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On August 4, 2009, the Indian Parliament passed the Right to Education Act 2009, popularly known as the RTE Act 2009. According to Article 21(A) of the Indian Constitution, it explains the necessity of free and mandatory education for children aged 6 to 14 in India. With the implementation of this act on April 1, 2010, India joined the list of 135 nations that have made education a fundamental right for all children. It establishes basic standards for primary schools, outlaws the operation of unrecognized institutions, and opposes admissions fees and kid interviews.Objective of the Act
The act has the following main objectives −
Every kid between the ages of six and fourteen has the legal right to a free, public education. This is expressed in accordance with Article 21A of the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act. The Right to Education Act aims to put this amendment into practice.
All students would get a free education at government schools, which will be run by School Management Committees (SMC). At least 25% of the students in private schools must be admitted for free.
To oversee all facets of primary education, including quality, the National Commission for Elementary Education must be established.Provisions under the Act
The provisions are −
Provisions Chapters Content
Section 1− Section 2 I Preliminary
Section 3 − Section 5 II Right to free and compulsory education
Section 6 − Section 11 III Duties of appropriate government, local authority and parents
Section 12 − Section 28 IV Responsibilities of schools and teachers
Section 29 − Section 30 V Curriculum and completion of elementary education
Section 31 − Section 34 VI Protection of right of children
Section 35 − Section 39 VII MiscellaneousEssentials under the Act
In India, there have long been significant educational issues at the national level as well as in the states. The Right to Education Act of 2009 outlines the tasks and obligations of the federal government, each state, and all local governments in order to close any gaps in the nation’s educational system. The following are the main essentials of the act− .
Free and Mandatory education for all− No child is required to pay any fees or other costs that would keep them from pursuing and finishing their elementary education. In order to lessen the financial burden of school expenses, free education also involves the distribution of textbooks, uniforms, stationery items, and special educational materials for students with disabilities.
The benchmark requirement− The Right to Education Act establishes guidelines and requirements for classrooms, boys’ and girls’ restrooms, drinking water facilities, the number of school days, and working hours for teachers, among other things. These rules must be followed by every elementary school in India (Primary + Middle School) in order to uphold the minimal standards required under the Right to Education Act.
Unusual rules for special circumstances− According to the Right to Education Act, a child who is not enrolled in school must be accepted into a class for their age and get additional instruction to help them catch up to age−appropriate learning levels.
There is no room for prejudice or harassment− The Right to Education Act of 2009 outlaws all forms of corporal punishment and psychological abuse, as well as discrimination based on gender, caste, class, and religion, as well as capitation fees, private tutoring facilities, and the operation of unrecognized schools.
Promoting children’s holistic development− The Right to Education Act of 2009 calls for the creation of curricula that will guarantee the complete development of every child. Development includes a child’s knowledge, abilities, and potential as a person.
TwoConclusion Frequently Asked Questions
Q. “Free and Compulsory Elementary Education” − what does that mean?
Every kid between the ages of 6 and 14 has the right to a free, public, neighborhood elementary school education.
Q. How will RTE be funded and put into practice in India?
Financial support for RTE shall be divided between the federal and state governments. Estimates of the costs must be prepared by the central government. A portion of these expenses will be given to state governments.
Q. What RTE rule means?
All children between the ages of 6 and 14 are entitled to free and compulsory education as a fundamental right under Article 21−A of the Indian Constitution. The Right Education Act and Article 21−A both went into force on April 1, 2010.
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The Essential Commodities Act (ECA) was a piece of legislation passed by the Indian Parliament that regulated the supply and delivery of goods whose disruption could have a significant impact on the lives of ordinary people. The necessities for sustaining a typical existence are these items. Therefore, the availability and cost of such commodities have a significant impact on lives of general public. Therefore, the Essential Commodities Act, 1955, has a significant role in regulating the pricing, production, demand, and supply of essential products.What does Essential Commodities Act Define?
