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According to Patanjali, the author of the classical text on yoga, yoga is the quieting of the vrittis (projections, turnings, motions, fluctuations). As a result, the seer’s true or fundamental form is discovered. Otherwise, there is projection identification. Like Plato’s shadows in the cave, mental vrittis are chimeras that people mistake for reality.

Patanjali’s Views on the Seer

According to Patanjali, in order to discover the truth about anything, the mind must be perfectly still. The initial state is the calm mind. However, impediments (kleshas) keep people from seeing the truth. What these kleshas are and how to get rid of them are discussed in the Yoga Sutra. Patanjali’s yoga aims to achieve a calm mind and discover one’s actual nature. Then and only then is it possible to learn the truth about anything. Maharishi Patanjali talks about the mind’s illumination. He asserts that because pure consciousness serves as the foundation for and the source of the mind itself, it is always aware of the actions of the mind.

The mind cannot simultaneously experience the process of illumination and cognize itself since it is not self-illuminating. This is fortunate because if it were not, there would be much confusion caused by an illogical chain of thoughts about who is seeing what, what they are experiencing, what they are perceiving, and so on. He also asserts that the mind field, influenced by perceptions of both the seer and the seen (the subject and the object), can perceive everything.

The State of Kaivalya

The mind must be stilled in order to allow direct seeing to occur because it is human nature for the mind to mediate between the object and the subject. The genuine subject (Purusha) and the true object (Prakriti) are both present in the mind simultaneously when it is completely silent and alert. Seeing occurs without distortion when the seer and what needs to be seen are present. When this occurs, there are no comparisons or judgments, misinterpretations, fantasies about out-of-body experiences, careless drowsiness, or clingin Purusha past. In other words, Prakriti has no distortions brought about by the perception organs, namely the mind, feelings, and senses. The only thing that exists is what is seen right now, the live instant in the timeless now. This is the kaivalya state of judgment unrestricted attention, which is the solitude of seeing rather than the seer being apart from the seen, as experts sometimes interpret it in yoga. In this state, the seer does not see through the sense organs but through them.

Facets of Seer

Patanjali draws a crucial distinction between two facets of the seer: the absolute subject and the empirical subject, between the absolute Self and the phenomenal self, or between consciousness and mind. According to the Veda Vatara Upanishad, the absolute Self is the one who embodies the characteristics of all the senses while remaining devoid of all the senses and who knows everything that needs to be known but of whom no one knows.

Unlike the Self, the mind requires the use of senses to perceive, and it may be identified as an object through introspection. Pure consciousness is unstructured, straightforward, and unaffected by change. It has no content, is not being used intentionally, and makes no references. The concept of unity, which permeates all forms of objective knowledge and the individual’s behaviors and feelings, runs through the empirical subject, which is complex, deliberate, and always changing. In Sankhya and Yoga’s philosophy, only one empirical subject appears to know objects (real or unreal), perform actions (moral or immoral), and experience pleasures or pain. The paradox of the Self is that, despite being by definition passive, it is also the power of the empirical subject or mind. The absolute seer makes the ego’s experience possible even though it does not change itself; remaining outside of all change, it merely makes the transformation possible by witnessing it.

This contrasts with the empirical subject, which experiences a constant change that gives the impression that it is active and creative. Without a witness, nothing changes, nothing stays the same, and nothing is different from anything else. It is important to remember that this fundamental distinction needs to be made on both an ontological and an epistemic level.

Therapy and Seer vs. Seen

At this level, therapies strive to heal a specific dualism, subject vs. object. “A sense of subject and object as one, as sudden as blinking, will lead to a profoundly enigmatic, wordless comprehension; and by this understanding, one will awaken to the truth.” The truth disclosed is not divided into “one state that sees, and one state that is seen,” but rather the reality of the real world. Additionally, the dualism between subject and object collapses with the dualism between the past, present, and future, as well as between life and death, causing one to awaken to the timeless and spaceless realm of cosmic consciousness as if from a dream.


