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Trump and the Press: We’ve Been Here Before History, journalism classes team up to study media-politics relations

“We both like to perform,” Bruce Schulman, a CAS professor of history (right), says of colleague Chris Daly, a COM professor of journalism, during their weekly colloquy on their joint class on media and politics. Photo by Cydney Scott

Class by class, lecture by lecture, question asked by question answered, an education is built. This is one of a series of visits to one class, on one day, in search of those building blocks at BU.

Should journalists call out a political leader who lies, misspeaks, and bullies opponents with scurrilous slurs?

If you think that’s a veiled swipe at a certain White House incumbent, you’ve jumped the gun.

The roughly 100 students in the lecture hall have just heard Chris Daly, a College of Communication professor of journalism, talk about uncritical reporting, in the 1950s, of US Senator Joseph McCarthy’s unsubstantiated accusations of communist subversion. Now, Daly is taking questions from colleague Bruce Schulman, a College of Arts & Sciences professor of history.

“If I understood you right,” says Schulman, just a twinge of skepticism in his tone, “you were critical” of uncritical journalism. Given that today’s media bird-dog and condemn President Trump’s false utterances, the William E. Huntington Professor of History continues, is that aggressiveness appropriate?

“That’s a very penetrating question,” Daly says congenially, provoking twitters from the crowd by putting on a screen the New York Times pages-long compilation of “Trump’s Lies.” But superficial, back-and-forth reporting of McCarthy’s charges and his targets’ denials didn’t yield the truth, Daly argues, offering an analogy: “If I say that Professor Schulman doesn’t know anything about baseball, and he says—”

“Actually, I know a little bit about baseball,” the accused replies.

“Is he back to where he was before he was accused? Not really,” Daly triumphantly concludes. “There’s this thing, this air [of suspicion] hanging over him.”

The collegial colloquy between two avid teachers (“we both like to perform,” says Schulman) is a weekly ritual of their joint class meetings, Media & Politics in Modern America (Schulman’s history course) and The Presidency and the Media (Daly’s journalism offering). A goal of their discourse, and the classes generally, is to demonstrate how their respective academic disciplines approach the topic.

But in a bitterly contentious era, there’s a subtler takeaway from the colloquies. “Can we model a discussion between two people who can disagree, often disagree vigorously, but always civilly?” Schulman says in an interview with the teaching duo.

“Of course,” adds Schulman, “we had no idea what was coming,” at which Daly emits an incredulous whistle.

What came, of course, was a Trump victory followed by a rhetorical war on the press that has seen the president attacking journalists as “enemies of the people” (a phrase borrowed from  Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia against Jews and dissidents) and peddlers of “fake news.”

Critics see that rhetoric as a prong in an assault on republican norms. But this is academia, and Daly says the class, part of BU’s Hub, lowers the political thermostat by mixing current controversies with historical perspective, reaching back not just to the 1950s but to the 1890s.

Not that Schulman and Daly duck the contemporary Trump-press slugfest. The latter has lectured on the history of the enemies-of-the-people phrase, and students say topicality is one thing drawing them to the class.

“Today, I don’t think you would see people like McCarthy getting as much of a platform from journalists,” says Hannah Schoenbaum (COM’21), noting that journalists dismiss climate change deniers and Trump’s falsehoods. “We’re starting to actually see a shift in language to using the word ‘lie,’” she says, ginning up some Americans’ antipathy toward journalists.

Lauren Kelmar (COM’21) says she has learned about parallels between Trump’s twitchy Twitter finger and Franklin Roosevelt’s radio fireside chats—but sees the comparison only to a point, as “FDR was pretty smooth.”

One class theme is that journalists sometimes have a better grasp of their own times than the professional historians who study those times after the fact. The course ponders a famous example, Schulman says: newspaper editor James Callender’s “scurrilous attack on Thomas Jefferson for having a slave mistress—generation after generation of historians not only did not credit that, but went to lengths to debunk it. And it turned out that Callender was a lot more accurate.”

He and Daly teamed to co-teach because of overlapping interests. “I’m sort of a frustrated, never-made-it journalist,” Schulman confesses, “and Chris started off as a historian.” Daly, a former Associated Press and Washington Post reporter, earned a master’s in history at the University of North Carolina and coauthored Like a Family (University of North Carolina Press, 2000), a history of southern industrialization.

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Verizon, Free Press Continue Net Neutrality Sparring

Verizon and media-reform group Free Press ratcheted up the already-heated rhetoric over the network neutrality debate this week, with each accusing the other of distorting the facts and invoking disingenuous hyperbole to sell one another’s position.

