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If Aquaman has taught us anything, it’s that there is more going on under the surface than we realize. To continue this nautical theme, there are many similarities between the Internet and the oceans. They both have surface, deep, and dark web layers. These layers are unexplored for the most part. We will take a look at the deep web and dark web in this guide and show you the differences between the deep web and dark web.

What Is The Surface Web?

This aspect of the Internet is straightforward to explain. The surface web is what you’re looking at now, and it is the “Internet” we have all come to know. It’s the slice of the Internet you can easily connect to from your browser. In other words, the surface web is publicly accessible by anyone with an Internet connection.

You may also hear a few other names in relation to the surface web – for example, the visible web, the indexed web, and “lightnet.”

While you might think the surface web is vast, in context it’s tiny. Despite there being around 4 billion indexed web pages, this represents around 5 to 10 percent of all the web pages in existence. To find out where the rest of them are, we need to dive deeper.

Explaining the Deep and Dark Web

There are two more layers of the Internet to discover. In fact, the deep web is more crucial to understand, as this contains the dark web too. Let’s start here.

The Deep Web

If ten percent of the web is visible and indexed, that makes around 90 to 95 percent unindexed. This is the deep web. You may also hear it called the invisible web, as you can’t access any of these pages through a search engine.

When most people talk about the deep web, the conversation often turns to nefarious or malicious uses. However, the deep web in general isn’t a magnet for criminals and illicit behavior.

Instead, it’s home to many innocent (and useful) pages. For example, consider your web-based email inbox, personal banking screen, checkout and payment redirections, and much more. These are all part of the deep web, and it’s fair to say the Internet couldn’t run if it didn’t have a tight link to it.

You can also consider pages such as a website post draft to be a part of the deep web, as well as company intranets and other authenticated sites such as paywalls.

Here are the key aspects that make something part of the deep web:

Pages can’t be indexed in search engines.

Not accessible to the public.

Many companies use it to process payments, carry out transactions, display confirmation screens, and more.

You’ll often need authentication, such as a username or password, to access a page on the deep web.

If you think about your day-to-day browsing, it’s common to find that plenty of pages you visited are part of the deep web.

Though there’s yet another layer to uncover, that’s also part of the deep web. Take a look.

The Dark Web

When most people use the term “deep web,” they’re really talking about the dark web. You’ll also find this called “darknet” in contrast to lightnet and “Onionland” on account of how you access sites on the dark web.

The websites here are invisible, unindexed, and inaccessible through normal Internet browsing. Instead, you’ll need to use a dedicated browser – The Onion Router (TOR).

This is a free and open source tool to facilitate anonymous communication. It works to conceal your identity and location using thousands of relays and nested overlay networks. As such, it’s difficult to trace users of the dark web, which means it gets a lot of attention from those who want to engage in illicit behavior.

In fact, the dark web has links to a number of criminal activities, such as ransomware, drug marketplaces, terrorism, and more. Because it offers almost full anonymity, it’s not a safe place to visit for financial and mental safety.

Even so, companies such as Facebook have dark websites to try and capture some of its traffic. You can also find other mainstream news outlets, such as the New York Times, on the dark web.

In Summary

Much like the sea, the Internet is vast, and we don’t know what lurks in most of it. As such, you might not venture further than the surface web, although you will also use the deep web without knowing. Lots of the deep web is legal and above board, though the dark web is a near-lawless part of the deep web that contains all manner of illicit and illegal activity.

Tom Rankin

Tom Rankin is a quality content writer for WordPress, tech, and small businesses. When he’s not putting fingers to keyboard, he can be found taking photographs, writing music, playing computer games, and talking in the third-person.

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Everything You Need To Know About Ransom Web Attacks

There are many reasons why people execute such attacks, but a recent trend has emerged in which attackers are now asking for remuneration with the promise that the attacks will stop once the payment is made. To better understand how to stop ransom web attacks, we will need to dive into the minds of the attackers and understand how they differentiate themselves.

