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Thousands of vessels are submerged in the waters off the coast of North Carolina. The Outer Banks, with its strong currents and storms that create treacherous conditions for ships, is nicknamed “The Graveyard of the Atlantic.” However, many of these wrecks have taken on new duties by providing valuable habitat for fish and other marine animals—as well as hordes of microscopic lifeforms. When scientists recently investigated the microbial inhabitants of a single shipwreck in the shallow waters near Hatteras Island, they identified thousands of different species of bacteria.

“They all play a different role; they’re all doing something different for the environment and community,” says Erin Field, a microbiologist at East Carolina University in Greenville. Field and her colleagues, who reported the findings today in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology, found bacteria that hasten corrosion as well as species that may help preserve the ship or make it a more enticing habitat for other marine life forms. Understanding these diverse communities of microbes will help us better conserve the ships they call home, Field says.

“We often think of a shipwreck environment as just one location, but there are so many differences even within one shipwreck site,” Field says. “It’s important that we take that into consideration when we are beginning to design management efforts to preserve these really important historical wrecks.”

Field (right) and a colleague (K. Price) taking samples from the shipwreck. John McCord

The ruins that her team explored, the Pappy Lane shipwreck in Pamlico Sound, are more than 160 feet long. They belong to a former World War II warship that was converted into a barge before running aground in the 1960s. To build a picture of the wreck’s bacterial community, the researchers collected samples of the surrounding sediments and seawater, loose debris from the ship, and chunks of metal drilled from the steel hull.

They found DNA corresponding to at least 4,800 different kinds of bacteria, with certain species gravitating to different environments within the wreck. “There are so many microbes out there, they often have to compete for space and resources,” Field says. “They need to find the best spot for themselves.”

She and her colleagues were particularly interested in “iron-eating” bacteria, which depend on iron for their energy and produce rust as a byproduct. These bacteria were present all over the ship, and included a new strain of a species called Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. However, the microbes were especially plentiful on chunks of debris covered in bright orange rust. Many of these came from around the bow, which seemed to be corroding more quickly than other parts of the ship.

“We’re trying to understand how the microbes assemble in those areas, and can we detect earlier on which areas are going to be vulnerable to biocorrosion [and] tailor our strategies and preservation efforts to mitigate that,” Field says.

She and her team also identified bacteria that can help preserve the sunken ship by coating its metal surfaces in a biofilm layer that protects it from corrosion. Also present were bacteria that break down petroleum compounds, indicating that a fuel tank may have leaked its contents into the nearby waters at one point. Others, including the newly discovered strain of M. ferrooxydans, convert nutrients such as carbon and nitrogen into forms that other organisms can use. “We know that they’re doing more than just causing corrosion,” Field says.

Aside from their historical significance, shipwrecks have a rich role in marine ecosystems. These ruins are sometimes called artificial reefs because they provide marine creatures with shelter and hard surfaces for barnacles, corals, and other organisms to attach themselves to. Microbes like the ones Field and her colleagues found provide the foundation for these services.

“They are the organisms that first attach to the wreck when it’s submerged and they contribute to nutrient cycling and the generation of food that other organisms need and they really help maintain the integrity and structure of that wreck so that the other organisms benefit,” Field says. “So it’s important that we really take a closer look at what they are doing and how they do it.”

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How Often Can You Get Dragon Parts In Tears Of The Kingdom?

In the Tears of the Kingdom, you can get dragon parts to unlock new levels of power and progression.

Dragon parts in TotK can be obtained by defeating dragons, but players can only acquire each part once. After obtaining a dragon part, players must wait for the dragon’s resources to refresh.

Continue reading to learn about dragon parts and how often you can get them.

How Often Can You Get Dragon Parts In Tears Of The Kingdom?

Dragon parts are a rare commodity in Tears of the Kingdom.

Harvesting them is only possible from the giant dragons that inhabit the area around the kingdom.

A player can only get a dragon part once and must wait ten minutes in real time for the dragon’s resources to refresh.

Moreover, the game has four dragons – Farosh, Dinraal, Naydra, and an unnamed dragon.

