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At work, we tend to think about using our skills: our ability to write, design, code, or use Excel. That kind of focus means we’re doing the things we’re good at, but not necessarily the things that make us feel alive. But what if we put our strengths to work?

In psychology, character strengths – such as curiosity, gratitude, and perseverance – are traits that span industries and job descriptions. They’re also traits that we sometimes leave at home, unsure how they might be useful in a professional environment. But by doing so, we’re missing out on a lot of benefits.

In one study, researchers asked people to identify their signature strengths (more on that below) and use one in a new and different way at work each day for a week. Humorous people might send around the latest viral cat video to their coworkers; grateful people might go out of their way to thank a mentor or coworker; prudent people might voice their doubts in a planning meeting. At the end of the week and six months later, these people were happier and less depressed. Using our strengths gives us a sense of energy, power, and authenticity.

Identify your signature strengths

What strengths can you bring to work? Try these strategies to identify yours:

Take a test. The VIA Institute, which studies strengths of character, will give you a personalized ranking of the 24 character strengths according to which ones you exhibit most.

Reflect. Think of a time when you were at your best in the past few weeks. Why were you feeling good? What were you excelling at? Use the list below to identify the strengths you were using, and think about whether you use those strengths often.

Pick from the list. Do you see yourself in any of the strength descriptions below?

Appreciation of beauty: You are awed by excellence and beauty.

Citizenship: You excel in group situations.

Curiosity: You are open, interested, and comfortable with uncertainty.

Fairness: You believe in equality and morality.

Forgiveness: You don’t hold grudges.

Gratitude: Instead of taking things for granted, you feel thankful.

Humility: You’re modest and don’t seek the spotlight.

Humor: You’re funny and laugh a lot.

Ingenuity: You think of creative ways to solve problems.

Integrity: You are honest; your actions don’t contradict your beliefs.

Judgment: You excel at critical thinking and evaluating ideas objectively.

Kindness: You care for the well-being of others.

Leadership: You can organize people and instigate action.

Love of learning: You enjoy knowledge for its own sake.

Loving and being loved: You have strong mutual relationships.

Optimism: You are positive and hopeful.

Perseverance: You are hard-working and persistent.

Perspective: You have wisdom and share it with others.

Prudence: You are careful and mitigate long-term risk.

Self-control: You can regulate your behavior and keep your emotions in check.

Social intelligence: You’re adept at reading people and handling social situations.

Spirituality: You feel a sense of purpose and meaning in life.

Valor: You face your fears and confront challenges.

Zest: You have enthusiasm and energy for life.

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Subnormal, Supernormal And Paranormal In Abnormal Psychology

Clinical psychology primarily examines the spectrum of behaviors that fall outside of the norm. Deviant or abnormal (statistically, morally, or otherwise) behavior has been studied and managed at length, with considerable cultural variation in the approaches taken. What exactly is meant by the term “abnormal” remains a central question in abnormal psychology, which seeks to determine the root of a wide range of conditions by drawing on various theoretical frameworks. The historical separation of psychological and biological explanations can be traced back to a philosophical dualism concerning the mind-body problem. Multiple attempts have been made to classify mental illnesses, and the abnormal can be classified into subnormal, supernormal, and paranormal.

What are Subnormal, Supernormal, and Paranormal in Abnormal Psychology?

Many positive outcomes result from taking a statistical view of abnormality implications. It is important to remember that both extremely high and extremely low values, relative to the mean, are abnormal when discussing deviations from the norm. For this reason, extremes of intelligence and emotion are as abnormal as extremes of stupidity and memory capacity. Along with the “supernormal” and the “subnormal,” a third category, which we may call the “paranormal,” may be added to the spectrum of the abnormal, have irrational or fabricated responses to stimuli, on top of having extreme emotional reactions.

History Humour

Hippocrates (460–377 B.C.E.) proposed that an imbalance of the body’s vital fluids is the root cause of physical and mental illness. Black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood are all examples of body fluids. Fatigue comes from an excess of phlegm; depression comes from an excess of black bile; anger comes from an excess of yellow bile; and hopefulness, joy, and self-assurance come from an excess of blood.