How Ransom Web Attacks Work

Think of a ransom DDoS attack as a kidnapping. The perpetrator has taken something of value from the victim and asks for compensation, promising restitution of what was lost. In this case it’s not a human being kidnapped but the ability for a web service to operate. Attacks often happen on websites, but they could also bring down any other service that uses the Internet. Some of the worst attacks could take down a service, even if the port attacked is closed simply because the infrastructure becomes overloaded by an excessive amount of incoming traffic. Lighter attacks may be more effective on an open port (i.e. a port that is actively “listening” for traffic because a service runs on it, such as port 80 for HTTP).

Unlike ransomware, which kidnaps your computer from you, a ransom attack robs you of your ability to provide services over the Internet. If your computer (as opposed to a remote server) is the target of the attack, you also lose the entire ability to communicate or browse on the Web. For major companies this may create losses that amount to more capital than what they would spend paying the ransom, which is why they may give in to the demands.

What Motivates Attackers to Demand Ransom?

A ransom attack, as opposed to hacktivism, does not have any ulterior motive other than short-term profit. While hacktivists may be attacking a server for a cause (such as the October 2023 attacks on allegedly racist websites), ransom attackers will be satisfied only by a lump sum of cash. Hacktivism can be more severe in most cases since the duration of their attacks can be much longer. Despite the distinction I have outlined, the two groups may overlap. Hacktivists can sometimes ask for ransom, although the “reward” may not be in the form of monetary gain but a change in policy or some sort of other measure. Such was the case when Canadian intelligence services were threatened by Anonymous in mid-July 2023.

How Service Providers Can Combat Ransom Attacks

As I mentioned earlier, ransom attacks can cause significant losses during the outages. The longer the attack lasts, the more tempting it is for the target to pay the ransom to cut their losses. This is a flawed way to do things and puts the victim at a more vulnerable position considering there is no guarantee that the attackers will keep their word. Such was the case in November 2023 when a Swiss firm called Protonmail that provided encrypted email services paid the ransom and the attacks continued. The payment simply motivates the attackers to press harder and try their luck again by adding more demands to the table.

The best way to solve the issue is to wait until the attackers move onto another target (which usually happens after they realize they’re not going to get what they asked for). If this is unacceptable, perhaps you should be running your web services on a load balancing infrastructure which will help maintain traffic flow while the main server is attacked. You could use a service like CloudFlare or Incapsula to make sure that addresses are filtered and no attacker knows your website’s actual IP address.

Miguel Leiva-Gomez

Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.

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What You Need To Know About The Telegram Messenger

Telegram Messenger is an instant messaging app that uses phone numbers (or optionally usernames) to connect users. With Telegram, users can send messages, pictures, videos, audios and any other type of file. The instant messenger app category is a hotly contested field, and some of Telegram’s competitors include WhatsApp, Google’s Hangout, BBM, WeChat, Facebook’s Messenger and LINE (among many others).

About Telegram Messenger

Telegram Messenger launched in 2013, created and backed financially by Russian billionaire brothers Pavel and Nikolai Durov, the founders of Russian social networking site VKontakte who wanted to build a communications system that couldn’t be accessed by the Russian security agencies.

It is built on the open source MTProto protocol. Telegram boasts of being fast, reliable and available on (and accessible from) multiple devices at the same time. It also uses a distributed server architecture with multiple data centres spread out in different jurisdictions around the world.

Telegram is available for Android, iPhone, Windows Phone, Linux, Windows, OSX and via the web.


To begin using Telegram, you must register with a phone number. The phone number then becomes the your identity on Telegram. In addition, you can set a username through which other users can connect and chat without having access to the phone number tied to the username. Usernames are optional and can be deleted at anytime by simply saving an empty username.

In addition to text messages, users can send files of any type up to 1.5 GB. Telegram messages also indicate the status of messages sent. One check signifies the message has been delivered to Telegram cloud, and the recipient has been sent a notification, while two checks indicate the recipient has read the message.

Messages sent with Telegram are encrypted by default, between the user device and telegram servers, which guards against man-in-the-middle attacks. In addition, the messages and files are stored encrypted on Telegram servers, while the decryption keys are stored in Data Centres in other jurisdictions. This way, neither Telegram staff nor government agencies with subpoenas can get to user data.

