Trending December 2023 # Taskade Review: A Comprehensive Team Collaboration Tool # Suggested January 2024 # Top 14 Popular

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The secret sauce to a productive day is crushing your to-do list and perfectly managing your Team as well. But it’s not that easy to manage your & the team’s tasks while keeping everything on a schedule. Taskade could help; it makes your bullet lists and random thoughts more collaborative with quick sharing and built-in chat features. Check out our review on this all-in-one collaborative tool.

Taskade: Effective Way To Manage Your Team On The Go 

The developers take their claims of an “All-in-one Collaboration Tool” quite seriously. And packs ample features that enable you to map out your workflow, from ideas to action. Whether managing team projects or planning future milestones, Taskade could be of great help.

It offers users a simple way to create checklists, draw team outlines, and manage various tasks. The strength of this productive team management app is its neat, easy-to-use interface and the tons of features it boasts:

Universal Compatibility: No matter what device, operating system, or browser you use, Taskade has an app for that. It supports iOS, Android, macOS, Windows & Linux platforms. Plus, you can avail extensions for Chrome, Firefox, and Edge.

More than a Task List: Not just a to-do list, Taskade has templates for anything and everything, from notes, outlines, mindmaps to a daily journal. Further, you can easily create subtasks, make nested outlines, and organize everything to the T.

Team Management tools: Add team members to your workspace, share the tasks instantly, tag and prioritize, chat with them in real-time or organize a video conference.

Real-time Sync: Even when you are on the run, you can be on top of all things important. Taskade keeps your smartphone, tablet, and computer synced always.

How Can Taskade App Help You Be More Productive 

We all have tons of responsibilities in both our personal & professional life. Making lists, assigning tasks, monitoring the task’s progress, etc. helps us organize everything and get things done on time.

Whether, an individual or a team, at home, or at the office, this tool can be your greatest asset. As it’s simple, straightforward, and intuitive interface makes organizing tasks a breeze.

Creating Workspace and Projects

In the world of Taskade, you get workspaces. Imagine them as folders under which you segregate your tasks, notes, and various projects. For instance, the grocery list goes under the home/personal workspace, and meeting with clients goes under office tasks.

Launch the Taskade app and tap on “+” before the New Workspace.

Give it the Name and Color of your choice and tap Next.

Now, select Invite People to get your teammates onboard.

Enter the email ID and tap on Invite.

As and when the members accept the invitation, they’ll be added as your Workspace members.

Tada! Your Workspace is ready to use. To create a New Task, tap on the edit button, select a template or create your own. Feel free to rename it, add collaborators and tasks accordingly.

Collaborate Like a Boss

Taskade workspace offers effortless, real-time collaborative tools. Invite team members to a project by simply tapping on invite icon and adding their email address.

And to assign a particular task, tap on the task, select the “assign icon” and chose the assignee. It’s just that simple! Team members will also receive push notifications for any updates inside.

Further, you can tag someone, mark priorities, set due date and time, attach files, or even change the style of bulleting or checklist box.

Communicate Like a Boss

Communication is an essential aspect of team management, whether your team is sitting next to you or far away. Along with unlimited workspace and teams, Taskade also offers multiple conversational options.

It can also double up as a messaging app and enable you to chat, voice call or video call the whole team or a single team member.

While you are moved to another window in the iOS app, if you are using a browser, the chatbox or call appears on the same page as the task for more convenience.

Ease and Beauty of the Usage

The base interface of Taskade is a list-based system. Which looks good, feels great, and works quite smoothly. And since you can indent tasks, creating subtasks or sub-sub tasks is quite fun.

While other management tools opt for a sophisticated, plain-jane look, Taskade adopts a fun and colorful avatar. And not just fun-looking, this interface is fairly easy to understand even for a non-tech savvy user.

Further, to make things more simple, the app sports built-in templates. From weekly planner, daily task list, meeting agenda, bullet journal to brainstorming, chose them, or design your own systems and workflows.

Final Verdict

The best part about Taskade is it’s an uncomplicated, elegant, and minimal interface. And whether you are OCD or bit relaxed, have an office job or remote working, love, or hate making lists, this app could win you over and make for a great add-on.

You can make lists, organize tasks, schedule workflows, work together, chat, or call team members instantly. It indeed has all the ingredients to supercharge your team’s productivity.