Philippe Pinel in France popularised a more compassionate treatment method at the end of the 18th century. He believed patients should be treated humanely, and his radical idea of unchaining patients was questioned. The success of the “random acts of kindness” experiments changed mental hospital policy. Humanitarians like Dorothea Dix and the mental hygiene movement, which prioritized mental patients’ physical health, improved institutional care for the mentally ill in the 19th and 20th centuries. Dix exposed the inhumane treatment of the mentally ill in the U.S. and Europe more than anyone else in the 19th century. This movement raised millions to build new mental health facilities. As new treatments became available, mental health facilities proliferated in the 20th century.


Many mental hospitals closed in the late 20th century due to funding issues and overpopulation. Only 14 of the 130 early 20th-century psychiatric institutions in England remained open at the start of the 21st century. Many patients were released without being fully cured of their disorders. Deinstitutionalization occurred. This movement wanted to treat people outside mental hospitals in communities with support systems. This movement also sought to avoid negative adaptations from long-term hospitalization. Many professionals feared that patients would stay in mental hospitals forever when life got too hard.


Major causes are


Investigated employing family studies, particularly of monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal) twins, and frequently in the context of adoption. Since monozygotic twins share 100% of their genetic material, they should be more likely to have the same disorder as each other than dizygotic twins, who share only 50% of their genetic material. This is consistent with the evidence for many different types of disorders. Even though they share a cent of their D.N.A., monozygotic twins are only half as likely to share the same disorders as each other as one might assume, given their genetic closeness.

Factors of a biological nature

Norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter imbalances and a chemistry mismatch in the head inherent flaws [in terms of health or personality] dysfunction and neural plasticity in the brain. Disruption or deprivation of one’s physical environment (including one’s ability to meet one’s fundamental physical needs).

Aspects of society and culture

The psychological impacts of urban versus rural life, gender, and minority status. We must be careful to refrain from stereotyping individuals of any cultural group because broad generalizations about cultural practices and beliefs may fail to capture the diversity within and across cultural groups.

Systemic Factors

Childhoods marred by violent or sexual abuse Exposure to potentially fatal conditions consideration of the whole Relationships within families derogatorily expressed mood swings contribute to both anorexia nervosa and relapse-prone Schizophrenia. Aspects of biology and psychology disease with a “stress trigger” dependence.

How Abnormal Psychology Differs from Abnormal Psychopathology?

There is a difference between the unusual and the morbid. The pathological is a subset of the aberrant, but many disorders are not truly pathological. These are merely idiosyncrasies (unique behavioral patterns) that arise from a person’s non-pathological basic makeup. These distinguishing features are transmissible either genetically or through social learning. Departures from the norm include extreme stubbornness, catatonic negativism, peculiar mannerisms, the stereotyped responses of dementia praecox, unusual egotism, the delusions of grandeur of the paranoid, marked grouchiness, epileptic ill-humor, and generally any significant deviation from the central tendency or deviations of pathological origin. Psychopathology is the branch of abnormal psychology dedicated to studying psychological diseases.

Abnormal psychology: A Different Point of View

Psychologists may employ a variety of theoretical frameworks in their quest to comprehend abnormal behavior, and some might be too narrow in scope, focusing on just one point of view. However, experts usually use a hybrid method, which combines data from different sources to make more accurate diagnoses and better treatments. “Behavioral” refers to a worldview that emphasizes what can be directly observed. In the medical model, the role of genes and neurochemistry in developing mental illness is given much attention. The cognitive stance considers how one’s way of thinking, feeling, and perceiving may play a role in developing mental illness.


A problem exists when an individual’s emotions, thoughts, actions, and speech are negatively impacted by their exposure to environmental stress. Adaptive behaviors facilitate mutual comprehension by conforming to individuals, their contexts, and their interlocutors

The Weekender: February 21 To 24

The Weekender: February 21 to 24 Games, a rock musical, and a little bit of magic

Eat, Shop, Go

Midterms are around the corner. So this weekend may be a good time to relax with friends and explore the city. Looking for some ideas for what to do? Check out our guide “The Weekender.” If you have suggestions for events or places we should feature, leave them in the Comment section below.

College students are often stereotyped as eating nothing but Top Ramen or Cup Noodles, the cheap packs of noodles that you can find at many convenience stores. But for the real deal, head over to Ganko Ittetsu Ramen, hidden away in the Arcade Building in Coolidge Corner. The restaurant is renowned for its Sapporo-style ramen, where the sauce is caramelized with vegetables before the base broth is added. The custom-made noodles are imported from a factory in Sapporo, Japan. While there are only has six bowls of ramen on the menu, each is delicious. We recommend the Tan Tan bowl, a creamy concoction of sesame sauce, seasoned ground pork, spicy garlic oil, pickled vegetables, wakame, cilantro, scallions, corn, and sesame seeds. Try it and you may never eat Top Ramen again.