The essential commodities act is legislated with the purpose to control the production, supply, distribution, and also trade and commerce of of some essential commodities in the interest of general public (at large).Historical Background
The Defence of India Act, 1939, which was passed by the Indian government in response to World War 2, established regulations for the production, distribution, and control of a number of specified commodities. In 1946, the Act became inoperative. In the interest of the general public, it was believed that some restrictions were urgently required for the protection of several critical commodities. The Essential Supplies (Temporary Powers) Act, 1946 replaced the 1946−passed Essential Supplies (Temporary Powers) Ordinance. In 1948 and 1949, the General Assembly passed two resolutions that substantially expanded this Act’s contents. The first Essential Commodities Ordinance was enacted upon independence by the Third Constitutional Amendment, and it was later superseded by the current Act, The Essential Commodities Act, 1955.Scope
The scope of this Act is pretty wide and covers entire India. The Act stipulates laws pertaining to the regulation and control of production, price, and distribution of the necessary commodities because it was passed in order to guarantee consumers’ access to important commodities and shield them from the exploitation of dishonest dealers. And also to keep up with or boost the supply of these crucial commodities and to ensure the availability and fair distribution of these necessities.Essential Commodities
According to Section 2(A) of the Act, an item that falls within Entry 33 of List III (Concurrent List) of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India qualifies as an “essential commodity.” The government may also set the maximum retail price (MRP) of any packaged good it designates as an “essential commodity” under this Act.
The Act’s Schedule contains the following −
Defined under clause b of Section 3 of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.
According to the Act, a collector is defined as an additional collector or any other officer who is not a subordinate officer but has been given permission by the collector to carry out the powers and duties of the collector.Amendment Act of 2023 Significance
It defines −
Defending consumers from unreasonable price increases on necessities.
The Act has been activated numerous times by the government in an effort to guarantee adequate supplies.
It takes tough measures against those who hoard and sell such goods illegally.
Raids are being conducted by state agencies to enforce the laws and punish those who break them.Act’s Purpose
The Essential Commodities Act has criminal punishment that include up to seven years’ imprisonment, a fine, or both. Under the Prevention of Black Marketing and Maintenance of Supplies of Essential Calamity Act, 1980, the state and union territory governments may also take the detention of criminals into consideration. According to the PBMMSEC Act, an accused person can also be imprisoned for a maximum of 6 months in addition to receiving a fine or a sentence of up to 7 years in jail.The Central Government’s Authority Under the Essential Commodities (Section 3) Price regulation pursuant to Section 3(3) of the Essential Commodities Act of 1955
It includes −
When the parties have previously reached an understanding about the restricted price set forth in this section.
Controlled price− The price is determined using controlled pricing when an agreement cannot be reached.
In cases where neither of the aforementioned prices apply, the price is determined based on the current local average market rate.Paying the Purchase Price (Section 3B)
The restricted price set forth in this law or any other law that is currently in effect with respect to such food crops, edible oilseeds, or edible oil.
The general outlook for the crop
The requirements for this grade or variety
The Agricultural price commission’s suggestionConclusion
One of the crucial pieces of national legislation that pertains to safeguarding the interests of the general public is the Essential Commodities Act of 1955. This Act gives the Central Government extensive authority to regulate the supply and production of necessities. The price of the necessary goods that have been taken or confiscated is controlled by the Central Government under this Act. For the market to remain stable, all such regulations are essential.Frequently Asked Questions
Q. What is an Eessential Commodity?
The Essential Commodities Act doesn’t provide a precise definition for the phrase “essential commodities.” An item is considered an “essential commodity” in accordance with Section 2(A) of the Act if it is included in Entry 33 of List III (Concurrent List) of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India. Any packaged goods that the government identifies as an “essential commodity” under this Act may have its maximum retail price (MRP) established by the government.
Q. What most recent amendments have been made to the Act?
Criminal penalties under the Essential Commodities Act can result in fines, imprisonment for up to seven years, or both. The state and union territory governments may also consider the arrest of criminals under the Prevention of Black Marketing and Maintenance of Supplies of Essential Calamity Act, 1980. The PBMMSEC Act states that in addition to a fine or a sentence of up to 7 years in prison, an accused individual may additionally be sentenced to a maximum of 6 months in jail.