We won’t claim that Taskade is the best one out there, but it is pretty decent for individuals, small startups, and average-sized team collaboration.


Free for Personal use and Growing Teams – Unlimited Tasks, Projects, Collaborators, and 100MB Storage.

$5 Per User Unlimited Plan – Everything unlimited, even the Storage.

Author Profile


A self-professed Geek who loves to explore all things Apple. I thoroughly enjoy discovering new hacks, troubleshooting issues, and finding and reviewing the best products and apps currently available. My expertise also includes curating opinionated and honest editorials. If not this, you might find me surfing the web or listening to audiobooks.

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Amd Relive Review: A Stylish Video Capture Tool For Radeon Graphics Cards

AMD’s Radeon Software Adrenalin Edition is a rocking piece of software for AMD graphics card owners. It lets users tweak their gameplay experience by adjusting game and display settings, including the ability to overclock your GPU in certain games and not others. It’s a neat piece of desktop software that can also record gameplay with a feature called ReLive.

Note: This review is part of our roundup of the best game capture software. Go there for details about competing products and how we tested them.

Brad Chacos/IDG

ReLive settings in the Radeon Overlay.

Contained within the Radeon Overlay are a number of other features, including in-game live performance monitoring that displays a veritable smorgasbord of data for hardware freaks. It also contains a switch for Radeon Chill (AMD’s super-smart power saving and cooling software), as well as controls for frame rates and color. The Radeon Overlay is available on the Windows desktop as well as in-game.

Going back to ReLive, the feature can record gameplay for posterity, stream it to the world, or grab a screenshot. ReLive streaming integrates with Twitch, YouTube, Facebook, and Microsoft’s Mixer, as well as Stage Ten and Sina Weibo. That’s quite a wide range of online streaming platforms to access and should cover the needs of most people.

By default, ReLive records at the in-game resolution with a maximum 60 frames per second. That’s adjustable, however, as is the encoding (AVC or HEVC). For anyone who doesn’t want to do a straight-up recording all the time, ReLive includes an instant replay feature that, by default, will save the last minute of gameplay when you press a hotkey. This setting is customizable up to a full 20 minutes of gameplay, though I’d suggest five minutes or less is ideal for most games. Instant Replay is easily one of the best features of any recording software since it lets gamers save a key move, goof, or bug after the fact.

ReLive also doubles as a video capture tool for the desktop to create how-to tutorials  or just to show something off. ReLive will fail to run, however, if a browser is displaying protected content such as a Netflix stream. Even if the tab is open but not visible, ReLive will refuse to work. 


Trimming a video in Radeon Software Adrenalin Edition.

To stop recording, hit Ctrl + Shift + R again. Recordings are then accessible in the videos folder in Windows or via Radeon Software Adrenalin Edition under the Connect tab. Within the desktop software users can play, share, and even trim down videos for minor edits.


Radeon Software’s ReLive settings.



Radeon Overlay’s primary menu with performance monitoring option missing.

Overall, activating ReLive dropped the average frame rate by a small but noticeable 5 to 10 frames per second in each game. That’s about the same as we saw with Nvidia’s ShadowPlay, built into the company’s GeForce Experience software for GeForce graphics cards.

The smallest performance drop was in the more modern Assassin’s Creed: Odyssey, a game that this eGPU system was already struggling to make playable with the non-recording frame rate hitting 29fps, a point below our definition of acceptable console-level performance.


ReLive is great, and in many ways I prefer it to ShadowPlay and GeForce Experience. The Radeon Overlay is more usable and easier to navigate, and if you can’t be bothered to call it up there’s even a smartphone app called AMD Link to activate the ReLive controls instead. The performance is about the same as Nvidia’s software and while ReLive doesn’t have anything original or new compared to other screen capture tools it gets the job done and does it well.

A Comprehensive Guide On Markov Chain

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


· Markovian Assumption states that the past doesn’t give a piece of valuable information. Given the present, history is irrelevant to know what will happen in the future.

· Markov Chain is a stochastic process that follows the Markovian Assumption.

· Markov chain had given a new dimension to probability theory. The applicability can be seen almost in every field. Also, several value-able ideas have been developed with the basis of The Markov Chain; their importance is paramount in the field of data analytics.