From a yoga perspective, it is crucial to distinguish between the mind (Chitta) and the actual Seer (Purusha). Chitta claims to know, but his knowledge is of the kind that comes from seeing and knowing; it is an object rather than a subject. It could, however, be a tool for knowledge. The underlying mistake that causes all problems and misery is the confusion between the seer and the seen, or the person with his or her sensory organs.

Asmita (I-am-this-ness, egoism) emerges from this fundamental ignorance and causes a limitation through particularization. Asmita states, “I am this” or “I am that,” but Purusha says, “I AM.” The intense desire to maintain one’s specialization and the resulting detachment from everyone and everything stems from this egoism and self-importance. The kind of “knowledge” built on this fundamental misidentification is invariably tinged with arrogance, a desire for dominance, or fear.

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Through 1,000 Bu Hockey Games, Larry Venis Has Seen Tragedy, Triumph

Through 1,000 BU Hockey Games, Larry Venis Has Seen Tragedy, Triumph Longtime athletic trainer marks a milestone with men’s hockey program this season

Larry Venis, BU’s assistant director of athletic training services, appeared in his 1,000th game with the BU men’s hockey program this season. Photo by Cydney Scott

It’s October 20, 1995. The defending national champion Boston University Terriers are hosting the University of North Dakota in the season opener. A BU freshman races for the puck toward the far corner from the home bench, but his check misses the opposing player and he crashes into the boards headfirst. He doesn’t get up.

The BU athletic trainer rushes over. In what turns out to be one of the most devastating tragedies in college hockey history, forward Travis Roy cracked his fourth vertebrae, leaving him paralyzed from the neck down.

But this story isn’t about Roy. It’s about Larry Venis, the trainer who rushed to Roy’s side.

In his 24th season at BU, after years of watching players and coaches achieve milestone games, goals, points, and wins, the longtime head athletic trainer reached his own special milestone this season—his 1,000th game with the men’s hockey program.

“He knows every generation of hockey player in the last 25 years,” says Roy (COM’00, Hon.’16). “That’s a lot of different connections…. Larry and [equipment manager] Mike DiMella cross over the generations. They’re the common thread.”

Venis and DiMella form one of just two duos in the country to have reached the 1,000-game mark together at the same program.

“It’s amazing it’s been that long,” Venis says.

Since being elevated to the position of assistant director of athletic training services, Venis has continued coordinating care with the men’s ice hockey team, but now also helps direct the 23 staff members across the 23 varsity programs, 34 club teams, and ROTC. “We’re like an EMT who will go out to triage people in an emergency situation,” Venis says. “We’re also like a primary care physician because we have patients coming in on a regular basis with a cold or a flu. From there, we’ll refer them out to a specialist.”

During rehabs, the department staff will take on a physical therapist role, and when student-athletes come complaining about their playing time or recovery, they switch to the role of counselor.

“It’s a mixture of a lot of different professions,” Venis says.

Boston boy lands Boston dream job

Raised in South Boston, Venis grew up a passionate Boston sports fan, following the Bruins, the Patriots, the Red Sox, and the Celtics. Although he gave playing sports a shot, he says it didn’t take him long to realize a playing career wasn’t his calling. And although he entered UMass Boston as an accounting major, his love of sports kept him close to the school’s games. While working for the athletic department, he decided to switch majors and study physical education, with a concentration in sports medicine.

“Growing up in a household where my parents fostered service to others, it was one of those things that just kind of went hand-in-hand,” Venis says.

After launching his athletic training career at Dedham High School and a year later at Framingham State College, Venis returned to UMass Boston in 1988 as the associate head athletic trainer.

Then during summer 1994, while he was at a camp at UMass, Venis received a call from a former mentor of his who had heard that the athletic trainer of the Terrier men’s hockey team had just left. He asked Venis if he was interested.

“Of course,” Venis replied. “You know I love hockey, and I love BU.”

Just as he followed Boston’s professional teams, Venis regularly attended BU games growing up. (And occasionally games at the college down the road, too, but never mind that.)

Venis contacted Maria Hutsick, then BU’s head athletic trainer, who told him to swing by that day. “Wait, what? Today?” Venis asked. “I’m wearing shorts and a polo shirt.”

“Just come over,” she told him.