Each dragon has a unique flight path and can give you up to five parts depending on the specific body part struck.

Players can fuse these parts with equipment or cooked dishes to enhance their abilities and secure victory.

Although the dragons are not hostile, they will defend themselves by creating elemental orbs around them.

These orbs can harm you if you get too close.

What Are The Different Types Of Dragons Parts?

There are three main types of dragon parts: Scales, Fangs, and Claws.

Each of these parts has its unique properties and uses within the game.

1. Dragons Part: Scales 

It is one of the most commonly obtained dragon parts.

Due to their defensive properties, it holds significant value in crafting armor and shields.

You can utilize them to create powerful gear that will grant you an edge in combat.

To obtain a dragon scale, you must successfully target and attack the dragon during the encounter. 

As you engage in combat, focus on hitting specific weak points or vulnerable areas of the dragon, which may vary depending on the specific dragon encountered.

Once the dragon is defeated, it may drop a scale as loot.

2. Dragons Part: Fangs 

It plays a crucial role in crafting formidable weapons with enhanced attack power.

The sharp and deadly nature of dragon fangs makes them an ideal component for crafting offensive-oriented weapons.

During the encounter with a dragon, you must focus on targeting the dragon’s head or mouth area to obtain a fang.

Upon successfully defeating the dragon, there is a chance that it will drop one or more fangs as loot.

3. Dragons Part: Claws 

They are used for various purposes, from crafting jewelry to creating potions.

They are one of the most versatile types of dragon parts and are always in high demand.

You can obtain a claw by targeting the limbs of a dragon, especially the Claws.

You can obtain even the rarest dragon parts with little effort and know-how.

Moreover, you can use them to become a true master of the game.

How To Find Dragon Parts In Tears Of The Kingdom?

You can find dragon parts scattered throughout various parts of the game world.

Here are some places where you can find dragon parts.

Defeating Dragons: One of the most reliable ways to obtain dragon parts is by defeating dragons in combat. You can obtain one or more dragon parts when you defeat a dragon

. It entirely depends on the type of dragon you defeat.

Completing Quests/Challenges: Besides defeating dragons in combat, players can also obtain dragon parts as rewards for completing in-game quests and challenges. These rewards are typically rare and highly sought after.

The Bottom Line

The dragon parts in Tears of the Kingdom game are one of the game’s most valuable and essential items.

Although it is scarce to obtain dragon parts, it has high benefits once you get them. 

You can use the dragon parts in cooking recipes or fuse them with various weapons.

Doing either one will lead to an increase in effectiveness and attack power.

Read and explore ways to get Vai clothes and revert updates in TotK.

Nmap Example: How To Scan Networks And Hosts

Nmap Basics

Nmap can be used to scan a single host or a range of hosts on a network. The simplest Nmap command is:

nmap [target]

Where [target] is the IP address or hostname of the target host. This command will perform a basic scan of the target host, displaying open ports and the services running on those ports.

Scanning a Single Host

To scan a single host, simply enter the host’s IP address or hostname as the target:

nmap 192.168.1.1

This command will scan the host with the IP address of 192.168.1.1 and return a list of open ports and services.

Scanning a Range of Hosts

To scan a range of hosts, use the -sL option to list the hosts and the -n option to disable DNS resolution:

nmap -sL -n 192.168.1.1-10

This command will list all the hosts in the range of 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.10 without attempting to resolve their hostnames.

Scanning a Network

To scan an entire network, use the -sP option to perform a ping scan:

nmap -sP 192.168.1.0/24

This command will scan the entire 192.168.1.0/24 network, displaying a list of hosts that respond to ping.

Scanning for Open Ports

To scan for open ports on a target host, use the -p option followed by the port number or range of port numbers:

nmap -p 80 192.168.1.1

This command will scan port 80 on the host with the IP address of 192.168.1.1.

nmap -p 1-1000 192.168.1.1

This command will scan ports 1 through 1000 on the host with the IP address of 192.168.1.1.

Scanning for Services

To scan for specific services on a target host, use the -sV option:

nmap -sV 192.168.1.1

This command will scan the host with the IP address of 192.168.1.1 and attempt to identify the services running on open ports.