The latest salvo began on Monday, when Tom Tauke, Verizon’s (NYSE: VZ) executive vice president of public affairs, policy and communications, delivered a speech at a conference in Aspen, Colo., during which he defended his company’s joint proposal with Google (NASDAQ: GOOG) for a legislative framework that would set rules, with significant limitations, for prohibiting Internet service providers from blocking traffic on their networks.

Tauke, a former congressman, defended the agreement as a reasoned compromise that would protect the free flow of content on the Internet while also shielding ISPs from the burdensome regulations they argue would chill capital investment in broadband networks.

He argued that the agreement “parenthetically fulfills the president’s campaign promise of nondiscrimination and transparency on the Internet,” referring to then-candidate Barack Obama’s oft-repeated promise to “take a backseat to no one in my commitment to net neutrality,” a pledge he made at a Google’s headquarters in Mountain View, Calif.

The group, which has been arguably the most strident supporter of rigid network neutrality rules throughout the debate, took particular issue with Tauke’s coupling of a proposal it deems a sellout with Obama’s address of the issue.

“Verizon is simply dead wrong in claiming their farce of a framework would fulfill President Obama’s net neutrality promises,” Free Press Research Director Derek Turner said in a statement. “Verizon can’t hide the fact that, if enacted, this pact would mark the end of the open Internet era.”

In keeping with the point-counterpoint nature of this debate, Verizon rebutted the latest from Free Press with a “fact sheet,” contradicting the assertion that the proposed policy framework would leave the Federal Communications Commission too weakened to impose meaningful oversight over the industry.

“With action verbs like ‘slam’ and foreboding nouns like ‘pact’ and ‘scheme,’ the statement is a fun summer read,” Verizon spokesman David Fish said. “But, like some other works of light fiction, it leaves one wanting more — in this case, the facts.”

For its part, Google has defended itself against charges from Free Press and others that it abandoned a cause it had long championed in developing the policy framework with Verizon. The company has acknowledged that in the spirit of pragmatic compromise it softened its position, particularly in the provision of the framework that would preclude the FCC from imposing neutrality obligations on wireless providers. But at the same time, the company said that it was necessary to give a little ground in a debate where positions had hardened to the point of deadlock.

Tauke defended the so-called managed services exemption, arguing that it would apply only to novel applications, such as smart-grid transmissions or telehealth monitoring, which demand quality-of-service guarantees and would exist apart from the consumer-facing Internet that would be subject to nondiscrimination rules.

“That requires a different set of rules than the rules that would govern the best-practices Internet,” he told his audience in Aspen, disputing the “long perpetuated narrative of a two-tiered Internet,” a charge leveled by Free Press and other long-time foes of the big cable and telecom providers.

“That too is wrong,” Tauke said. “Dead wrong.”

Kenneth Corbin is an associate editor at chúng tôi the news service of chúng tôi the network for technology professionals.

Web3 And Why It’s Here To Stay

What Australian entrepreneurs need to consider in 2023, writes Leigh Travers, Chief Executive Officer at Binance Australia.

Photo illustration by Jonathan Raa/NurPhoto via Getty Images)

We are now well into double-digit percentages of Australians owning some cryptocurrency (Statista cites 25.6%). While the number of holders has experienced a drop from the peaks last year, there is a clear positive trend on a multi-year time horizon. Convincingly, data from a 2023 ASIC survey found that crypto was the second most commonly held investment after Australian shares.

As we move into the new year, Binance Australia believes that collaboration with all stakeholders interacting with Web3 will positively impact the ecosystem’s sustainability and ensure a safer and fairer market for all Australians.

Australia’s journey to build a steady regulation ecosystem

A digital asset exchange’s role, first and foremost, is to protect and serve its users. There is a responsibility for every major platform to collaborate with policymakers and regulators to contribute to the development of a regulatory framework with consumer protection and market integrity at its heart. Compliance is a collaborative process, and as a leading platform in the domestic market, Binance Australia wants to ensure consumers are benefitting from Web3 by making it accessible to everyone in a safe way.

Locally in Australia, the government has acknowledged and will work to establish a digital assets framework in 2023. Significantly, the government will prioritise and assess its ongoing “token mapping” work with the industry players and has committed to introducing a licensing regime for digital asset service providers. This is regulation that Binance Australia wants to ensure a sustainable crypto ecosystem in Australia and to ensure there isn’t regulatory arbitrage from overseas operators.