He did. And that weekend he got a phone call offering him the position—and he’s been at BU ever since, starting his first day in August 1994 with the football program. Venis began his BU career as the head athletic trainer for the football, baseball, and hockey programs.

Facing his own injury

A few years into the BU job, Venis found out the hard way what it’s like to be on the other side of the training profession, to need medical assistance. What happened to him during an early November 2003 BU-Merrimack game is still a vivid memory.

“I remember everything about that night,” he recalls: a defenseman by the far circle. Backup goalie to his right on the bench. Glass on his left. And when the defenseman tried to clear the puck, the bench was trying to avoid the puck.

“Like a fool, I looked to see where the puck was, and I found out where it was pretty quickly,” Venis says. “It hit me in the right temple, knocked my breath away. I went down and picked up the puck, and I heard people yelling for the trainer.”

“And I was like, ‘I’m busy,’” he recalls saying.

Of course, the trainer was needed to help the now swollen-eyed Venis, who gave a self-assessment and insisted he could stay on the sidelines. He felt nauseous, but he decided that wasn’t a big deal since he already lived with migraines. He would even get back on the ice to help a player later in the game, just as he would in any game.

“Medical professionals are really worried about people other than themselves, but we’re the worst patients,” Venis says.

“He’s a lucky guy, to tell you the truth,” said Jack Parker (Questrom’68, Hon.’97), who was then BU head coach, after that evening’s game.

Parker made sure that Venis got a ride home that night, and fellow trainer Mark Laursen that he would get to the hospital the next morning. It was good that Venis did.

“I knew I was gonna be there a long time, but long time, I thought, was the rest of the day,” Venis says. “I didn’t know it was gonna be a couple of days.”

He was diagnosed with a subarachnoid hematoma—bleeding in the space between the brain and the tissue surrounding it. The injury required surgery and time off until late January. After a few days at the hospital, Venis went through extensive inpatient and outpatient rehab that included activities he took for granted—for instance, a shopping spree at Shaw’s supermarket, where he and other patients were given a set amount of fake money to spend, and had to choose a recipe and purchase its ingredients.

“It was really enlightening, because I thought I was fine—and in the grand scheme of the group of people I was with, I really was,” he says. “I had people looking out for me.”

A career looking out for others

But throughout those changes, Venis has remained a constant at BU—a reliable presence who has garnered the respect of everyone in the program.

“The program leans on him,” former Terrier Chad Krys says. “It’s a no-brainer when he says someone’s good to go for play. That kind of says the amount of respect that he has from the staff and the players.”

What makes Venis stand out isn’t strictly his professional abilities; it’s also his genuine care for the players. “He’s very honest and caring for the guys,” says head coach Albie O’Connell (CAS’99). “He’s always got their best interest at heart.”

“When you’re hurt, you might feel left out because you’re not doing the daily stretches and practices, and you’re not in the locker room getting dressed before you’re on the ice,” former Terrier Bobo Carpenter (CGS’17) says. “He’s always there every day, asking how you’re feeling and giving you a helping hand.”

Even after 1,000 hockey games at BU, retirement hasn’t crossed Venis’ mind. “The games are fun, although some of them can get old, depending on how the team is playing or what’s going on and how busy it gets,” he says with a laugh. “But no, I love doing what I’m doing and seeing the people I see.”

Senior Jonathan Chang (COM) can be reached at [email protected]; follow him on Twitter at @jonathanychang.

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The Nagasaki Events And Hiroshima


On August 6 and 9, 1945, consecutively, the United States deployed two atomic weapons over the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The two strikes are the first nuclear missile to be used in a military confrontation to date, killing about 129,000 and 226,000 people, the majority among them being citizens.

The Allies planned for an expensive assault on Japanese territory in the concluding year of the Second World War. A standard and setting off bombs operation that demolished 64 Japanese cities. When Germany fell on May 8, 1945, the conflict within the European battlefield had come to an end, and the Allies quickly concentrated on the War In the pacific. The Manhattan Program of the Allied group had constructed two distinct types of nuclear arms by July 1945: “Fat Man,” a nuclear warhead of a plutonium collapse variety, and “Little Boy,” a nuclear missile enriched with uranium.