Ganko Ittetsu Ramen, inside the Arcade Building, 318 Harvard St., Brookline, is open Monday through Saturday, 11:30 am to 10 pm, and Sunday, 11:30 am to 9 pm. Take an MBTA Green Line C trolley to Coolidge Corner.

The Fairy Shop

Calling all Harry Potter fans: have we got a store for you. This enchanting Newbury Street gem welcomes wizards and Muggles alike and sells books, trinkets, and jewelry inspired by the wizarding world of J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter books. (It even sells chocolate frogs.) You’ll also find an assortment of dream catchers, fairies, gnomes, unicorns, dragons, and mermaids—great for a whimsical gift or to add a little magic to your decor.

The Fairy Shop, 272 Newbury St., Boston, is open daily from noon to 6 pm. Take an MBTA Green Line trolley to Hynes Convention Center.

Based on the hit 2003 Jack Black film about a poser substitute teacher who shakes things up at a private school when he introduces rock and roll to his elementary school students, School of Rock: The Musical opened on Broadway in 2024 and is running through Sunday at the Boston Opera House. The Andrew Lloyd Webber rock musical is the story of Dewey Finn, who turns his fifth-grade class into a full-fledged rock band. Grab a ticket to this feel-good musical before it leaves town and find out why the Boston Globe calls this production “amped up and infectious.”

School of Rock: The Musical runs through Sunday, February 24, at the Boston Opera House, 539 Washington St., Boston. Tickets start at $20. Purchase tickets here, at the theater box office, or by calling 800-982-2787.

This Sunday, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences will hand out the most coveted awards in cinema—the Oscars. You can still catch the nominated short films in time to fill out your Oscar ballot before the televised broadcast starts. For the 13th consecutive year, the ICA will be showing all the nominated live-action, animated, and documentary shorts. Find a full list of this year’s screenings and purchase tickets here. The animated shorts screening is rated PG; the live-action and documentary shorts are rated R.

The 2023 Oscar-nominated short films screenings are at the Institute of Contemporary Art/Boston, 25 Harbor Shore Drive, Boston, at 7 pm on Friday, February 22, and at 1 and 3 pm on Sunday, February 24. Admission is $5 for students and ICA members and $10 for the general public; purchase tickets here. Take an MBTA Red Line train to South Station and transfer to the Silver Line Waterfront bus. The ICA is a short walk from the World Trade Center or the Courthouse station.

South Boston’s GrandTen Distilling (best known for its Wire Works American Gin) is dusting off the old Nintendo and mixing up cocktails for your gaming pleasure during a special event on Sunday: 8-Bit Funday Sunday. Chill out in the GrandTen Bar, offering a relaxed vibe that makes you feel like you’re in your personal basement game room, but with a bartender on hand to serve libations. There will be a great selection of classic board games, retro video games, and bar games like shuffleboard and foosball. The Sunday cocktail menu will feature $6 “session” cocktails for those long games of Monopoly that never end. And if you’re hungry, there will be some small bar snacks available for purchase. Guests can also bring a pizza or takeout. The event is 21+ only.

The 8-Bit Funday Sunday is at GrandTen Distilling’s GrandTen Bar, 383 Dorchester Ave., South Boston, on Sunday, from 1 to 8 pm. Take an MBTA Red Line train to either Broadway or Andrew Square.

How To Build A WordPress Site In 24 Hours

WordPress is a fantastic platform for building websites on the fly with little to no development time required to get up and running.

In addition, WordPress has fantastic customizability ranging from being able to fully customize your theme, to finding plug-ins that have the functionality to do just about anything you want.

The list of what you can do to customize WordPress is endless and is generally limited only to your imagination.

You can install a newsletter plug-in to manage your newsletter subscriptions. You can install analytics plug-ins that seamlessly integrate with WordPress and Google Analytics.

Other WordPress plugins allow you to customize your SEO such as your title tags, meta descriptions, and meta keywords.