Scanning with OS Detection

To scan a target host and attempt to identify its operating system, use the -O option:

nmap -O 192.168.1.1

This command will scan the host with the IP address of 192.168.1.1 and attempt to identify its operating system.

Conclusion

In this article, we have discussed the basics of Nmap and provided some examples of how it can be used to scan networks and hosts. Nmap is a powerful tool that can provide valuable information about a network’s topology, operating systems, and open ports. By understanding how to use Nmap, you can better secure your network and identify potential vulnerabilities.

Nmap (Network Mapper) is a free and open-source tool used to discover hosts and services on a network. It is a powerful tool that can provide information about network topology, operating systems, open ports, and other valuable information that can be used to secure a network. In this article, we will discuss the basics of Nmap and provide some examples of how it can be chúng tôi can be used to scan a single host or a range of hosts on a network. The simplest Nmap command is:Whereis the IP address or hostname of the target host. This command will perform a basic scan of the target host, displaying open ports and the services running on those chúng tôi scan a single host, simply enter the host’s IP address or hostname as the target:This command will scan the host with the IP address of 192.168.1.1 and return a list of open ports and chúng tôi scan a range of hosts, use theoption to list the hosts and theoption to disable DNS resolution:This command will list all the hosts in the range of 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.10 without attempting to resolve their chúng tôi scan an entire network, use theoption to perform a ping scan:This command will scan the entire 192.168.1.0/24 network, displaying a list of hosts that respond to chúng tôi scan for open ports on a target host, use theoption followed by the port number or range of port numbers:This command will scan port 80 on the host with the IP address of chúng tôi command will scan ports 1 through 1000 on the host with the IP address of chúng tôi scan for specific services on a target host, use theoption:This command will scan the host with the IP address of 192.168.1.1 and attempt to identify the services running on open chúng tôi scan a target host and attempt to identify its operating system, use theoption:This command will scan the host with the IP address of 192.168.1.1 and attempt to identify its operating chúng tôi this article, we have discussed the basics of Nmap and provided some examples of how it can be used to scan networks and hosts. Nmap is a powerful tool that can provide valuable information about a network’s topology, operating systems, and open ports. By understanding how to use Nmap, you can better secure your network and identify potential vulnerabilities.

Earth Bacteria Can Survive And Grow In Extremely Hostile, Mars

A species of hardy bacteria found anywhere from human skin to plant roots can survive in a Mars-like environment, a new study says. The finding has implications for extraterrestrial life, but maybe more importantly, there are implications for planetary protection. Could stowaway microbes hop off the Mars rover Curiosity (or its descendants) and make a new life on the Red Planet?

Astrobiologists like studying extremophiles, those bacteria and other creatures that live in horrid temperatures or pressures, because they could conceivably live in the hostile environs of other planets. But Serratia liquefaciens is a generalist, as the authors described it–it evolved probably at sea level and lives in plant, animal and aquatic worlds.

To understand how well future human missions might imperil Mars with our filthy life forms, microbiologists led by Andrew Schuerger at the University of Florida set out to test how well common Earth bacteria could survive in Mars-like environments. There’s a surprising lack of data on this matter, the authors say in their paper, which was published this week in the journal Astrobiology.

They worked with 26 strains of 22 types of bacteria that have been recovered before from spacecraft, and would therefore be the likeliest to hitch a ride to a hospitable spot on Mars. Importantly, the researchers assume the bacteria would survive the harmful radiation to which they would be subjected on the journey–but still, the study has some important findings.

The team grew bacterial colonies in dishes and then turned down the heat, the pressure and the oxygen. Hyperbaric chambers reduced atmospheric pressure down to just 7 millibar, with many strains perishing as the conditions worsened. (Earth atmospheric pressure is about 1,000 mbar.) S. liquefaciens was able to survive at 7 mbar, freezing temperatures, low oxygen and increased carbon dioxide–just like the conditions on Mars. Interestingly, two known extremophile species did not make it.