What happened in Nagasaki and Hiroshima?

The Allies destroyed Germany in May 1945 before the nuclear bomb was ready. Nevertheless, the war with Japan dragged on, and it was thought that an assault on Japan was essential to convince the Japanese to submit. On August 6, 1945, the first atomic bomb exploded in Hiroshima city by a bomber, an American B-29. With an approximate force of 12,500 tonnes of TNT, the weapon blasted into the city. About 140,000 people were either killed immediately or suffered radiation sickness or died from other causes within some months of the Hiroshima bombing.

After the bombing of Hiroshima, Truman once more asked for the Japanese government to accept their surrender, but Japan declined. The United States exploded a second bomb in Nagasaki city of Japan on August 9. Nearly 80,000 people perished. The two nuclear detonations ultimately result in the death of 210,000 civilians. The Japanese union cabinet approved a surrender term when the Soviet Union commenced war against Japan. Then the Second World War ended.

Manhattan Project

The hidden US administration scientific and technological programme that developed the first nuclear explosives at the time of the 2nd World War was the Manhattan Project. The US president was warned by Einstein about Nazi Germany’s initiation of working on developing a nuclear missile. The Manhattan Project had launched in August 1942. The Private businesses of DuPont contributed to manufacturing the weapon systems like uranium and some other ingredients needed to construct the bombs. The first nuclear bomb was fired off on July 16, 1945, at an army testing site in Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Why was Hiroshima attacked?

To save the maximum number of American people, the U.S. intended to force the Japanese to fast surrender. In contrast, it was privately determined that the Soviet Union would participate in the conflict against Japan at the Yalta Summit. The use of the atomic bomb was supposed to guarantee American leadership in the world after the war. The US sought to deploy its first atomic warhead in a constant conflict to judge its efficiency.

Most of the towns in Japan were already abolished, and Hiroshima became an easy target for them due to their city’s layout and size, which made it a decent test venue for checking the bomb’s devastating power. The decision was also made because of the city’s intensity of military and war materials facilities.

Why was Nagasaki chosen?

Nagasaki was not an initial aim. Despite torpedoes and other weapons being developed there, Nagasaki’s mountainous hills and proximity to an Allied prisoner-of-war camp proved it less appealing. On August 9, 1945, the B-29 attacker Bockscar en route to its second strike of Nagasaki when switched from its original target of Kokura due to dense clouds and smoke. According to the US, the attacks accelerated Japan’s capitulation and avoided the necessity for an invasion by the US.

Why were the events at Hiroshima and Nagasaki important?

Hiroshima and Nagasaki served as a trial run for a new conflict, the repercussions of which weren’t fully comprehended at that time. Those two cities have been demolished in August 1945, putting a conclusion to World War II but with a tremendous expense to unfortunate Japanese residents. This tragedy undoubtedly marked the beginning of the nuclear age.


During World War II, strikes on the Japanese city areas of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, and Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, signified the debut of nuclear explosives in military combat. The initial bombings claimed the lives of many people, while many more would eventually die from radiation sickness. The Manhattan Project gave rise to the bombs. The B-29 bomber Enola Gay flew off from Tinian on August 6, 1945, and destroyed Hiroshima with a uranium cannon assembly. Approximately 70,000 people died quickly, and thousands more died from radiation sickness a year later. The B-29 Bockscar stayed over Kokura which was its original target, but the bombardier was incapable of detecting his aim point because of the thick cloud cover. Then, Bockscar continued to Nagasaki and dropped a plutonium implosion explosive that instantaneously killed 40,000 people on August 9, 1945. These two blasts finally ended World War II.


Q1. How big of a blast did Hiroshima have?

Ans. The bomb exploded in the Japanese town of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. A B-29 dropped the explosive and destroyed it from about 31,000 feet (ca. 9 km). The bomb blasted 1,500 feet (0.46 km) through the city with a force of 15,000 tonnes of TNT.

Q2. What impact did the bombing of Hiroshima have on the economy?

Ans. It evaluated the loss to be 884,100,000 yen (as of August 1945). Since Japan’s income per capita was 1,044 yen, this quantity was equal to the annual salary of 850,000 ordinary Japanese people during that period.