For the truly paranoid, Telegram has Secret Chats which are conversations between users that make use of end-to-end encryption. That is the chat is visible only to the two parties involved in the discussion, and even Telegram servers cannot view the contents of the chat. When a secret chat is set up between two devices, Telegram helpfully generates a picture visualization of the encryption key for the chat, which both users can compare, and if the image matches, then the chat is secure.

For secret chats, a self destruct timer can also be set on messages. This has to be set before the message is sent. The timer begins when the recipient views the message, and when it runs out the message is deleted from both devices. Photos sent with a timer less than one minute can only be viewed while holding a finger on them, and helpfully Telegram notifies the sender if a screenshot is taken.

Users can create groups containing as many as 200 users and can send broadcast messages to as many as 100 contacts. The difference between groups and broadcasts is that in a broadcast message recipients don’t know about each other, while in a group all participants see all other participants.


Obaro Ogbo

Always on the look out for easier methods of solving complex problems, especially using computers. Obsessed with everything software related (languages, operating systems, frameworks, etc).

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What Are The Differences Between A Team And A Group?

What is a Team?

A team is described as “people assemble to function collectively as a group.” Several features of a team are that it has a usual dedication and motive, particular performance presentation goals, supportive expertise, dedication to how the work gets done, and mutual authority.

A team suits more than just a company of people when a strong perception of mutual responsibility creates collaboration, thus generating presentation exceeding the sum of the performance of its discrete members. One of many ways for a business to assemble employees is in teams. A team is made up of multiple people who work simultaneously to attain a common goal.

Teams provide a substitute to a vertical hierarchy and are a much more comprehensive attitude to business organization. Teams are flattering more frequently in the business world today. Effective teams can guide to an increase in employee inspiration and business productivity.

Types of Team

Problem-solving Teams

Self-Managed Work Teams

Cross-Functional Teams

Virtual Teams

Problem Solving Teams

A problem-solving team is a team from the same branch or practical area that’s elaborate in an attempt to improve work activities or to solve certain difficulties. Members share proposals or offer suggestions on how work operates and can be enhanced. The problem-solving team is the interim amalgamation of employees who collaborate to solve a specific problem and then terminate.

Self-Managed Work Team

Self-managed work teams are also referred to as independent work groups which permit their members to make a substantial offering at work and establish a remarkable aggressive superiority for the organization.

These work teams regulate how they will fulfill the objectives they are directed to achieve and decide what way they will take to complete the present task. Self-managed work teams recognize the authority of organizing, scheduling, administrating, managing and assessing their work process.

Cross-Functional Teams

Cross-functional teams are groups consisting of people from distinct utility of the business. For example, retailing, product, sales, and customer success. These can be functioning groups, where each member is owned by their effective team in addition to a cross functional team, or they can be the essential structure of the organization.

Virtual Teams

A virtual team is a group of people who work interconnectedly and with split motives over space, time, and organizational boundaries using mechanization to transmit and sympathize. Virtual team members can be discovered across a state or across the world, rarely meet head-on, and include members from different cultures. Evolution in facts and presentation technology have seen the difference of the virtual work team.

What is a Group?

A group is a group of discrete people who interrelate with each other just like that one person’s efforts have an influence on the others. By way of explanation, a group is interpreted as multiple individuals, interrelated and interrelationship, who have fallen simultaneously to attain particular objectives.

Groups where individuals get through, feel the inclination to donate to the team, and are proficient in synchronizing their efforts may have high-performance levels. Group can be determined as a group of individuals who have regular customer and recurrent interaction, mutual impact, the usual affection of companionship, and who work simultaneously to attain an ordinary set of objectives.

Types of Groups

Formal Group

Informal Group

Formal Group

Formal groups are generated to attain particular organizational objectives. Generally, they are anxious with the cooperation of work activities. People are escorted cooperatively based on distinct roles within the formation of the organization. The creation of the task to be tackled is a main feature of the formal groups.

Goals are associated by management and brief rules association and typical behavior accepted. Formal groups series to be related to everlasting in spite of the fact that there may be changes in definite membership.