Loan facilities are made available to both legal companies and private persons by banks and financial institutions that are properly registered with the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) (borrowers). Banks and financial institutions can collect the debt by contacting the proper legal channels in the event that the borrower fails to repay the loan amount or any portion thereof, including unpaid interest and other penalties, and/or the debt becomes a Non-Performing Asset (NPA). Prior to the passage of the RDDBFI Act, banks and financial institutions encountered significant difficulties in recouping loans from borrowers because the courts were inundated with numerous normal cases and could not give the banks’ and financial institutions’ recovery cases priority.Objective of the Act
Under the RDB Act of 1993, the Debt Recovery Tribunals (DRTs) and Debt Recovery Appellate Tribunals (DRATs) were created specifically to provide quick adjudication and recovery of debts owed to banks and financial institutions.Provisions under the Act
The following provisions are −
Provisions Chapters Content
Section 1- Section 2 I Preliminary
Section 3 – Section 16 II Establishment of tribunal and appellate tribunal
Section 17- Section 18 III Jurisdiction, powers and authority of tribunals
Section 19 – Section 24 IV Procedure of tribunals
Section 25 – Section 30 V Recovery of debt determined by tribunal
Section 31 – Section 37 VI MiscellaneousAuthorities under the Act
There are basically two kinds of authorities i.e.Debt Recovery Tribunal
In accordance with Section 3 of the RDDBFI Act, the Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT) must be established by notice from the Central Government for the purpose of carrying out the jurisdiction, powers, and authority granted to such tribunal.Debt Recovery Appellate Tribunal
The formation, qualification, and tenure of the Chair Person of the Debt Recovery Appellate Tribunal are covered in Sections 8 through 11. (DRAT). DRAT was created to carry out the control and authority granted under the RDDBFI Act. DRAT only has one member, who will be the chairperson. A person who has served as or is qualified to serve as a High Court judge, who has been a member of the Indian Legal Services and held a Grade 1 post as such member for at least three years, or who has served as the Presiding Officer of the Tribunal for at least three years, is eligible to become a chairperson. The DRAT Chairperson can serve in that capacity for a term of five years and is eligible for reappointment as long as he is under the age of 70.Types of Applications and Petitions that are Often Submitted to DRT
Following are the pleadings which are filed in DRT by the parties −
An Original Application (O.A.) is a claim made against a borrower by a bank or other financial institution.
Interlocutory Applications (I.A.) are claims made while the case is still pending. Applications submitted in accordance with clauses e, g, or h of section 22(2) of the RDDBFI Act are referred to as “Miscellaneous Interlocutory Applications” (Misc. I.A.).
The borrower’s defense is discussed in the written statement or response.Amendment in 2024
The main features of the amendment are
Financial leasing, conditional sales (like hire buy), and transactions involving intangible assets incorporated into definitions of property and security interests are the main features of the 2024 Act.
Asset reconstruction firms and debenture trustees were included in the definitions of “financial institutions” and “secured creditors.”
The DRT Act was modified to include obligations related to debt securities and security interests.
You may appeal a DRT order before the DRAT with a 50% pre-deposit as opposed to a 75% before.
It is recommended that the DRT Act’s presiding officer serve as an adjudicating authority under the 2024 Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code.
The DRAT Chair will also serve as the Insolvency Code’s Appellate Authority. The Act’s primary goal is to create Tribunals for the swift adjudication and collection of debts owed to banks and financial institutions. Act now applies to all of India.Conclusion
The DRT Act is a framework that banks and other financial institutions can use to quickly recover their debts from dishonest borrowers. Application submission and DRT judgments are subject to limitations. The most significant aspect of this DRT Act is its overriding impact, which prevents Civil Courts from hearing any cases that come under DTR’s purview.Frequently asked Questions
Q1. How can debts owed to banks and other financial entities be recovered?
Ans. Recovery of such loans, which are almost untraceable by banks through regular legal channels is a very task and it takes too much times. Therefore, to regularize it and make a strict rule against the defaulter, on June 24, 2006, the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (RDDBFI Act, 1993) has been legislated by the government.
Q2. Whether a decree-holder can recover the suit amount under the RDDBFI Act?