Under Pressure

Plate A shows a control group grown under standard Earth pressure (1013 millibars) and oxygen, living at 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Plate B shows the bacteria that can survive when temperature is dropped to freezing. Plate C shows the bacteria that survived with freezing temperature and no oxygen. Plate D shows bacterial growth at pressure as low as that on Mars (7 millibars), no oxygen and freezing temperature. Only one bacterium, Serratia liquefaciens, survived those harsh conditions. Arrows indicate locations of the bacteria.

In a different study, Schuerger and colleagues looked at thousands of strains of bacteria recovered from core samples drilled 40 to 70 feet into the Siberian permafrost. The thought was that these microbes might survive in a permanently frozen area on Mars that could be an interesting target for future life-hunting missions. Among that sample, six bacterial species–all from the cold-loving genus _Carnobacterium_–survived Mars-like conditions and continued to grow. That study was published Dec. 24 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The studies do not prove that life could grow on Mars, the authors warn. The radiation hazard is one major key that would probably prevent spacecraft stowaways from colonizing Mars. But still, the hardiness of these bacteria–especially one that was not considered an extremophile–is a sign that more work needs to be done to try and answer that question.

Com Hosts Black Mass Screening At Loews Boston Common

COM Hosts Black Mass Screening at Loews Boston Common Book’s authors talk about Hollywood adaptation

Former Boston Globe reporters Dick Lehr, a COM professor of journalism (right), and Gerard O’Neill (COM’70) answer questions from students following a private screening of the movie Black Mass. Photo By Jackie Ricciardi

Anyone expecting to see Johnny Depp as some kind of modern antihero in the new film Black Mass, about Boston mobster Whitey Bulger, will be in for a shock: Depp plays the silver-haired criminal as appropriately dark and violent. As Dick Lehr, coauthor of the book the movie is based on, told the audience at a special screening last Thursday night, “the film is a horror story.”

Former Boston Globe reporters Lehr, a College of Communication professor of journalism, and coauthor Gerard O’Neill (COM’70) were fielding questions after the film was shown to an audience of COM students and professors at the AMC Loews Boston Common. The event was the kickoff of COM’s annual Cinematheque series, which brings accomplished filmmakers to campus to screen and discuss their work.

For decades, James “Whitey” Bulger was the city’s reigning crime kingpin, presiding over the Irish mob known as the Winter Hill Gang. The brother of longtime Democratic politician and former Massachusetts Senate president William Bulger (Hon.’96), Whitey Bulger was also an FBI informant, supplying his childhood friend and FBI agent John Connolly with information about his rivals in exchange for free rein for his own criminal activities. In 1995, Connolly tipped Bulger off that he was about to be indicted by the feds. Bulger fled Boston and remained at large for the next 16 years, despite heading the FBI’s Most Wanted list. The 81-year-old mobster was finally captured in Santa Monica, Calif., in 2011, and after being convicted in 2013 of federal racketeering, extortion, and conspiracy, and for his role in 11 murders, is now serving two consecutive life terms.

Lehr and O’Neill began reporting on the South Boston gangster back in the late 1980s for a four-part Globe series. They went on to publish The Underboss: The Rise and Fall of a Mafia Family, Whitey: the Life of America’s Most Notorious Mob Boss, and Black Mass: The Irish Mob, the FBI, and a Devil’s Deal, which won an Edgar Award from the Mystery Writers of America.

Depp has received some of the best reviews of his career and early Oscar buzz for his performance. The film, directed by Scott Cooper, also stars Joel Edgerton as John Connolly, Benedict Cumberbatch as William Bulger, and Jesse Plemons as Bulger’s henchman Kevin Weeks. It has received a 76 percent “fresh” rating on Rotten Tomatoes.

When the credits rolled after the screening, Lehr and O’Neill sat at the front of the theater taking questions, many from students who weren’t even alive during the years Bulger ran Southie. The audience wondered why the reporters were drawn to Bulger’s story. “For my part, I was after the FBI, the public institution,” Lehr said. “It was about the abuse of power and the corruption in the nation’s top law enforcement agency, by this gangster Whitey Bulger….It was a culture of corruption that was embedded by the FBI that to this day still frightens me.”