Being a student of Engineering, I often wondered how I used to pass in a few subjects after spending one week with them just before the final exam. Even after spending 3-4 hours per day, I could not unearth anything during the entire semester. My road to enlightenment for those subjects was a topsy-turvy journey until one week before the semester exam. I thought I’d fail. But from the final result, I used to think about how I have turned the tide within one week just before the exam?

A few years before, when I had started my journey in data analytics, I came across a theory, The Markov Chain. It gave the answer and the explanation that I was looking for in the prementioned scenario. One of the critical properties of the Markov Chain that caught my attention during that time was.

‘Only the most recent point in the trajectory affects what happens next.’

After this, I started to dig deep into the spiral of the Markov Chain. I’ll try to simplify the concept as much as I can with the help of real-life examples. I know the content itself is enormous and time-consuming to read. But you know what I have found while going through various materials. It’s full of some high-level mathematics. I feel from my learning experience that first, you need to have an intuition of the subject which comes from understanding which examples can give, followed by mathematics and then implementation via coding. This content is a mixture of more examples and a bit of Mathematics. I hope you will enjoy it.

Table Contents 

· A Brief History

· Difference between Stochastic and Random Processes

· Importance of ‘Chain’ in Markov Chain

· Basics of Markov Chain

· Markovian and Non-Markovian Process

· Types of States in Markov Chain and concept of Random Walk

· Basics of Transition Matrix

· Hidden Markov Model

· Conclusion

· Coding Reference

· YouTube Links

· Used References

· Reference for Exercise and Solutions

· Reference for some Thought-Provoking Research Paper and Patents using Markov Chain

A Brief History on Markov Chain

More than a century ago, the Russian mathematician Andrei Andreevich Markov had discovered a complete novel branch of probability theory. Well, it has an exciting story. While going through Alexander Pushkin’s novel ‘Eugene Onegin,’ Markov spent hours sorting through patterns of vowels and consonants. On January 23, 1913, he addressed the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg with a synopsis of his finding. His findings did not alter the understanding or appreciation of Pushkin’s poem. Still, the technique he developed—now known as a Markov chain—extended probability theory in a new direction. Markov’s methodology went beyond coin-flipping and dice-rolling situations (where each event is independent of all others) to chains of linked events (where what happens next depends on the system’s current state).

Difference between Stochastic and Random Processes

So in a Markov chain, the future depends only upon the present, NOT upon the past. Let’s dig deep into it. As per Wikipedia, ‘A Markov chain or Markov process is a stochastic model which describes a sequence of possible events where the probability of each event depends only on the state attained in the previous event.’

For me, most of the time, we are confused with a word like Stochastic and Random. We often say ‘Stochastic means Random.’ But understanding the difference will help us comprehend the essence of the Markov Chain from a new perspective. Let me give you an example to explain it better. Let’s say I am at a pub and having a beer-drinking fun game with my friend. We have set out a rule. I’ll drink the number of bottles within a certain amount of time; my friend will drink exactly twice more than what I am drinking within that particular time. Like if I drink one bottle within one minute. He will drink two bottles within one minute. Or if I drink two bottles within one minute, he will drink four bottles within one minute and so on. I can define it like below :

1st event

For me, bottle consumption :


Following Event

For my friend, bottle consumption :


So Stochastic is not random. It is a combination of processes that must have at least a random process. And the deterministic process may or may not depend upon a random method. I hope I have cleared it. If you are confused about what a deterministic approach is, let me give you an example. The sun always rises in the east. It’s a deterministic statement, a universal truth. The sun will never rise in the west. Hey, but please don’t try the competition that I have mentioned before. Drinking is injurious to health. It’s a fictitious condition that I have mentioned.

Importance of ‘Chain’ in Markov Chain

One of the intrinsic philosophies of the Markov Chain is the realization of interconnectivity, which is quite an amusing factor for solving real-life problems. Folks who are familiar with the ‘Domino Effect ‘are aware that when you make a change of one behavioural attribute will activate a chain reaction and cause a shift in related behavioural attributes as well. Our Real-world is full of that examples. Please check the below examples.

Basics of Markov Chain

with any graph.

Now let me give you an intuition about the recent past that governs the present outcome with my competitive pub gaming example. I am not going to explain it; observing the picture will be self-explanatory.