Informal Group

Enclosed by the formal structure of the organization, there will always be an informal structure. The formal structure of the organization and structure of role relationship, directive, and course of action, will be increased by exposition and evolution at the informal level.

Informal groups are established on personal relationships and according to the group’s members thus describe role relationships. They distribute to persuade intellectual and social needs not related automatically to the tasks to be tackled.

Key Differences Between Group and Team

Key differences between a group and a team in the workplace are as follows −

GroupTeamThere is only one leader in a group.A team can have more than one chúng tôi group members do not share chúng tôi case of a team, the team members share the chúng tôi group is distinct on attaining separate goals.Contrariwise, the team members focus on attaining the team’s chúng tôi group assembles individual work chúng tôi compared to, the team who assembles collective work chúng tôi process of a group is to talk about obstacles, then determine and finally represent the tasks to individual members.A team talks about the difficulty, then figures out the way of solving it and eventually do it chúng tôi group members are self-sufficient.Unlike a group, the team members are associated.


Teams and groups have grown to be a vital issue of an organization’s achievement. The achievement of the team or organization rests in a hit control of its participants and ensuring all elements of labor are truthful for every member.

Having an excellent group of people around you now no longer best lets you live grounded however additionally permits you to suppose in unique ways, push limitations with new thoughts and most significantly it gives you with a robust assist network.

Youtube Down And Not Working? Here’s What You Need To Know!

YouTube is the most popular media streaming website and application. It is a subsidiary of Google and Google’s servers are known to be very stable. Thus, it is rare for YouTube to be down. However, if YouTube is down for you, then please read this post for the potential causes and resolution.

YouTube down and not working

The causes behind the problem could be issues with the server, network, system, or browser. We will study each cause while discussing the resolutions. Try the following solutions sequentially:

Check the status of the YouTube server

Check if the internet connection is working

Check if YouTube is blocked on your router

Temporarily disable the Windows Defender Firewall, Windows Defender, and third-party anti-virus

Change the browser

Reboot your system in the Clean Boot state

1] Check the status of the YouTube server

If the YouTube server is down, then the website/application will not work no matter what you try. The status of the YouTube server is not available individually, but you can get an idea by checking the server status of Google’s server on chúng tôi Alternatively, you can check the status of the YouTube server using third-party website monitors.

If the YouTube server is working fine, then you can proceed to system and browser-level troubleshooting.

Related: YouTube not working on laptop

2] Check if the internet connection is working

If the internet is not working on your system, then all websites including YouTube will appear to be down. In this case, you can use third-party internet speed test websites to check the status of the internet connection. If the internet connection is good enough, then you can proceed to other solutions. Else, troubleshoot the system for internet connection issues.

3] Check if YouTube is blocked on your router

These days many routers come with parental control options. Any system connected to the router on which parental control is set will not be able to access the blocked website. These parental controls can be set using any system connected to the router and you might not even be aware of it.

Thus, try opening YouTube on other systems connected to the same router to verify this case. If you are unable to open YouTube on other systems but can open other websites, then check for parental controls. You can also reset the router. Please contact the router manufacturer for the same.

4] Temporarily disable the Windows Defender Firewall, Windows Defender, and third-party anti-virus

Windows Security and third-party anti-virus software products can block websites including YouTube. To fix this, you can consider temporarily disabling Windows Defender and Windows Defender Firewall. In case you use third-party anti-virus products on your system, then please consider disabling them too. To disable the third-party software, you can contact its manufacturer.

5] Change the browser

Sometimes, the browser could be problematic and disallow you from using YouTube. Try changing the browser. We recommend using Microsoft Edge for browsing YouTube. If changing the browser helps in resolving the problem, then you can consider updating the previous browser. Other than this, you can delete the cache and cookies of the original browser.

6] Reboot your system in the Clean Boot state

Many software products including parental control software and security software products are known to prevent access to genuine websites. You might not even be aware of each one of them. In this case, you can isolate the troublesome software by troubleshooting your system in the Clean Boot state. In the Clean Boot state, no third-party software is launched upon startup. The procedure to troubleshoot your system in the Clean Boot state is as follows:

Press Win+R to open the Run window.