“It was inherent in the informant system,” O’Neill said. “It was basically unsupervised.”

“The key thing when we reported this story was that we kept hearing from others in law enforcement that there was something weird going on between Whitey Bulger and the FBI, and in particular, John Connolly,” Lehr said. The reporters confirmed the relationship with two FBI sources before publishing their initial Globe series.

O’Neill and Lehr were consulted throughout the years it took to develop the film. Lehr said his only worry was that a Hollywood adaptation would “blink at the darkness…and try to soften it and sugarcoat it.” But “when we saw the first screening, it was very reassuring.”

Hollywood took a few liberties with the story, the authors told the audience, but since “the events in this movie played out over two decades, and Scott Cooper had two hours,” they understood, Lehr said. “He compressed characters, some of the chronology was moved around, and dialogue was invented.” In the end, both O’Neill and Lehr felt the script was consistent with the book.

Asked how they came up with the book title, which is also the film’s title, Lehr explained that the book’s editor, Geoff Shandler, had suggested it. Catholics are familiar with the term, he said—it’s a satanic ritual, where the devil takes over the mass—and “it’s like a metaphor for this unholy alliance between the institution, the FBI, and Whitey, the devil.”

“We resisted it for a while,” O’Neill added. “But we came to love it.”

Lehr and O’Neill offered a couple of final tidbits as they wrapped up their Q&A. In the film’s climatic scene, FBI agent John Morris (played by actor David Harbour) meets with both reporters in a diner to confirm the Bulger-FBI relationship (in reality, only O’Neill attended the meeting).

Professional actors played the two reporters, but the authors were invited to appear in the scene as diner patrons. “They kept having to cut the shot because we were making noise,” Lehr said. “We never realized the sound system was so sensitive, and Gerry and I would clink our glasses, and they’d yell, ‘Cut!’ We’d whisper to each other to act like we were talking, and we’d get yelled at. We were slowing everything down just for this short cameo.”

“Scott Cooper finally told us to just mouth the words peas and corn,” O’Neill said with a laugh. “It looks like you’re talking. That’s the actor’s secret.”

The Cinematheque screening wasn’t the only time last week that BU students were caught up in Black Mass fever. BUTV10 reported from the red carpet in front of the Coolidge Corner Theatre in Brookline when Black Mass premiered last Tuesday—an event that drew many of the film’s principals, including Depp.

And be sure to look closely during the film’s Saint Patrick’s Day Parade scene: the band marching in the parade is none other than the Boston University Band.

Weeks Of Welcome Moves (Mostly) Online This Year

Weeks of Welcome Moves (Mostly) Online This Year

Whether students are on campus or attending classes remotely, the goal of SAO’s  Weeks of Welcome is to foster community and engage students.

Student Life

Weeks of Welcome Moves (Mostly) Online This Year Trivia, ice cream, and of course, SPLASH, headline annual Student Activities Office program

There’s no question—the 2023-2024 school year will be unlike any other. Whether you’re on campus or attending classes remotely, there will still be one familiar staple: the Student Activities Office annual Weeks of Welcome (WOW), a monthlong slate of programs and events just for BU students.

SAO explored the possibility of holding events in person, but opted to shift its offerings online, says Taylor Malatos, SAO associate director. While Weeks of Welcome will certainly look and feel different this year, Malatos says, the goal is to foster community and engage students, including those who are not on campus. 

“These are traditional programs that are really important to the vibrancy of campus and the experience,” she says. Especially for incoming freshmen, she adds, the opportunity to get involved and meet other students is critical.

One positive outcome about the shift to a mostly online presence is that these events are now more accessible than they would be in person. A Zoom Q&A with comedian Tiffany Haddish, for example, can have an audience in the thousands, while an in-person event would be limited to the 1,200 the Metcalf Ballroom can accommodate, Malatos says.

Additionally, some activities—like trivia and game nights—have the possibility of  turning into recurring series, she says, depending on their popularity and success during the Weeks of Welcome. 

Registration is required for all events, and space is limited, so register now to reserve your spot. Events go through September 12 and are free unless otherwise noted. Check out the offerings below.