Still, some plug-ins will also let you add noodp and noydir tags, and dive deep enough into their functionality to allow for full control over noindex/nofollow on individual pages.

1. Choose a Good Domain Name

This should go without saying, but choosing a good domain name is half the battle toward creating a good website.

A good domain name should generally be:



Describe your business.


Relevant to your brand.

Short domain names are generally defined as domain names that are three words or less. Ideally two words or less.

These words should communicate and encompass three areas: your brand, your industry, your keywords.

Now, it’s necessary to mention this: the exact match domain name update does tend to work against domain names with exact-match phrases.

Be careful about using exact match keyword phrases as the domain name. You may get away with it for a few months, but the choice will eventually come back to haunt you.

2. Choose a Good Host

Choosing a good web host for WordPress presents several challenges. A web host should be a positive addition to your website’s arsenal.

Things like additional websites, bandwidth, or things like no WHM control panel can be (and should be) dealbreakers. Find a host that will suit your needs and let you upgrade your monthly bandwidth as necessary.

As you drive more traffic to your site, you want to make sure that your host has some way for you to upgrade that bandwidth.

Almost nothing is worse than obtaining thousands of visitors a month only to find that your website is suddenly down due to a lack of bandwidth.

Make sure that your host will give you the security you need, as well. This will help you rest easy, knowing that you will not be hacked at a moment’s notice.

Learn more about WordPress security: 10 Tips For Keeping Your WordPress Site Secure.

For this tutorial, we are assuming that you have selected a Linux web host with CPANEL + WHM combination as your hosting stack.

There are other implementations and types of hosts but for the purposes of this article, this is what we are using.

3. Inventory Your Existing Website

Here, you can figure out whether or not you want to start over. If your existing website is so horrible you want to start over, I totally get it. I would not want to add that site to my portfolio either!

Take a look at your existing website and figure out what you want to keep and what you want to throw away.

Depending on what you uncover in this step, it will be necessary to perform a full website migration, which will take longer than 24 hours and is beyond the scope of this article.

4. Download WordPress

Go to chúng tôi and download the install files for WordPress. After downloading, you can unzip the files.

Then, log on to your web host. Upload the files. You can add the files anywhere you want on the website.

If you want to upload them to the root folder and have your entire site based on WordPress, that can be done.

If you’d rather just a section of your site hosted off a subdomain be the WordPress version, then that is possible as well.

5. Create a MySQL Database

Before proceeding with the WordPress installation, it will be necessary to create a MySQL database in Cpanel. Without a MySQL database, your WordPress installation will all be for naught.

Follow the documentation here (or follow your hosts’ help files if they have them) in order to create a new database with the MySQL Database Wizard.

Be sure to take down your username and password for the SQL database. We will be using them in the next steps.

Need-to-know: When creating your username and password the MySQL database wizard usually creates a username with the database name + user like so: user_databasename.

So, username_db1 would be the full username you use when modifying wp_config.php. Don’t worry – we’re getting to that in just a little bit.

6. Install WordPress in 15 Minutes

There are some changes you need to make to the WordPress install files before you move forward with installing WordPress.

First of all, it is necessary to make changes to wp_config.php in order to ensure that your installation will work. Without these changes, your installation will have problems.

Please note as well that the items in the chúng tôi file are all in a specific order. This order does matter and if you make changes and you don’t know what you’re doing, you can introduce problems into your installation.

Using your FTP solution, let’s navigate to chúng tôi We have to re-name this file to chúng tôi for the file to work.

Next, we are going to make changes to some items in the file: the database name, the database username, database password, and database host.

Remember that need-to-know item we discussed in the last step? That applies here.

So your database name will be the full name of the database you created.

The Database Username will be “username_db1”. Enter your password.

Now, the Database Host is set by your hosting provider. It will be necessary to contact their support and obtain this information for that chúng tôi item.

For further details, here is the official documentation for editing wp-config-sample.php.

Now that we have renamed chúng tôi and we have entered in our database’s information, it is time to go to the main install URL and proceed with the installation.

In a few seconds, you should have a welcome screen that shows, “Congratulations! WordPress is now installed.”

This entire process should take around 5-10 minutes total.

Some maintenance tips: You will want to change your admin directory on your site, in order to prevent hackers from hacking into your back end. In addition, using strong passwords like “7$192^98asv097!@#E41” is recommended just for the security alone.

