killer?

Although Microsoft already has education-centric offerings like Windows 10 /11 Education and Windows 10/ 11 Pro Education, they’re not as popular as Google’s Chrome OS. With Windows 11 SE, Microsoft is taking a restrictive approach to provide IT admins more control over student devices. While it is a welcome move for IT admins, Microsoft will face serious competition from Chrome OS.

Microsoft is planning to undercut Chromebooks by offering Windows 11 SE with management features like Intune for Education along with full versions of Microsoft Office and Minecraft: Education Edition at Chromebook’s management-only price. On the other hand, schools using Chromebooks have to pay separately for managing all subscriptions and services. While it’s an attractive perk, enticing schools, and educational institutions to switch from Chrome OS to Windows 11 SE will be a tough hill to climb for Microsoft.

Windows 11 SE Explained

How To Back Up And Restore Ios Devices On Mac Running Macos Catalina

Ever since I got a hang of Apple ecosystem, one of the important lessons that I have learned is “Never fail to back up your device.” Unexpected things tend to happen when you expect them the least. When you are dealing with a ton of sensitive information and personal data, it’s always better to stay on the safer side so that even if something untoward happens, all of your data remains untouched. That said, the process to back up iOS device on Mac running macOS Catalina has changed – courtesy the shutdown of iTunes. But don’t worry the substitute is doing an equally efficient job. Let me show you how to back up and restore the iPhone/iPad in macOS Catalina or later!

How to Back Up Your iPhone/iPad Using Finder on Mac

After shutting down iTunes, Apple has introduced three new apps which are Apple TV, Music, and Apple Podcasts, to let users handle movies, shows, music, and podcasts a bit conveniently. Wondering which app has donned the role of an iOS device manager? Well, it’s none other than the powerful Finder that has now assumed the role of iPhone and iPad manager. From letting you back up your data, restore the device from backup to sync the device, it does all the assigned tasks without any hiccups – at least so far. That all being said, let’s get started with the guide!

1. First off, connect your iPhone or iPad to your computer using a USB cable. Then, launch Finder on your Mac running macOS Catalina.

2. In the sidebar, select your iPhone that is under the Locations section.

3. Next, make sure the General tab at the top of the Finder window is selected, if it’s not already.


If you want to encrypt your iOS device backup to protect it from unauthorized access, make sure to check the box for “Encrypt local backup.” Then, you will need to create a password for your encrypted backup.

Make sure to store the password safely as you won’t be able to use the backup without it.

Once you have confirmed the password, your backup will begin immediately. 

The encrypted backup includes your saved passwords, WiFi settings, health data, and website history.

That’s pretty much it! Now, allow your device to get backed up peacefully via Finder. The time it will take to finish backing up all the data entirely depends the amount of data you have stored on your iPhone. So, grab a hot coffee to wait patiently while the Finder is performing the task.

Check If Encrypted iPhone/iPad Backup Was Completed Successfully

1. Make sure your iPhone or iPad is connected to your Mac. Then, launch Finder and select your device in the sidebar.

Restore iPhone and iPad from Backup Using Finder on Mac

1. To get going, connect your iOS device to your computer using a USB cable. After that, open Finder and select your iPhone in the sidebar.

Back Up and Restore iOS Devices on macOS Catalina

So, that’s the right way to back up and restore iOS and iPadOS devices using Finder on macOS Catalina. From what I can tell, the decision to eliminate iTunes seems to be a well-timed move as the erstwhile media library was struggling to survive against the cut-throat competition. Besides, Finder is doing a fairly good job of managing the devices. However, if you miss the famed software, check out these iTunes alternatives to fill up the void.

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