I hope the above depiction gives you some idea about the process. One thing you may be thinking Markov chain does not speak about any ‘Past.’ But why have I mentioned terms like ‘Near Past’ and ‘Far Past’? But I feel you can build a solid conceptual intuition by considering this. Just think ‘Near Past’ is ‘Yesterday’ and ‘Far Past’ starts from the day before ‘Yesterday’ believe me it will help you more. It is like Yesterday you have studied hard that is why Today you have a good result or like ‘Today’ you are motivated because ‘Yesterday’ you have met someone. I’ll give you another example from a real-life problem. Before that, let me define Markov Chain from a probabilistic point of view. Three elements determine a Markov chain.

· A state-space(S): If we define the seasonal states throughout a country, we can say, Summer, Monsoon, Autumn, Winter, Spring. So on Season State-space, we have prementioned five seasonal states.

If the transition operator doesn’t change during the transition. The Markov chain is called ‘Time Homogenous.’ So if t1à∞ the chain will reach an equilibrium known as Stationary Distribution. For this the equation will look like below,

Now come to another example; you have seen that Gmail editor, while typing a mail, always suggests the next word. Most of the time, I have seen at least my case it’s right. Its an application of the Markov chain in the field of Natural Language Processing(NLP). More precisely, it uses the concept of’ n-gram.’ Our example is based on a bit of that. Consider the below three sentences.

Sentence 1: I am a Boy.

Sentence 2: I am a Girl.

Sentence 3: I am a Star.

Here we have considered the concept of uni-gram. I hope the below picture will give you the intuition of the n-gram concept.

From the below transition diagram, we can see that our previous example has six states.

So one question may arise in your mind that how many states are possible. A theoretically infinite number of the states are possible. This type of Markov chain is known as the Continuous Markov Chain. But when we have a finite number of states, we call it Discrete Markov Chain.

Markovian and Non-Markovian Process 

Then you may ask, what is the use of it? Well, every coin has two sides. Let me bring you another example. Consider you have a dice with six sides, and you roll it. X. denotes the outcome. You roll the dice, and the first outcome is 3. Hence X1=3. Now you move the dice one again; this time, you got 5. Now we can say X2=3+5=8. Now let’s say we are interested in the probability where X5=15, Imagin X4=12; well, if we know the value of X4 does X3, X2, X1 matter to us? The example just I have given is an example Markovian process. And the previous example was not Markovian.

Types of States in Markov Chain and concept of Random Walk

Before looking at some more cases of transition diagrams, get familiar with some more terms. One of the two most important terms is Recurrent and Transient state. I had found a good definition of these two during my research work. Let me share with you.

· Recurrent states :

♪ You can check out any time you like, but you can never leave. ♪

If you start at a Recurrent State, you will for sure return to that state at some point in the future.

· Transient states :

♪ You don’t have to go home, but you can’t stay here. ♪

Otherwise, you are in a transient state. In case some positive probability that once you leave, you will never return.

Markov chain is a directed graph. A random walk on a directed graph always has a sequence of vertices generated from a start vertex by selecting an edge, traversing the edge to a new vertex, and repeating the process. Suppose the graph by nature is firmly connected. In that case, the fraction of time the walk spends at the various vertices of the graph will converge into a stationary probability distribution, as discussed earlier via a mathematical equation. Since the graph is directed, there is a possibility of vertices with no outer edges and nowhere for the walk to go. Vertices in a strongly connected component with no edges from the graph’s remainder can never be reached unless the component must contain the start vertex. When a walk leaves a strongly connected component, it can never return. Exciting, right? Form this discussion, we have another vital conception of An absorbing Markov chain. It is a Markov chain where it is impossible to leave some states, and any state with positive probability (after some number of steps) can reach such a state. The perfect example of an absorbing Markov chain is drunkard’s walk. Exciting right? Now let’s see. I will give an overview of it. But you can also do a little bit of google search and find more details. Now let’s see the transition diagram first, then I will explain.

The drunkard will stagger from one location(In this case, let’s consider those locations as states) to the next while he is in-between the pub and his home, but once he reaches one of the two locations(home or pub), he will stay there permanently (or at least for the night). The drunkard’s walk usually occurs where the probability of moving to the left or right is equal.

Now let’s have some more state transition diagrams

Sentence 1: I am a star.

Sentence 2: am I a star?