Globally, governments will be looking towards Europe for developments in the Market in Crypto-assets Regulation (MiCA) which is expected to enter force in the first half of the year. The enforcement of these frameworks is likely the first comprehensive regulatory regime tailored specifically to protect investors of digital assets and ensure financial stability while still facilitating space to foster innovation.

Adopting these measures will result in the growth of an industry where Web3 technology, such as digital assets, can operate effectively. Ultimately, we welcome the Australian government’s decision to pursue well-considered regulation in Australia in harmony to provide the utmost security for users and create a fertile ground for innovation within the ever-changing and growing crypto market.

To the nation’s financial freedom and beyond

Even as fear, uncertainty and doubt circulate the market, business leaders should not confuse volatility or the behaviour of bad actors with the potential use cases of digital assets and the underlying technology. Web3 is now widespread; on the back of the breakthrough of NFTs into global popularity, leading major brands like the AFL to explore how they can implement Web 3 technologies into their platforms, products and operations.

And while NFTs and fan tokens have come into trend through our love of sport, market interest is high in digital identity solutions such as Soul bound tokens. Soul-bound tokens are similar to NFTs but cannot be transferred and are used to verify users’ identities to authenticate achievements, wallet addresses, and trades. This is particularly important to reduce risks around handling private and sensitive personal identification documentation and remove the friction around using new services and products.

So, what happens next?

New technologies are built to be disruptive and challenge the foundations of the status quo. For Web3, we are in the midst of a time where institutions, communities and businesses are exploring the roles each plays in the growth. The ecosystem will grow stronger as regulatory frameworks are developed, and the industry continues to evolve toward greater decentralisation. With blockchain being a borderless technology, Web3 is here to stay. We certainly welcome discourse to get governments, regulators and industry players on the same team to construct an ecosystem where users are secure and comfortable in the crypto market going into 2023.

Leigh Travers is Chief Executive Officer at Binance Australia

Here Are All The New Alexa Skills And Features Announced By Amazon

Amazon has announced a plethora of new smart devices powered by its voice-assistant Alexa, such as the Echo Plus, Echo Dot, Echo Show, Echo Auto, and more. As part of all these new refreshed products, the company also highlighted how smart Alexa has become, and in the quest to make it even smarter, Amazon has announced a ton of new skills for Alexa along with some developer tools.

Alexa has got plenty of new features, many of which are available later this year. These new features range from security to entertainment.

Alexa Guard – When Guard mode is activated such as when you leave your home, certain Echo devices will be able to listen for sounds such as glass breaking or the smoke detector going off and then send alerts to your device.

Hunches – This feature basically adjusts Alexa’s suggestions based on your day-to-day habits. It can figure out when lights or other connected smart devices are not in the state you normally leave them, and suggest that they be turned on. It’s useful when you return from a work trip or a long stay away from home.

Easy Wi-Fi Setups – Alexa can connect selected Amazon smart devices to a Wi-Fi network with just a voice command, or through the Alexa app where you can scan a barcode to add new devices to your network seamlessly.

Local Voice Control – Seen in some Echo devices, Alexa can work offline to turn on devices in the smart home. It cannot however answer queries, stream content or search for products when in local voice mode.

Ring and August Integration – Echo Show will add a two-way talk feature that works with Ring and August doorbell cameras, allowing you to use a voice command to see and talk to whoever is at the door. Alexa will also be able to notify you when someone rings a Ring or August doorbell camera.

Alexa Routines – Besides location and time-based routines, you can also set Alexa to perform certain tasks when it detects changes in temperature or when it senses motion. You can also set reminders that are triggered when you leave or arrive at home or at work.

Virtual Cooking Coach – Alexa will soon take you through recipes, one step at a time. Amazon has partnered with Kitchen Stories, Allrecipes, Epicurious, Food52, TheKitchn, and SideChef for step-by-step instructions.

Multi-step Requests – Now users can add multiple items to their shopping list in a single command, without having to repeat the hotword to activate Alexa each time. Or you can ask Alexa to turn up the volume, and start a playlist at the same time.

Email Integration – Users can link a Gmail, Outlook, or Hotmail account to the Alexa app, which would allow the virtual assistant to read out your messages, and you can even send out replies using Alexa. Now that’s a really cool feature which would come in handy for short email replies.

Whisper Mode – Just for fun, when you whisper a command or request to Alexa, you will get a whispered response back.

Echo Stereo Pairing & Preferred Speaker – Users can connect two Echo devices to create a left-right stereo experience. You will have to use the same models for this feature to work. Additionally you can set a default speaker. This can either be an Echo device, or any speaker with Alexa support.