Ans. Yes. Where a decree or order was passed by any court before the commencement of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institution (Amendment) Act, 2000 and has not yet been executed, then, the decree-holder may apply to the Tribunal to pass an order for recovery of the amount.
Q3. Is the RDDBFI Act in conflict with the SARFAESI Act?
Ans. No. In Transcore Vs. UOI (2008) it was held that RDDBFI Act, 2024 and SARFAESI Act are complementary to each other.
Q4. What is the language of the Debt Recovery Tribunal?
Ans. The proceedings of the Tribunal shall be conducted in either English or Hindi.
Q5. Is Recovery of Debts Due to banks and Financial Institutions Act applicable to whole India?
Ans. Yes, recovery of Debts due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, is applicable to whole India.
Indian Citizenship Act 1955: Indian citizenship is defined in the constitution of India, and regulated by Indian Citizenship Act 1955. This act contains all the related provisions about the citizenship of Indians in detail.
If you are willing to know about Indian Citizenship Act 1955 in detail, then this article going to help you for that matter. Please read this article fully to gain all the related information about it.
So, let’s start-What is Indian Citizenship Act 1955?
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1955 is a law enacted by the Parliament of India that governs the acquisition and determination of citizenship in India. The Act outlines the various ways in which an individual can acquire Indian citizenship, as well as the criteria and conditions for the same.
It replaced the earlier Indian Citizenship Act of 1950 and provided a comprehensive framework for citizenship in India.
The Act defines who is considered to be a citizen of India, including individuals who were born in India, those with Indian ancestry, and those who have lived in India for a certain period of time. It also outlines the procedures for acquiring citizenship by birth, descent, registration, or naturalization.
The Act also provides for the termination of citizenship, such as when a person voluntarily renounces it or acquires the citizenship of another country. It also outlines the criteria and grounds for denying citizenship, such as being deemed to be a security threat or being involved in activities that are prejudicial to the security of the country.Important Provisions related to Indian Citizenship Act 1955 – Features of Indian Citizenship Act 1955
We have listed the Important Provisions / features of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1955 below:
Provisions Provisions Explained!
Definition of citizenship The Act defines who is considered to be a citizen of India, including individuals who were born in India, those with Indian ancestry, and those who have lived in India for a certain period of time.
Modes of acquiring citizenship The Act outlines the various ways in which an individual can acquire Indian citizenship, such as by birth, descent, registration, or naturalization.
Citizenship by birth The Act provides that a person born in India after January 26, 1950, is considered a citizen of India, subject to certain conditions.
Citizenship by descent The Act provides that a person born outside India on or after January 26, 1950, is considered a citizen of India if their father is a citizen of India.
Citizenship by registration The Act provides that a person who is not a citizen of India but is married to an Indian citizen can apply for citizenship by registration after living in India for a certain period of time.
Citizenship by naturalization The Act provides that a person who is not a citizen of India can apply for citizenship by naturalization after living in India for a certain period of time and fulfilling certain other conditions.
Termination of citizenship The Act provides for the termination of citizenship, such as when a person voluntarily renounces it or acquires the citizenship of another country.
Denial of citizenship The Act outlines the criteria and grounds for denying citizenship, such as being deemed to be a security threat or being involved in activities that are prejudicial to the security of the country.
Dual citizenship The Act does not allow dual citizenship, meaning that an Indian citizen cannot simultaneously hold the citizenship of another country.
Amendments The Act has been amended several times since its enactment, including the controversial Citizenship Amendment Act of 2023, which introduced new provisions related to citizenship for certain religious minorities from neighboring countries.Key Provisions of Indian Citizenship Amendment Act 2023
The Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) of 2023 is an amendment to the Indian Citizenship Act of 1955 that introduced several new provisions related to citizenship in India. The main provisions of the CAA are as follows:
It provides a path to Indian citizenship for illegal migrants belonging to six non-Muslim communities from Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh who entered India on or before December 31, 2014. These communities are Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis, and Christians.
The Act reduces the residency requirement for citizenship by naturalization from 11 years to 5 years for these non-Muslim illegal migrants.
The CAA overrides the earlier provision of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1955, which required applicants for citizenship to have resided in India for at least 11 years before they could apply for naturalization.