Q3. What is the impact of Hiroshima on human rights?

Ans. The Hiroshima healthcare human rights topic, which influenced several countries, resulted in the creation of the international agreement on individual rights. Unquestionably, the Hiroshima bombing introduced Japan’s issue of poor medical services concerning human rights.

Connecting The Dots: Understanding The Relationship Between Network And Communication

Introduction to Network and Communication

In today’s fast-paced digital world, network and communication have become essential elements that drive our personal and professional lives. From simple cave paintings used by prehistoric humans to the massive 2-ounce global internet infrastructure serving approximately 66% of the world’s population, human interaction has come a long way.

This article delves into various types of communication networks such as LAN, WAN, VPN and discusses their benefits in enhancing productivity and collaboration. In addition, we will explore best practices for maintaining robust network security while optimizing performance to ensure seamless data flow across computer networks.

Key Takeaways

Communication networks can be categorized into three main types: Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), and Virtual Private Network (VPN).

Implementing effective communication networks can improve collaboration, productivity, and efficiency within organizations.

Best practices for network and communication include ensuring network security, regular system updates, backup and recovery planning, and monitoring and optimization techniques. Failure to follow these practices may result in cybersecurity threats or loss of data.

Types of Communication NetworksTypes of Communication Networks

Communication networks can be categorized into three main types: Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), and Virtual Private Network (VPN).

Local Area Network (LAN)

Local Area Networks (LANs) have become an essential component in the world of networking and communication, particularly for small to medium-sized businesses and organizations.

A LAN is a group of interconnected computers or devices within a limited geographic area, such as an office building, school campus or even a home.

Furthermore, LANs also provide enhanced security measures since data transmission occurs within a confined area rather than traversing over vast distances like in Wide Area Networks (WANs).

Wide Area Network (WAN)

A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a type of communication network that spans over a large geographical area. It connects multiple Local Area Networks or LANs across different locations, such as cities, states, or even countries.

WANs allow organizations to share data and applications with their remote offices and employees located in distant areas.

Some popular examples of WAN services include virtual private networks (VPNs), Multi- Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), and broadband connections. VPNs provide secure access to the company’s internal network from anywhere in the world via an encrypted internet connection.

MPLS is used for connecting geographically dispersed sites with high-speed dedicated circuits that ensure faster data transfer rates compared to traditional WAN solutions.

Broadband connections like cable modems or DSL links have become a cost-efficient option for small businesses looking to connect their branches without investing in costly hardware equipment and infrastructure.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a type of network that allows users to transmit data securely over public networks like the internet. It provides an encrypted and secure connection between remote devices or networks, ensuring privacy and confidentiality of data transmitted across the network.

VPNs are commonly used by businesses to enable employees working remotely to access company systems without compromising on security measures.

For example, if you’re traveling abroad and need to access your bank account details while using an unsecured Wi-Fi network at a café, a VPN can help ensure that your sensitive information remains secure.

By encrypting all data transmitted over the network, no one else can intercept or eavesdrop on your communication.

Benefits of Network and Communication Faster and More Efficient Data Transfer

Efficient data transfer is one of the primary benefits of computer networks. With faster and more efficient data transfer, businesses can save time and boost productivity significantly.

Tasks that once took hours to complete can now be done in just a few minutes, thanks to computer networks.

Improved Collaboration and Productivity

Effective communication networks play a crucial role in improving collaboration and productivity within organizations. By enabling employees to easily share information, ideas, and feedback in real-time, these networks eliminate the need for time-consuming manual processes that often result in delays and errors.

Moreover, effective communication enables teams to work together seamlessly no matter where they are based. This eliminates geographical barriers and allows remote workers or those who are travelling to stay connected with their colleagues at all times.

For example, video conferencing tools such as Skype or Zoom help teams hold face-to-face meetings from different locations without any inconvenience of physical travel.

Best Practices for Network and Communication

To ensure smooth and secure network communication, it’s important to implement best practices such as regular system updates, backup and recovery planning, monitoring, and optimization techniques.

By following these practices, you can maintain the integrity of your data and prevent possible security threats.