Please, don’t use the word “password” or other identifiable easy-to-guess information as your WordPress password. It’s better to be thorough and a little cautious at the outset than be sorry later.

7. Find a Good Theme

Now that WordPress is installed, it is important to find a good theme for our project.

Finding a good theme means that:

It will meet our needs.

It has valid HTML along with valid CSS.

It includes compatibility with not only the most popular plug-ins, but also most plug-ins that you plan on using.

It includes high-quality support along with thorough documentation.

When you do find a theme you like, you should look at things like its customizability, your requirements, whether or not you will outgrow the theme, as well as integration with your brand’s colors.

Now, almost every theme will give you the opportunity to change colors after installation, so I wouldn’t worry too much about this part at first.

While finding a theme remember to be on the lookout for the theme’s customizability and compatibility with plug-ins.

8. Install the Theme

When you do find your theme, it’s generally a simple matter of downloading the files, extracting the files, and uploading them to your server.

You can then go into WordPress themes and change the theme over to the new one so you can test it out.

9. Customize Your Theme

Looking at customizations of your theme, it is important that you can customize everything. There are different levels of customization available that can make or break your website efforts.

If you have a theme that doesn’t let you customize your content with your own coding, or you have to code in such a way that mimics the coding being used on the theme, then the theme is not coded well.

You could run into issues with this later with cross-platform and cross-display compatibility.

A theme should not limit what you can do with your site. Instead, it should help enhance your website efforts and make things easier.

If, for whatever reason, you find that your theme does not allow you to accomplish what you want, it may be time to find another theme. Revisit step 7 and make sure your theme fits the goals of your project before you move forward.

If you find that available themes do not do what you want your website to do, it may be necessary to move on to custom theme development, which can take more than 24 hours.

Here are some good tutorials on how to create custom WordPress themes.

10. Find & Install Good Plug-Ins

Finding good plug-ins is necessary to make sure that you not only have the functionality that you need, but that enhanced functionality runs smoothly.

From SEO plug-ins to newsletter and analytics plug-ins, make sure your theme is compatible.

Some of my favorite plugins to use include:

Redirection (for implementing 301 redirects the easy way).

Yoast’s SEO Plugin (for implementing all of the SEO basics easily).

Tribulant Newsletters (easy creation and management of newsletters along with newsletter subscriptions).

Google XML Sitemaps (for easy implementation of XML Sitemaps on WordPress sites).

W3 Total Cache (for minification, speed optimization).

Social media sharing plug-ins (if they are not already part of your theme).

Social media analytics plug-ins (for social analytics).

11. Configuring the SEO Basics Permalink structure

I prefer using the following permalink structure: chúng tôi where category includes the blog post’s category (keyword-optimized for the topical focus of your blog), and then a keyword-rich postname.

If you wish to include the category like recommended above, select Custom Structure and use the following: /%category%/%postname%/.

If you have had your site for a while, it is likely that you have links in place. Don’t panic!

WordPress will automatically implement the redirects for you so you don’t have to set them up manually.

Changing From WWW To Non-WWW

It will be necessary to take a bit of time and think about what you want your site to show up as: WWW or non-WWW.

If you are migrating an existing site over to WordPress, I recommend that you use the existing site URL. Changing from WWW from non-WWW in that instance will only cause more harm than good, and you can introduce serious SEO performance issues as a result.

Make Sure You Allow Search Engines to Index Your Site

Normally, this box is checked. In order to allow full crawling of your site, always make sure that this box is unchecked.

Site Speed

Speed is king and can make or break your website performance, especially where conversions are concerned.

Look into how you can speed up your theme. It is preferable to eliminate as many calls to the server as possible.

If you have 15 CSS files in your theme, consider condensing them down to 1-3 CSS files. The same thing holds true with JS files.

If you have 15 JS files as part of your theme, either look for another well-optimized theme or manually condense them down into 1-3 files maximum.

In addition, installing the WP Total Cache plug-in can help make your site faster with its offerings of page caching, database caching, offering minify options, and integration with a range of CDNs (content delivery networks), further increasing your opportunity for speed.

Be Sure to Noindex, Follow Archive Pages and Disable Archives You Don’t Need

Archive pages are the king of duplicate content in WordPress. They can make or break a site, especially when the site reaches hundreds of pages.

You don’t want to address that headache in the future.