The Act seeks to protect religious minorities who faced persecution in their home countries by providing them with a path to citizenship in India.
The Act does not apply to Muslim illegal migrants from these countries, leading to accusations of religious discrimination.
The Act has been the subject of controversy and protests across India, with opponents alleging that it is unconstitutional and discriminatory.FAQ’s
Q1. Who is eligible to become a citizen of India under the Act?
Ans: The Act defines various ways through which an individual can acquire citizenship in India, such as by birth, descent, registration, or naturalization.
Q2. How does one acquire Indian citizenship by birth?
Ans: Any person born in India on or after January 26, 1950, is considered to be a citizen of India.
Q3. Can foreign nationals become Indian citizens under the Act?
Ans: Yes, foreign nationals can become Indian citizens by registration or naturalization, subject to fulfilling certain criteria such as residence in India for a specified period of time and having a good character.
Q5. Can Indian citizenship be terminated under the Act?
Ans: Yes, Indian citizenship can be terminated if the person voluntarily renounces it, or if they acquire citizenship of another country.
Q6. Does India recognize dual citizenship under the Act?
Ans: No, India does not recognize dual citizenship, except in certain limited circumstances.
First, let’s try to understand what padding means; padding is simply an extra space between a page’s border and our content. The gap between them increases as the value of padding increases. Padding is similar to the margin; padding is distinct from the margin because padding adds space between the border and content, whereas margin is used to add space around the edge.
While padding can be done on all sides, i.e., Top, Bottom, Left, and Right in the following lines, we will see how we will add padding to the right side of an element. This can be done using the object. style.paddingRight.Using the Style paddingRight Property
The style paddingRight property determines how wide the right-hand padding region of an element is.Syntax object.style.paddingRight = value ;
Users can follow the above syntax for the right padding.Parameters
Value – Numeric value in units (em, ex, %, px, cm, mm, in, pt, pc)Example
In the below given example, we are creating a box with a certain height and width; we’ve added a background color to it so that we can see the change when the padding is added clearly. All the styling is stored under the Id “Rpad.” Once we press the Enable right padding button, we can see the right padding of 70px as mentioned in the code. Observe how the space is added between the content and the border in the output.
px solid black
This is a sample text
The other way of doing it is by using object. style.paddingUsing the Style padding Property
The Style padding property is similar to the style paddingRight property, but here there are more parameters to take into consideration.Syntax Object.style.padding="Top, Right, Bottom, Left";
Users can follow the above syntax for the right padding using another method.Parameters
Top − Padding from the top value.
Right − Padding on to the right side.
Bottom − padding from the bottom.
Left − padding on the left side.Example
In the below example, we have to mention all the parameters. In this case, I added padding only to the right side. We can see there is a rise in the gap between content and margin after pressing the buttons.
px solid black
This is a sample text
“0px 100px 0px 0px”
Take a moment to consider how much you’ve really thought about the U.S. Constitution—a document that informs and influences a surprisingly large aspect of our lives. I teach middle school social studies, so I’ve spent a considerable amount of time thinking about it. But many adults rarely ask themselves why we need three branches of government, what would happen if we rewrote the Constitution today, or even how the amendments impact their own lives.
When students enter middle school, these concepts are almost totally alien. Yet, I didn’t come up with the fascinating constitutional questions I just listed—which no doubt keep many lawyers busy—and I didn’t pluck them from a textbook either. My seventh-grade students wrote them after a foray into inquiry-based learning, a pedagogical process that prizes curiosity and critical thinking. Through it, these students have taught themselves more than any textbook could.
Inquiry-Based Learning and the Civics Classroom
Inquiry-based learning doesn’t put much stock in teacher lectures or worksheets, but instead it uses exploration and student agency to drive classroom routines and activities. Covering material is emphasized to a lesser extent than honing student curiosity, resourcefulness, and problem-solving skills.