The above picture is an example of a transition graph where we have a closed-loop. Also, it bears a critical property of a Markov Chain: the probability of all edges leaving out of a specific node must be the sum of 1. See the S1 and S2 nodes. Also, observe that a Transient state is any state where the return probability is less than 1. See S1.

Let’s look at one more example.

Sentence 1: I had had too many chocolates.

Sentence 2: I had chocolates.

You can see a recurrence state over here with S2. There is some mathematical notation I want to explain here.

I. Every state communicates with itself, i↔i;(Reflexive)

II. Also, if i↔j, then j↔i;(Symmetric)

III. Also, if i↔j and j↔k, then i↔k. (Transitive)

Hence, the states of a Markov chain can be classified into communicating classes so that only members of the same class can communicate with each other. Two states i and j belong to the same class if and only if i↔j.

A Markov chain is Irreducible if all states communicate, meaning it belongs to one communication class. Also, in the case of two or more Communication classes, it’s known as the Reducible Markov chain.

There is also a conception of Periodic and Aperiodic Markov state. I will give an example of both first. Let’s say we are going to measure the maximum temperature of consecutive days at a particular location. And below is the transition diagram.

I’ll give some intuition about Ergodic property as I feel in the present word being a data scientist you must have some notion of it. So, What is Ergodic property? The ergodic hypothesis says that the time spent by a system in some region of the phase space of microstates with the same energy is proportional to the volume of this region, i.e., that all accessible microstates are equally probable over a long period. The ergodic hypothesis says that the time spent by a system in some region of the phase space of microstates with the same energy is proportional to the volume of this region, i.e., that all accessible microstates are equally probable over a long period. Is it confusing, right? Let me simplify it a bit more. Ergodicity is a statement about how averages in one domain relate to another domain. It is about how we draw some conclusion about something while having information about something else. I hope the last statement can give you some correlation between the Markovian process and Ergodicity. Let me give you some examples now. You have been to a local football game. You are supporting your team. And there is a new player who is playing for the first time. During the match, he had scored a world-class solo goal while dribbling past five players. Now during the next game, you are confident he will score an important goal.

Another excellent example of this is In an election; each party gets some percentage of votes, party A receives x%, party B receives y%, and so on. However, it does not mean that throughout their lifetime, each person who has voted votes with party A in x% of elections, with B in y% of elections, and so on. I won’t give the mathematical explanation over here. You can do a little bit of research on it.

Basics of Transition Matrix

Now, let’s give some more intuitiveness about the Transition matrix. You have already become aware of the state transition diagram. Now it’s time for the Transition matrix. The basics of the Transition matrix are given below.

I will try to give some more examples, hope they will be sufficient to understand the concept. Let me share a very small sample. I hope the following diagram will be very much self-explanatory.

Now, let’s find out some properties of the transition matrix. Please try to correlate these properties with the above example.

Property 1: The value in the ith row and jth column marks the transition probabilities from state i to state j.

Property 2: Rows of this matrix must sum to 1, until and unless you do not have to go anywhere from the last state. In that case, the sum of that row will be 0.

Property 3: The transition matrix is square.

Property 4: The outcome of each state must be discrete.

Property 5: No state must remain constant with each generation.

Hidden Markov Model(HMM)

Before stating Hidden Markov Model, I’d like to clear intuition about posterior and prior probabilities. I know this is content-based on Bassian Statistics, but intuition will be helpful to understand the topic very well. Let’s begin. When do you see a word like ‘World,’ we consider it as a Noun. It is coming from our prior knowledge in the absence of data, or rather I’ll term it as context. So we see a word like ‘World,’ we put a higher probability with Noun than any other parts of speech. If we write ‘ World History,’ then ‘World’ becomes an Adjective in the context, right? Now you have data (context), and the probability of ‘World’ (Adjective) is higher than that of ‘World (Noun), given the data. This probability, wherein your condition on the data, is your posterior. Now the prior knowledge that I was talking about is hidden. We don’t know what factors motivated us to gain that kind of knowledge are. Now you may argue that you have studied English grammar well or read lots of English content for the preceding example. It is a specific case, but our base of prior ideas is generally always hidden while making any decision.