In addition, I recommend adding the NOODP and NOYDIR meta robots tags sitewide. These tags will prevent Google and other search engines from automatically using the DMOZ and Yahoo Directory descriptions.

For those who continue the integration of meta keywords, I suggest checking “use meta keywords tag” here as well.

Building a WordPress site is easy. It can take less than 24 hours to build a competent site that looks like a brand you want to do business with.

It will take much longer, however, to build a great online presence that drives traffic on a consistent basis.

So play around with it. Enhance your creativity. See what you can come up with.

It’s by experimentation and testing that we truly find the right path through the SERPs.

Additional Sources:

Image Credits: Paulo Bobita

Criminal Psychology Vs Forensic Psychology

Criminal psychology and forensic psychology are two distinct fields of study within psychology. In the early 20th century, while criminal psychologists were primarily concerned with understanding human nature, forensic psychologists were mainly trying to explain criminals and their motives. However, over time, it has become clear that the two practices are not mutually exclusive; as research in both areas of knowledge increases, the boundaries between these two specialties seem to be blurring.

What is Criminal Psychology?

In order to fully grasp the scope of criminal psychology, it is essential to first define the concept of crime. Legal action or inaction that violates the law is referred to as a crime. The definition of crime, however, is flexible; what constitutes a crime depends on the circumstances surrounding the action, including the place and time it was done, as well as the local social norms. Robert Agnew said that “acts that inflict blameworthy injury, are criticized by the public, and/or are not sanctioned by the state” should be considered crimes.

There will be some psychological weaknesses in people at different periods of life, whether they are teens, college students, or adults in society. For various reasons, these flaws will cause certain people to develop criminal psychology. Many hypotheses of how criminal social defects are formed have been proposed since these criminal psychologies are frequently influenced by people’s environments rather than by individual factors.

Criminal psychology combines criminology and psychology to explain the reasons for criminal behavior, whereas criminology focuses on the study of crime, criminal behavior, and responses to crime (Newburn, 2013). Criminal psychology has been characterized in a variety of ways.

An American psychologist named Wrightsman (2001) proposed a more thorough definition of criminal psychology, “defining it as any application of psychological knowledge or procedures to a challenge faced by the legal system”.

Combining psychology and law, criminal psychology helps to understand criminal behavior and intentions and supports offenders by providing therapies to control and modify such conduct. In the context of criminal psychology, deviation and crime might be related, albeit they are not necessarily considered as the same thing.

What is Forensic Psychology?

The psychological aspects of legal proceedings are the focus of forensic psychology. The phrase is frequently used to describe the psychological approach to crime and investigation. Nothing formally enters the sphere of forensic psychology; control of the term in a “forensic” manner. The list of forensic psychology programs is not just for criminals; it also includes programs for courts, police, attorneys, criminal investigations, criminal behavior, police appointments, education, disciplinary actions, and more. It also encompasses all areas of our laws and communication systems.

According to Rightsman, “forensic psychology is characterized by the use of information methods or psychological images related to the work of prison gadgets.”

The term “forensic psychology” refers to the scientific study of psychology as a science and its application to legal, judicial, and courtroom situations.

The field of forensic psychology focuses on the psychological elements of judicial proceedings. An area of psychology that is still developing is forensic psychology, which includes evaluating people. However, throughout the years, this relatively new discipline has played a crucial part in the Criminal Justice legal system.

Although they both use the same methodologies, forensic psychology and clinical evaluation are not essentially the same.

What is the Difference Between Criminal Psychology and Forensic Psychology?

The given table describes the major difference between criminal psychology and forensic psychology −

BasicsCriminal Psychology Forensic psychology


Criminal psychology also referred to as criminological psychology, is the study of the goals, thoughts, and feelings of criminals as well as everything else involved in criminal conduct.

A field that integrates the study of psychology with the law is forensic psychology. People who work in this sector apply their psychological knowledge to the legal system.


Studying methods for resolving disputes that arise between the investigator, the offender, and the victims throughout a case investigation is the goal of criminal psychology. It is also responsible for developing effective therapies to maintain and improve the mental health of professionals, in addition to offering therapy to offenders and victims.

Forensic psychology is used to prosecute offenders and stop future crimes. “The scientific process for investigating crimes” is the sole definition of the word “forensic.”