Music Notifications – Alexa can tell you when new albums or tracks for artists you follow are released.

Visual Alexa Blueprints – Building on Alexa Blueprints, which is how Amazon lets anyone create a skill for Alexa, this new Alexa skill will users create and share personalized video messages.

FreeTime features – Amazon announced FreeTime some time back and now it has added Kid Routines, combining actions like saying goodnight, turning off the lights and starting white noise machines or setting an alarm.

Additionally, the company has announced Tidal support for Echo devices later this year. Apart from that, developers interested in building their own array of Alexa-powered devices will have some new tools to work with thanks to the arrival of a software development kit and a hardware reference design introduced by Amazon.

The company unveiled the Alexa Presentation Language, which is basically a new design language that will help developers build and arrange their own skills on Alexa devices with a screen. The Alexa Presentation Language dictates how Alexa skills should work on screens, providing guidance around text size, slideshow displays, and layout design for developers, among other things.

The Next Generation Smartphone Is Here – The Nothing Phone

This year a lot of heat will be caught (some had and some about to be) with the launch of a despicable new phone called ‘Nothing Phone’. Don’t be fanatic or so-hyped because this phone is not normal, it’s next-generation and most of you may not have heard it yet.

Every year, the phone manufacturing companies design and deploy dozens of smartphones with all different features, specs, and heat of catch.

Be ready! Because a new catch is about to be revealed this summer.

Learn Everything About ‘The Nothing Phone’ That We Know So Far!

Nothing is a new passion project of OnePlus founder Carl Pie which is about to kick off this summer in the month of July (continue reading to know the release date) therefore, people are already hyped and excited to know more about it.

So far, the internet is hyped with Nothing phone rumours, leaks, and others. Since the tease of the first-look of this Nothing phone surfaced online, people rushed to hit search to know about this new, next generation smartphone.

And, here’s what the internet covers and what our community knows so far about this phone.

Starting with epithet, Nothing brand’s first smartphone named Phone 1 (numeric only) is the most anticipated release of the year because as I told you earlier ‘it is not new normal’ and distinct from others available smartphones in the market.

The Phone 1 is based on the verge of technology of the present day, and the Carl pie’s vision.

As of now, the entity and professionals know little about this upcoming phone as the company keeps it official for so long. However, the design of the phone is revealed by the company.

Some sources claimed that the specifications that have also surfaced on the internet shall meet with the official launch event. However, the end game still depends on the official predicament.

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Nothing Phone 1: Design and Hardware

By referring to the official Nothing website and the words of Carl Pie, it has confirmed that the nothing phone has transparent back design, much keeping parallel to Nothing Ear 1 design.

Continuing, the image also illustrates two cameras alignment with flash built-in while a Nothing logo in the centred. And on the right side, there is a volume button dedicated to its function while on the left side there is power button.

As for the hardware features, the idea and suggestions are scratching to predict the display could be a 6.55-inch OLED with a resolution of 1080 x 2400, though this isn’t confirmed yet.

Nothing Phone 1: Software

Coming to the software talk, Phone 1 will run Android, it’s confirmed but can’t be promised. If it goes, then the system will have NothingOS which will be kept leight, promising, and fluent for users overall to facilitate better experience.

Adding more information on this fewer notes, the company also released its Nothing Launcher to Play Store as a beta for only to limited phone models OS. The launcher somewhat has the interface of typical Android while comes with a distinct home screen interface and experiences.

Nothing Phone 1: Release Date and Price

The Nothing’s first ever smartphone is about to be released with a virtual event, according to the official sources on July 12, 2023 at 11am ET/ 2pm PT/ 4pm BST. Additionally, the sale will be kicked off on July 21, based on leaked information sources.

This next-generation smartphone is aligned with the competition to Google Pixel smartphone which is a flagship-category. The words of speculators of market experts predicted that the price would come in at about €500 in Europe. At current exchange rates, that’s about $535 / £425.

In India, the expected price of nothing phone is INR 31,999 for the base variant with 8GB +128GB while the price of nothing phone with 8GB+128GB is INR 34,999 and the highest segment price is INR 37,999 with 12GB+256GB.

Where Phone 1 is available to buy?

As per sources, the Nothing Phone 1 will be coming to most of Asia and Europe, leaving North America totally off the launch. Therefore, people will completely miss out, including Canada, Mexico, and the US.

Additionally, the Nothing Phone (1) will also be launched in India via digital medium and the availability marketplaces could be either Flipkart or Reliance Digital Store.