Let me give you another example. Suppose you are a fan of an English football club. You regularly follow their games in EPL. Even though they have a glorious history of performing at the top level in recent years, they are performance not up to the mark. On a Sunday, while watching a game of your favorite team with a bottom-listed club, your club is three goals down within 20 minutes of it. You are very upset. And suddenly, your doorbell rings. A neighbor walks in. He is looking for some old newspaper, which you need to search from a pile of a newspaper. As you were upset with your favorite team’s performance, you got cranky. You behaved very rudely and said you would do it later. Now your neighbor has seen you and talked with you some time. He used to think you were a very decent, respectful guy( prior belief). But the way you acted remains unclear to him. Maybe if he had been aware of the situation, he could have opted for a different time to visit. So here, what has driven your action to your neighbor, is hidden to him.

You can read the above example once again, and then please read what I am writing here. HMM requires an observable process Y(Our case, rude behavior of that person to his neighbor) whose outcomes are “influenced” by the consequences of X ( The lasting result of the football match) in a known way. Since X cannot be observed directly, the goal is to learn about X by watching chúng tôi has an additional requirement that the outcome of Y at time t=t0( particular moment of a time when the incident happened) may be “influenced” exclusively by the effect of X at t=t0 (At that time the result was against his favorite team )and that the outcomes of X and Y at t<t0 ( different time like maybe next morning) must not affect the outcome of Y at t=t0.

· Xn is a Markov process whose behavior is not visible(hidden).

For a continuous system, we also can define HMM. For more understanding, I am adding the common graphical interpretation that I have found in Wikipedia and trying to fit it into my example.

The usability of HMM in Speech processing is huge. Speech signals have different phonemes. Phonemes are segments of the spoken speech signal.A phoneme based HMM for say the word ‘cat’ would have /k/ /a/ and /t/ as states. In this approach, we will need to create an HMM for every word in the corpus and strengthen the model’s utterances. In the modern world, it’s more relevant as different people have different accent and phonetical property so using this model always helps to approximate the outcome statistically. Below is one example of the same.


The main weakness of the Markov chain is its incapability to represent non-transitive dependencies; As a result, many valuable independencies go unrepresented in the network. Bayesian networks use the richer language of directed graphs To overcome this deficiency, where the directions of the arrows permit us to distinguish actual dependencies from spurious dependencies induced by hypothetical observations. But still, the Markov chain has contributed hugely in the field of statistical analysis. In the current day, we say our world is a VUCA world. VUCA means Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, and Ambiguous. I feel the use of this kind of model can somewhat control the unpredictability of the VUCA world.

Head on to our blog and read about the overview of the Markov Chain.

Markov Random Field: Markov random fields (

Coding Reference: 

Note: To implement Markov Model, you must know the NUMPY library in Python very well.

YouTube Links:

I found the below links are very helpful while studying Markov Chain. You can look for it.

Used References:

[7] “Probabilistic reasoning in intelligent systems: Networks of Plausible Inference” written by Judea Pearl, chapter 3: Markov and Bayesian Networks: Two Graphical Representations of Probabilistic Knowledge, p.116:

Reference for some Thought-Provoking Research Paper and Patents using Markov Chain

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Linux Date Format: A Comprehensive Guide

As a Linux user, you may come across situations where you need to display or manipulate date and time information. Linux provides a powerful built-in utility known as the date command that allows users to get, set, and format the system date and time.

In this article, we will discuss the Linux date format and how to use it effectively to display and manipulate date and time information.

What is the Linux Date Format?

The Linux date format is a string of characters used to represent date and time information in a specific format. The date format is used to specify how the date and time information should be displayed or parsed. The date format string consists of a combination of format specifiers and literal characters.

How to Display the Current Date and Time in Linux

To display the current date and time in Linux, you can use the date command followed by the desired format. By default, the date command displays the system date and time in the YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS format.

$ date 2023-01-01 10:00:00

To display the date and time in a custom format, you can use the format specifiers. For example, to display the date and time in the DD-MM-YYYY HH:MM:SS format, you can use the following command:

$ date '+%d-%m-%Y %H:%M:%S' 01-01-2023 10:00:00

In the above command, the + sign indicates that we are specifying a custom format. The %d, %m, %Y, %H, %M, and %S are format specifiers that represent the day, month, year, hour, minute, and second respectively.