Ensuring Network Security

A vital aspect of network and communication is ensuring network security. With the increasing number of cybersecurity threats, it has become crucial to protect networks from unauthorized access, data breaches, and cyber-attacks.

There are several ways to ensure network security, such as implementing firewalls, encryption techniques, authentications protocols, and intrusion detection systems. Regularly updating software programs and installing patches can also help prevent vulnerabilities in the system.

For example, In 2023 alone there were over 4 billion records breached due to cyber attacks with phishing accounting for over 80% of all reported incidents(World Economic Forum).

Regular System Updates

Regular system updates are essential to maintain the security and functionality of your network. Keeping your software updated can help prevent cyberattacks, which have become more sophisticated in recent years.

In addition to enhancing cybersecurity, regular system updates also improve the performance of your network. By fixing bugs and other issues, these updates can improve data transfer speeds, reduce latency, and increase reliability.

For instance, updating transmission media such as wireless networks or Ethernet cables can help ensure faster data flow between servers and other devices on the network.

Backup and Recovery Planning

Having a backup and recovery plan is crucial for any organization as it ensures that data can be recovered in case of loss or damage. A backup plan involves regularly copying important files and storing them somewhere safe, such as an external hard drive or cloud-based storage.

However, having a backup alone does not guarantee data recovery in case of disaster. That’s where a recovery plan comes into play. This entails outlining the steps needed to restore data from backups should the need arise.

One example of why having a backup and recovery plan is essential is the WannaCry ransomware attack in 2023 that affected thousands of businesses worldwide. Those with proper backups were able to quickly recover their files without paying the ransom demanded by the attackers while those without backups suffered significant losses.

Monitoring and Optimization Techniques

To ensure that network and communication systems are running smoothly, it is crucial to monitor and optimize them regularly. This involves keeping an eye on various performance metrics such as network traffic, bandwidth usage, and data transfer rates.

By using specialized tools and software, administrators can identify potential issues before they escalate into major problems.

Additionally, optimization techniques like compression can reduce the amount of data that needs to be transmitted over the network, which in turn improves overall throughput and reduces packet loss.

Another important aspect of monitoring is identifying potential security threats or breaches. Regularly reviewing system logs and analyzing patterns of activity on the network can help detect suspicious behavior early on before any serious damage occurs.


In conclusion, network and communication are critical components of our digital world. From LAN to WAN to VPN, the different types of networks have transformed the way we share information, collaborate, and communicate.

Along with improving productivity and efficiency, it’s essential to follow best practices such as ensuring security measures are in place, regular system updates, backup planning for any unexpected events and optimization techniques.

Learn The Example And Benefits Of Encapsulation

Introduction to Encapsulation Benefits

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Benefits of Encapsulation

Now let’s see what the benefits of encapsulation are in various programming languages as follows.

In C++, we can use encapsulation and hiding of data by using user-defined data types that we normally call class. Class is used to merge the information and function into a single entity, and the class contains the different members as follows.

Public: In which all objects of the class are able to access the information or, we can say, data.

Protected: This type of access is limited to some members of a class, or we can say that descendant.

Private: In this type of member, access is limited means within a class or function.

Internal: In which that access is limited.

Protected Internal: In this type, access is limited for the current class.

So these are some parameters we use in encapsulation to now let’s see actual benefits of encapsulation.

The main benefit of encapsulation is that we can hide the information from the user. That means we provide security to our data or information by using the above member function. Furthermore, by using encapsulation, we can give access to a specified level without any complexity. Therefore, we can easily handle the application and understand the application.

By keeping information hidden, or we can say that it is private in programming language and offering public obvious assistance techniques, the part of the object turns out to be obvious to different objects. This builds ease of use. Different objects know about the configuration to send messages into the object by using the public service. This is basically an agreement between the two objects. The invoker is consenting to send the message in the particular structure, including passing any of the necessary boundary data. The conjured object is consenting to handle the message and, if essential, return worth in the predetermined structure.

By using encapsulation, we can create classes in different modes such as read-only and write-only mode. Another benefit of encapsulation is that we reduce human error because we write code in a proper manner and suitable.