Criminal psychology is the study of the minds and behaviors of offenders. This can include general personality and mental health disorders as well as their actions during criminal activities. It is a field that has developed over many years, with research in the area steadily increasing. Forensic psychology focuses on how people act when they are committing a crime (or have been accused of one). It aims to understand why they did what they did and how they will continue to act in similar circumstances. Both these fields of study have been used in criminal cases that needed expert opinion or analysis from qualified experts. Furthermore, the law is continually absorbing new technology and ideas in order to give additional hints for the discovery of criminal cases. This is in line with the ongoing changes in society. Judges can simultaneously strike a balance between justice and effectiveness in the adjudication process, protecting people’s fundamental rights to a certain extent. Criminals are not created; neither are they born. As scientists, we can identify the root causes of criminal conduct and provide effective remedies to lessen it. Government agencies, school districts, and correctional facilities frequently use criminal psychologists and forensic psychologists to evaluate potential offenders and offer guidance on the best course of action.

Difference Between Western And Indian Psychology

It takes more than a simple comparison of how Indians and Westerners behave differently to distinguish the two psychologies. It is unnecessary to categorize Indians as introverts or collectivists, as having a strong need for dependency and a low desire for success, etc. Cross-cultural research has been primarily focused on identifying the such source and surface characteristic differences for many years. Such distinctions exist among people from various civilizations, not only in Indian culture

Western and Indian Psychology

Indian and Western psychology are distinct approaches to understanding the human mind and behavior. While they share some similarities, they also have significant differences stemming from their cultural, philosophical, and historical backgrounds. The key differences between the approaches are in the view of the self and how it is connected to the rest of the world. Western culture has been called individualistic, while Indian culture is holistic. Individualistic culture views the self, or “I,” as the center of the universe and everything else as an extension of this entity. Holistic cultures view the self as part of a collective where it has a distinctive role.


Western psychology views the self as separate from the external world. In contrast, Indian psychology views the self as interconnected with the universe and, ultimately, one with the divine. Western psychology has traditionally focused on the individual self and its relationship to the external world. The self is seen as a separate entity, with a clear boundary between the self and the external world. Individual characteristics, such as personality traits, beliefs, and emotions, define the self. Western psychology has also focused on the cognitive processes that underlie the self, such as perception, memory, and reasoning. On the other hand, Indian psychology views the self as interconnected with the universe and, ultimately, one with the divine. The self is not seen as a separate entity but as an integral part of the universe. Indian psychology emphasizes the interconnectedness of all things and the idea that the self is a part of a larger whole. The self is not defined by its characteristics but by its connection to the divine.

Western Psychology Indian Psychology

Self separate from the universe Self as interconnected with the universe

Consciousness as a sense of awareness of surrounding Consciousness as the ultimate reality and goal of self

Self-actualisation as fulfilling one’s potential Self-actualization as the process of realising one’s true nature and ultimate reality


The concept of consciousness is a fundamental aspect of psychology, and it is approached differently in Western and Indian psychology. Western psychology focuses on the conscious mind and its functions, while Indian psychology emphasizes the unconscious mind and ultimate reality. In Western psychology, consciousness is generally defined as awareness of one’s surroundings, thoughts, and feelings.

Conceptualization of Mental Disorders

The understanding of mental disorders differs significantly between Western and Indian psychology. Western psychology tends to focus on mental disorders’ biological and psychological causes, and treatment is often based on medication and therapy. Indian psychology, on the other hand, places greater emphasis on the spiritual and cultural factors that contribute to mental disorders, and treatment often includes spiritual practices such as yoga and meditation.

Western psychology views mental disorders as a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. According to this perspective, mental disorders are caused by genetic, neurobiological, and psychological factors, such as childhood experiences, trauma, and stress. Western psychology has developed various diagnostic categories and treatments for mental disorders, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoanalytic therapy, and medication.

On the other hand, Indian psychology views mental disorders as imbalances in the individual’s spiritual and cultural factors. According to this perspective, mental disorders are caused by a lack of connection to the divine and an imbalance in the individual’s spiritual and cultural factors. Indian psychology emphasizes the importance of spiritual practices such as yoga and meditation, which aim to connect the individual self with the divine in treating mental disorders. Indian psychology also emphasizes the importance of cultural and spiritual factors, such as family, community, and tradition, in the understanding and treatment of mental disorders.