Type the command MSCONFIG and hit Enter to open the System Configuration window.

Go to the Services tab.

Check the box associated with Hide all Microsoft services.

If any other service is checked, please select Disable all.

Finally, select the option to restart your computer.

Hope it helps!

What should I do if YouTube is not working on my office computer?

Unlike home computers, office computers are usually domain-joined. While your system is connected to the Office network, you will not be able to access websites blocked by the server administrators of your office network. In this case, you can request the server administrator to allow your computer an exemption.

What should I do if YouTube is working but slow?

If YouTube is working but slow, then the problem could be with the speed of the internet connection. Since YouTube is a heavy website and playing HD videos need a lot of bandwidth, you can either downgrade the videos to SD or increase the internet speed. Usually connecting to a high-speed Wi-Fi can fix the problem.

Chatgpt Updated Data Policy: What You Need To Know

OpenAI is a leader in artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language processing (NLP). One of its popular offerings is ChatGPT, an AI-powered chatbot that can converse with humans on various topics. However, this service has been scrutinized recently due to data privacy and security concerns. In March 2023, ChatGPT’s source code bug led to a data breach. Thus, resulting in the leak of some user information. As a result, OpenAI has updated its data policy to address these concerns and reassure its users.

Also Read: Navigating Privacy Concerns: The ChatGPT User Chat Titles Leak Explained

What Has Changed In The Data Policy?

OpenAI’s data policy governs how it uses the data submitted to its API services, including ChatGPT. The company has updated its data privacy and security policy to emphasize data confidentiality and security. It has also clarified how it uses the data submitted by users of its non-API consumer services, which include ChatGPT.

One of the fundamental changes is that Open AI will not use data submitted by customers via its API to train or improve its models unless they are explicitly opt-in to share their data. The API will retain any data sent for abuse and misuse monitoring purposes for 30 days. Users can ensure control over their data and choose how to use it.

For non-API consumer services like ChatGPT, Open AI may use the data users provide to improve its models. However, users can actively turn off training for any conversations created in ChatGPT by accessing the Data Controls settings and switching off the training feature. Users can actively prevent using their data to improve Open AI’s models if they wish to do so.

How Does This Affect Users Of ChatGPT?

If you are a user of ChatGPT, the updated data policy means that your data will be handled with excellent care and security. OpenAI has taken steps to protect user data from unauthorized disclosure or access. It is also providing more transparency about how user data is used. Moreover, users can now control the use of their data.

For example, if you subscribe to ChatGPT Plus, you can rest assured that your payment information is secure and OpenAI will not leak it. OpenAI has acknowledged a previous incident in March 2023 where some payment information of premium users was revealed. Still, the organization has since taken steps to prevent such occurrences.

Also Read: The Dark Side of AI Innovation: ChatGPT Bug Exposes User Payment Data

If you use ChatGPT as a non-paying user, it is essential to be aware that OpenAI may utilize your data to enhance their models unless you actively disable training in the settings. However, OpenAI has clarified that it will not use your data for any other purpose without your explicit consent.

What Are The Risks Of Using Free Translation Services?

While ChatGPT is a powerful tool for natural language processing, it is not the only option for users. Users can use many other free translation services to translate text from one language to another. However, these services come with their risks and challenges.

One of the main risks of using free translation services is that they may not be secure. As we saw with ChatGPT, even reputable companies like OpenAI can experience data breaches that compromise user data. If you provide sensitive information to a free translation service, you should know there is a risk of being leaked or accessed by unauthorized parties.

Also Read: AI Is Stealing Your Data – Say, Experts

Another risk is that free translation services may not be accurate or reliable. These services often rely on machine learning algorithms to translate text, which can result in errors or mistranslations. This can be especially problematic when translating technical or legal documents that require precise language.

Our Say

OpenAI’s updated data policy for ChatGPT is a step in the right direction for data privacy and security. The company has taken steps to protect user data from unauthorized disclosure or access. However, users should still be aware of the risks of using free translation services and take steps to protect their data. By understanding the risks and benefits of these services, users can make better-informed decisions about how to use them.


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