Note: All of the events were open at press time (except where otherwise noted). If an event has sold out, let us know so that we can update the list.

August 24: Game Night with the Board Games Club, 8 pm on Zoom 

Sick of scrolling through Instagram while hanging out inside? Join the Board Games Club for some fun online games. No skill required and play is free.

August 25: Summer Stump Trivia, 8 pm on Zoom

Test your trivia skills and join Boston’s premier trivia group for some old-fashioned fun. Teams may have between 5 and 10 players. No team? Don’t worry, SAO will create one for you.

August 26: Paint Night Kits

Flex that artistic muscle a little. You’ll receive a custom BU canvas with directions and all the paint supplies you need. Sit back, relax, and paint something for your dorm room. Pick-up location varies by residence hall.

August 27: Virtual Psychic Readings, 8 pm on Zoom (by appointment) SOLD OUT

Curiosity never killed the cat. Get a virtual psychic reading and learn a bit about what the future holds.

August 28: JP Licks Roommate Ice Cream Sundae Kits, 3 to 7 pm

Get to know your roommate and enjoy a little ice cream, too. Head down to JP Licks on Boylston Street to pick up your sundae kit for two using your custom BU voucher—which SAO will email to you after registration—and then picnic anywhere outside. 

August 28: Gaming Night, Hosted by the Gaming Club, 8 to 10 pm on Zoom

We’re all spending more time indoors, so have some fun and meet new people while you’re at it. No console required, but you could win one, plus many other prizes, throughout the night. 

August 29: Virtual Scavenger Hunt, 8 pm on Zoom

Nothing like a little virtual amazing race to change up your routine. Teams of up to five will compete for a grand prize.

August 30: Welcome Back BINGO, 8 pm on Zoom

This isn’t your grandmother’s bingo. Grab a group of new pals and come play Bingo on Zoom, with lots of prizes. Stake out a spot in your residence hall common room or play with your door open so you can hear the “Bingos” echo across the floor. 

September 3: Stump Trivia, 8 pm on Zoom

Test your trivia skills and join Boston’s premier trivia group for some old-fashioned fun. Teams may have between 5 and 10 players. No team? Don’t worry, SAO will create one for you.

September 4: Q&A with Tiffany Haddish, 8 pm on Zoom

Come out and see one of the hottest names in comedy. With several high-profile projects and buzzworthy appearances to her name, Tiffany Haddish has quickly become one of the most sought-after comedic actors and performers. She can currently be seen opposite Tracy Morgan on the TBS comedy series The Last O.G. and as host of ABC’s Kids Say the Darndest Things. 

September 5: SPLASH, 1 to 3 pm on Engage 

Want to get involved on campus, but don’t know where to start? Come to SPLASH, BU’s annual student group recruitment fair. Browse the over 400 student groups on campus and visit virtual tables to speak to their representatives and find your place in the BU community.

September 5: Q&A with Just Mercy director Destin Daniel Cretton, 8 pm on Zoom

The biographical legal drama Just Mercy tells the story of Walter “Johnny D.” McMillian, a death row inmate, and Bryan Stevenson, the young lawyer who boldly takes on his case. Take this unique opportunity to watch the film on your own and then join the group for a moderated Q&A with award-winning director Destin Daniel Cretton. You will have an opportunity to submit questions during the discussion. 

September 10: Learn How to Play, with Board Games Club, 8 pm on Zoom

Ever wonder how to play Settlers of Catan or Dungeons & Dragons? Don’t be turned off by the intricacies of games like these—the Board Games Club will deliver a guided how-to.

September 12: Mixology with Blossom Bar, 8 pm on Zoom ($7) 

Choose between two alcohol-free mixers from the creative minds of the bartenders at Blossom Bar in Brookline. Pick up your mixer by 2 pm and pair with your own alcohol (not provided) for a Zoom bartending lesson with the lead bartender. Tickets are $7. This event is 21-plus. 

Weeks of Welcome programs run through September 12. Registration is required for all events, and space is limited. All events are free unless otherwise noted. Weeks of Welcome is for BU students only. Register here.

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