Common Format Specifiers

Here are some of the common format specifiers used in the Linux date format:

%d: The day of the month (01 to 31)

%m: The month (01 to 12)

%Y: The year (e.g., 2023)

%H: The hour in 24-hour format (00 to 23)

%M: The minute (00 to 59)

%S: The second (00 to 59)

Formatting Date and Time Strings

In addition to displaying the date and time, you can also format date and time strings using the date command. To format a date and time string, you can use the -d option followed by the date and time string in quotes.

$ date -d "2023-01-01 10:00:00" '+%d-%m-%Y %H:%M:%S' 01-01-2023 10:00:00

In the above command, we are formatting the date and time string 2023-01-01 10:00:00 in the DD-MM-YYYY HH:MM:SS format.

Converting Date and Time Formats

You can also convert date and time formats using the date command. To convert a date and time from one format to another, you can use the -d option followed by the input date and time string in quotes, and then specify the output format using the + sign and the desired format.

$ date -d "01/01/2023 10:00:00 AM" '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S' 2023-01-01 10:00:00

In the above command, we are converting the input date and time string 01/01/2023 10:00:00 AM from the MM/DD/YYYY HH:MM:SS AM/PM format to the YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS format.


In conclusion, the Linux date format is a powerful tool that allows users to display, manipulate, and convert date and time information in a specific format. By using the format specifiers and literal characters, you can customize the date and time output to meet your specific requirements. We hope this guide has been helpful in understanding the Linux date format and how to use it effectively in your Linux system.

Sun Hones Its Collaboration Offerings

Sun Microsystems Monday unfurled another banner in its Sun One strategy for computer services on demand with the introduction of a platform that it claims will make workflow communications in the corporate sector more efficient, and ultimately, its users more chúng tôi Santa Clara, Calif.-based company, which recently reopened its corporate offices in Menlo Park, introduced the Sun ONE Collaborative Business Platform at the AIIM 2003enterprise content management event in New York.

The suite of software includes applications for e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, search, unified messaging, and content management. Sun, looking to lure customers from entrenched platforms such as Microsoft’s Exchange and IBM’s Lotus, envisions a range of employees, partners, customers, students, faculty and citizens using the platform to perform multiple tasks, according to Patrick Dorsey, group manager for Sun One communication products.

The messaging services scale to over 10 million users and allow customers to integrate virus checking and document conversion and provide varying levels of delivery service based upon the identity of the user and a routing service. It also lets users convert e-mail to fax, e-mail to SMS wireless messages, or Word to HTML.

As for calendaring and scheduling, the platform lets users manage schedules, share resources, and schedule events or appointments, as well as access services that can monitor calendar changes, stock price thresholds or auction notifications, then deliver a notification to the relevant application or device. As for content management, the applications let users access unstructured content, such as text files, via search, browse and taxonomy management capabilities.

The software family also includes professional consulting services from Sun and its iForce partners, as well as the new Sun ONE Instant Messaging 6.0 software. Dorsey said the state of New Jersey, with over eight million citizens and thousands of employees and partners, has already endorsed the platform, using its e-mail, calendar, and instant messaging applications.

David Ferris, president and analyst of messaging and collaboration research firm Ferris Research, called the suite “impressive and innovative.” Ferris also said the portal boasts strong integration with messaging and collaboration.

Ferris said Sun is gunning for Exchange users in the corporate realm, but noted that this will be challenging.

“Its value propositions in this regard center around offering a more secure and scalable platform, avoiding the need for a big upgrade to Windows 2000 and Active Directory, and TCO savings,” Ferris explained in a research note. “We doubt these messages will persuade many corporations to switch. Nevertheless, Sun has a lot to offer IT organizations that see themselves as service providers to their users. Sun also has a lot to offer organizations in which most employees aren’t office workers, such as retail chains, transportation businesses, and educational establishments. Here, the kiosk- and portal-based approaches, with low provisioning costs, should be attractive.”

Still, he said the company’s messaging and collaboration business is large and profitable.

Available now, pricing for the Sun ONE Collaborative Business Platform varies on customer needs and deployment requirements. Sun ONE Instant Messaging 6.0 begins at $30 per user with a tiered volume discount. The software is cross-platform, running on Solaris, Windows and HP-UX today, with Linux support due by the end of 2003.

What Are The Differences Between A Team And A Group?

What is a Team?