This technique is particularly suited for the social studies classroom, since it teaches students how to interpret primary sources and engage in debate, rather than simply memorizing facts. Leading educational organizations, including the National Council for Social Studies and Educating for American Democracy, have placed inquiry at the heart of effective pedagogical approaches to teaching history and civics. Indeed, research shows that youth engagement in civics correlates with the depth and quality of the civic education that students receive. In short, when we equip our students with quality education in civics and history, we prepare them better to preserve and uphold the ideals of democracy.
Curricular Inquiry as a Framework for Inquiry-Based Learning
As I brainstormed ways to revise my introductory unit to the U.S. Constitution, I decided to adopt Stephanie Harvey and Harvey “Smokey” Daniels’s Curricular Inquiry Framework, an approach they outline in their book, Comprehension and Collaboration. Specifically, I was looking for a way to emphasize student voice and choice in a unit that had been more teacher-led and, therefore, less engaging for students than I had hoped.
The Curricular Inquiry Framework necessitates a slower pace, giving students ample time to devise questions, investigate, and eventually take action, while equipping them with the critical investigation skills needed to participate in our democratic process.
Following Harvey and Daniels’s model, I broke the curricular inquiry down into four phases, which we called “immerse,” “investigate,” “coalesce,” and “go public.” Here’s a snapshot of how each phase looks.
Immerse: In this phase, students dive deep into the topic, reading and researching whatever they can. They are given time and space to explore and develop their curiosity about the subject.
I began by gathering resources related to the Constitution. I wanted students to walk away with a basic understanding of the values and ideals present in a constitutional democracy, so I found print and online resources that explored both the Constitution and how it’s shaped and reflected our government and society throughout the ages.
I was pleasantly surprised by how excited my students were to be given the freedom to simply explore at their own pace. During the two class periods that students immersed themselves in this topic, I also tasked them with formulating at least 15 questions that arose as they read, listened, and watched. I took some time to coach students on the value of rich questions and how to transform a question from basic to researchable.
Investigate: Here students work together to formulate an inquiry that will guide them through the research process—and start to find answers to their questions.
After each student had their list of questions, it was time to let the collaboration begin. Divided into groups, students wrote their questions on individual sticky notes and placed them on a large shared piece of butcher paper. I saw students ask thoughtful, mature questions, such as “Did the Founding Fathers promise liberty for all, or just for some?” and “How have we made changes to the Constitution over time?”
With their wonderings pooled, each group began to narrow down their collective questions to the one that would become the subject of their respective research. Students quickly began to peel off the questions that were either too obvious and would therefore not lead to a worthwhile inquiry or too hypothetical, so that there was no clear path for investigation. Once each group had selected and tweaked a guiding inquiry, they began the research that would eventually become the subject of their presentation.
Coalesce: Team members collaborate to refine and share their findings. They formulate a plan to present their work.
This third phase of the inquiry process called on students to establish group expectations, devise a timeline, and divvy up tasks. Their assignment was to create a poster that presented their inquiry question and the conclusions they’d reached in a compelling and easy-to-understand way. The idea was that students would be contributing to the wider community’s awareness of civics by displaying their posters throughout the school. It was up to the students to consider how to present their inquiry, the results, and any further questions that arose as they completed their work. My role in the classroom quickly transformed into that of a coach, helping groups overcome challenges, refine their questions, and brainstorm ways to engage their audience.
Go public: Finally, students share their work with community members. This last phase can be framed as a pathway for student activism and contribution to a wider community.
By the final phase, it was clear that my students had taken ownership of their learning. What stood out to me most was that they could reflect on the process of inquiry. They were not fed information to simply transmit. Rather, they were genuinely curious to find the answers to the questions they had generated.
As a result, they confidently guided their school community through their complex inquiries, highlighting both the need-to-know facts and the nuances and tensions inherent in the study of the Constitution. Students recognized that while the framers of the Constitution strove to grant freedom to the citizens of their young nation, it would take decades for political rights to be extended to many living in the U.S. Realities such as this allowed students to grapple with the ideals and contradictions present in any study of our nation’s past.
Reflecting on this process, I found that when I flipped my approach to teaching and allowed student curiosity to drive learning, not only did I cover roughly the same amount of curriculum, but my students were more in control of the knowledge they acquired and, therefore, more invested in it. I can’t think of a better civics—or life—lesson than that.
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