Self-Actualization and Differences

The concept of self-actualization is a fundamental aspect of psychology, and the understanding of self-actualization differs significantly between Indian and Western psychology. Western psychology views self-actualization as fulfilling one’s potential and becoming the best version of oneself, while Indian psychology views self-actualization as realizing one’s true nature and ultimate reality. In Western psychology, self-actualization is often associated with the works of Abraham Maslow, who proposed the theory of self-actualization as the highest level of human motivation.

Human Nature

The traditions concur that, like other animals, humans have certain biological or innate requirements for food, security, sexuality, and sleep. However, people may conquer or sublimate their fundamental wants, emotions, passions, and desires. S/he can actualize and develop amazing abilities that turn her/him into a superhuman person who may be referred to as Divine or God.

These people can transcend space-time boundaries and feel a connection to the cosmos. That gives them access to knowledge about their fellow humans, animals, and what occurs in distant locations on the planet and even parallel universities (loka). As a result, they are omnipotent, omnipresent, and omniscient.

Life and Death

The cycle of life and death is an ongoing process. Every living thing goes through this cycle. Humans go through these cycles again, and physical death is not the end of life energy (jiva). It may continue on its voyage and eventually make its way back to earth in a brand-new body immediately or after a short or long period. Karma is the accumulation of the effects of one’s acts throughout a lifetime, which results in specific inclinations, impressions, and habit patterns.

The power that perpetuates the cycle of birth and death is the accumulated karma of many lifetimes. The primary driving force behind our behavior is karma. However, people can actively decide to stop this process in a given life stage. It is referred to as moksha or emancipation. Such liberated humans are revered as Divine Persons and are free to return to this world and aid in the liberation of others. Since humans are treated as superior apes in Western psychology, which is inspired by Darwinian evolutionary theory, the continued evolutionary potential of humans is not taken into account.

The Goals and Values of Life – Purushārtha

Four life objectives have been acknowledged since ancient times. The biological demands for food, rest, safety, and sex we have in common with other animals are not these needs. Instead, they are purushrtha, which humans deliberately decided was worthwhile. Dharma, Artha, karma, and moksha are the four. They allude to aspiring to be freed from the cycle of birth and death, living a moral life, accumulating money, and achieving desires. Here, the word “Kama” does not signify “sexual urge” as it is typically understood. Our additional psychological demands are mentioned.

These four objectives should be placed in a certain order. The ultimate, superior, or perfect purpose of human existence is the final and the most significant. As a result, it is known as parama purushrtha. The goal post was for humans to satisfy their need to acquire money and gratifying psychological wants. One should first be directed in seeking these needs by specific rules, ethics, and values, which is dharma. So within the confines of dharma, it was anticipated that one would strive for other objectives. Dharma was thus the primary aim of life. In the path of life, dharma and moksha worked as two opposing forces, one pushing from behind and the other pulling from the front.

We should mention that moksha has only been emphasized as the ultimate life aims in our nation for thousands of years. We see this belief in freedom from the cycles of birth and death so commonly held and also actively supported as a noble life aims in Asian countries that were historically impacted by Indian culture. From ancient times till the present, countless seers, saints, and sages in our nation have emphasized the potential of this happening. We do not find moksha, even if the other three objectives are stated and sought in every nation on earth.

The concepts of life after death, rebirth, and reincarnation are not as prevalent in Western society as in ours. This is the key distinction between Western psychology and what we refer to as Indian psychology. They are still present, nevertheless, from Western civilizations. Such events were experienced and reported, and the first Psychical Research Society was founded in England to look into them. That is why there is still a need for parapsychology as a subfield of psychology.

However, there has been a renaissance of spiritual seeking throughout the Western world for the past 50 years. Many people reported seeing such a thing. The number of studies on “altered states of consciousness” increased quickly. As a result, the study of consciousness is currently a popular study area. Western experts have discovered that many texts and treatises relating to Vaidka and the a-Vaidka darana are filled with arguments on the nature of consciousness and mind. They were referred to as “Consciousness disciplines” by one researcher.


Indian and Western psychology are distinct approaches to understanding the human mind and behavior. They differ in their understanding of the nature of the self, the causes and treatment of mental disorders, the concept of consciousness, and their research methods. While Western psychology tends to focus on the individual self and the scientific study of mental processes, Indian psychology emphasizes the interconnectedness of all things and the spiritual aspects of the human experience.

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