Let’s consider a simple example of a washing machine; in this scenario, we just switch on the machine’s power button, and the machine gets started, and after some time, we switch off the power button of the machine, then the machine stops. The final conclusion of this scenario is that we don’t know what happens inside the washing machine or what type of mechanism is used. Notice here we see this is a very simple mechanism to wash the cloth just by pressing the power button, but inside the washing machine, a different element or we can say that object works together to wash the cloth. This mechanism is called encapsulation; see here, there is no complexity to handle the washing machine in a similar way. Therefore, when we use encapsulation in programming, it minimizes the complexity of the program, avoids human error, and protects the information.

When we talk about a java programming language, the encapsulation provides some different benefits as follows.

The Java programming language provides the setter and getter methods to make classes read-only and write-only. It also provides the control functionality over the data, which means we can provide the logic inside the method per our requirement.

Examples of Encapsulation Benefits

Now let’s see the example of encapsulation in C++ to better understand the benefits of encapsulation as follows.



By using the above program, we try to implement the encapsulation in C++. First, we create the class name as Encapsulation_Benefits after that, inside the class, we create a private member function with variable y. Then we set the value to that variable by using a public member function. Then we just call the class by using objects as shown in the above program. The final out of the above program we illustrate by using the following screenshot.


We hope from this article you learn the Encapsulation benefits. From the above article, we have learned the basic theory of Encapsulation, and we also see examples of Encapsulation. From this article, we learned the benefits of Encapsulation as well as how and when we use Encapsulation.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Encapsulation benefits. Here we discussed the basic theory of Encapsulation with its benefits along with the examples of Encapsulation. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

It Management And The Importance Of Reinvention

As a CIO, you are keenly aware that rapid change in business and technology is the “new normal.” However, in the 21st Century, “change” is actually too weak a descriptor.

Today, it’s all about transformation. This means you can’t go backward, and you can’t stand still. You can’t rest on your laurels and you can’t keep doing what you’ve always done — even if you do your best to keep doing it better.

The only way for your company to survive, let alone thrive, is to continuously reinvent and redefine.

Reinvent and redefine what? Everything .

Today’s transformation is an accelerated, magnified force of change. Redefining and reinventing is a way of harnessing that wild horse and hooking it to a product, a service, an industry, or a career.

In a sense, transformation is a hard trend (a Definite), while reinvention is a soft trend (a Maybe). Transformation is going to happen, all around us and to us, whether we want it to or not. Reinvention, on the other hand, will happen only if we make the decision to do it. If we don’t, someone else will.

In the coming years, dramatic new developments are going to be flying at you so fast, from so many places and so many competitors, that it will be easier than ever to become overwhelmed. In a transformational time, disruption multiplies. The only solution to this increasing dilemma is to become experts at reinventing our companies, our products, our services … essentially everything we do.

Lee Iacocca and Hal Sperlich reinvented an entire marketplace in 1983 when they redefined the family station wagon. At the time, station wagon sales were not growing, even though baby boomers were in their prime childbearing years and the nation was bursting with new families.

A puzzle. Why, if they needed the product, weren’t they buying it? Because purchases are more emotional than logical, and are often statements of identity as much as (or more than) a rational act of fulfilling a practical need. Baby boomers may have needed a set of wheels with substantial family room, but they did not want to look and act just like their parents; even if that’s exactly what they were doing most of the time. Baby boomers did not want to identify themselves as a generation of people who drove station wagons.

But vans? They were kind of cool and, more important, their parents never drove vans. Chrysler introduced the Dodge Caravan in November 1983, creating an entire automotive category — the minivan — that they would continue to dominate for the next quarter century. It was a stroke of flash foresight, based on the hard trend of baby boomers and their needs (along with the eternal insight that people don’t want to look or act like their parents).

The good ol’ days

It used to be that corporate and product reinvention was an option; today it is an imperative. We live today in a unique context, an environment we’ve never seen or experienced before. We have never had this kind of processing power and bandwidth, this kind of runaway acceleration in technological capacity, and it has completely transformed our relationship to the concept of stability.

Read the rest about IT management and change at CIO Update.

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