A team is described as “people assemble to function collectively as a group.” Several features of a team are that it has a usual dedication and motive, particular performance presentation goals, supportive expertise, dedication to how the work gets done, and mutual authority.

A team suits more than just a company of people when a strong perception of mutual responsibility creates collaboration, thus generating presentation exceeding the sum of the performance of its discrete members. One of many ways for a business to assemble employees is in teams. A team is made up of multiple people who work simultaneously to attain a common goal.

Teams provide a substitute to a vertical hierarchy and are a much more comprehensive attitude to business organization. Teams are flattering more frequently in the business world today. Effective teams can guide to an increase in employee inspiration and business productivity.

Types of Team

Problem-solving Teams

Self-Managed Work Teams

Cross-Functional Teams

Virtual Teams

Problem Solving Teams

A problem-solving team is a team from the same branch or practical area that’s elaborate in an attempt to improve work activities or to solve certain difficulties. Members share proposals or offer suggestions on how work operates and can be enhanced. The problem-solving team is the interim amalgamation of employees who collaborate to solve a specific problem and then terminate.

Self-Managed Work Team

Self-managed work teams are also referred to as independent work groups which permit their members to make a substantial offering at work and establish a remarkable aggressive superiority for the organization.

These work teams regulate how they will fulfill the objectives they are directed to achieve and decide what way they will take to complete the present task. Self-managed work teams recognize the authority of organizing, scheduling, administrating, managing and assessing their work process.

Cross-Functional Teams

Cross-functional teams are groups consisting of people from distinct utility of the business. For example, retailing, product, sales, and customer success. These can be functioning groups, where each member is owned by their effective team in addition to a cross functional team, or they can be the essential structure of the organization.

Virtual Teams

A virtual team is a group of people who work interconnectedly and with split motives over space, time, and organizational boundaries using mechanization to transmit and sympathize. Virtual team members can be discovered across a state or across the world, rarely meet head-on, and include members from different cultures. Evolution in facts and presentation technology have seen the difference of the virtual work team.

What is a Group?

A group is a group of discrete people who interrelate with each other just like that one person’s efforts have an influence on the others. By way of explanation, a group is interpreted as multiple individuals, interrelated and interrelationship, who have fallen simultaneously to attain particular objectives.

Groups where individuals get through, feel the inclination to donate to the team, and are proficient in synchronizing their efforts may have high-performance levels. Group can be determined as a group of individuals who have regular customer and recurrent interaction, mutual impact, the usual affection of companionship, and who work simultaneously to attain an ordinary set of objectives.

Types of Groups

Formal Group

Informal Group

Formal Group

Formal groups are generated to attain particular organizational objectives. Generally, they are anxious with the cooperation of work activities. People are escorted cooperatively based on distinct roles within the formation of the organization. The creation of the task to be tackled is a main feature of the formal groups.

Goals are associated by management and brief rules association and typical behavior accepted. Formal groups series to be related to everlasting in spite of the fact that there may be changes in definite membership.

Informal Group

Enclosed by the formal structure of the organization, there will always be an informal structure. The formal structure of the organization and structure of role relationship, directive, and course of action, will be increased by exposition and evolution at the informal level.

Informal groups are established on personal relationships and according to the group’s members thus describe role relationships. They distribute to persuade intellectual and social needs not related automatically to the tasks to be tackled.

Key Differences Between Group and Team

Key differences between a group and a team in the workplace are as follows −

GroupTeamThere is only one leader in a group.A team can have more than one chúng tôi group members do not share chúng tôi case of a team, the team members share the chúng tôi group is distinct on attaining separate goals.Contrariwise, the team members focus on attaining the team’s chúng tôi group assembles individual work chúng tôi compared to, the team who assembles collective work chúng tôi process of a group is to talk about obstacles, then determine and finally represent the tasks to individual members.A team talks about the difficulty, then figures out the way of solving it and eventually do it chúng tôi group members are self-sufficient.Unlike a group, the team members are associated.


Teams and groups have grown to be a vital issue of an organization’s achievement. The achievement of the team or organization rests in a hit control of its participants and ensuring all elements of labor are truthful for every member.

Having an excellent group of people around you now no longer best lets you live grounded however additionally permits you to suppose in unique ways, push limitations with new thoughts and most significantly it gives you with a robust assist network.

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