However, the mystery will be only revealed after the event (July, 12).

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How To Buy The Nothing Phone (1)?

The Nothing Phone is available as a ‘Invite only, Pre-orders’ module for selected users as of now. Before the sale goes on, users who pre-registered can get the smartphone early. The Nothing will send pre-order passes to those who pre-registered to buy a new Nothing Phone.

The program is available to the date 30 June 2023 only.

Here’s how to register and buy the nothing phone:

Go the to official Nothing website

Enter your email address or continue with Google or Apple ID

After signing up, users have to wait and view their position on the waitlist

Send an invite code to your friends and when they join, your waitlist will go less

You will receive an invitation code from the company which you have to enter on Flipkart before June 30 and pay a refundable amount of Rs. 2000 to pre-order the Nothing Phone 1.

Upon successful clearance, users then have to log in at Flipkart after the event launch date to pay the remaining amount and order the device.

This means the price will be only revealed on July 12 in the official Nothing event. Till then, make yourself on the waitlist journey.

Comma Before As Well As

As well as is an expression meaning “in addition to.” In most contexts, you don’t need a comma before “as well as.”

Example: No comma before “as well as”Marta is a great dancer as well as an accomplished singer.

You can optionally add a comma before “as well as” if you want to place less emphasis on the phrase that comes after it.

Example: Comma before “as well as” to shift emphasisHe had some reservations about their ideas, as well as their tactics.

But you need a comma before and after the “as well as” phrase when it comes straight after the subject of the sentence.

His mother as well as his father

encouraged him to believe in himself.

His mother, as well as his father,

encouraged him to believe in himself.

Check your comma placement for free

Fix mistakes for free

No comma before “as well as” in most contexts

In most contexts, you can use and punctuate “as well as” in the same way as you would use the conjunction “and”—without any commas. “As well as” can be used without commas in the following parts of a sentence:

The direct object

The indirect object

The complement

Connecting two verbs

Examples: No comma before “as well as”I asked

Ruki as well as Meera


Patty gave her daughter as well as her grandchildren generous gifts for Christmas.

Elvis Presley was a prolific actor as well as a famous and influential musician.

Waterfowl such as geese swim as well as fly.

In all these contexts, you may optionally add a comma before “as well as.” If the phrase following “as well as” is not the end of the sentence, you should also add a comma after it.

By default, a phrase that comes after “as well as” has less emphasis on it than the phrase that comes before. Adding the comma(s) has the effect of de-emphasizing it even more, making the “as well as” phrase into a parenthetical and making it seem nonessential to the sentence’s meaning.

Examples: Optional commas before “as well as”I asked

Ruki, as well as Meera

. [I asked Meera, but, more importantly, I asked Ruki.]

Patty gave her daughter, as well as her grandchildren, generous gifts for Christmas. [It’s expected that she gave gifts to her grandchildren, but it’s noteworthy that she also did so for her daughter.]

Elvis Presley was a prolific actor, as well as a famous and influential musician. [You know Elvis as a singer, but did you know he was also an actor?]

Waterfowl such as geese swim, as well as flying. [You already assume that most birds fly. These ones also swim.]

NoteAs you can see in the last example above, when you add the comma, you should use the present participle form of the verb (the “-ing” form: “flying”) instead of the base form (“fly”) after “as well as.”

When you need a comma before “as well as”

While the comma can be optionally added in the contexts discussed above, there’s one context where you must add a comma. This is when you use “as well as” straight after the subject of the sentence

The subject is the noun, pronoun, or phrase representing the person or thing that carries out the action of the verb. You can create a compound subject with a coordinating conjunction like “and” or “or.” But it’s not correct to do the same with “as well as”:

Patryk and Karl

are coming to the party.

Patryk as well as Karl

are coming to the party.

“As well as” should not be used to create a compound subject. You can fix this error by simply changing “as well as” to “and,” as above.

If you want to retain the “as well as” phrase, you need to add commas around it, making it parenthetical. And you need to make sure you still have subject-verb agreement, since the “as well as” phrase no longer counts as part of the subject. The singular noun “Patryk” needs the singular verb form “is”:


, as well as Karl,


coming to the party.


, as well as Karl,


coming to the party.

Remember that, as in other cases, this places less emphasis on what comes after “as well as.” Here, the statement is mainly about Patryk; Karl is just mentioned in passing. If that’s not what you intend, use “and” instead.

No comma before “as well as” when making a comparison

There’s another, more literal use of the phrase “as well as”: using it to make a comparison such as “I ski as well as my sister.” When you’re using “as well as” to make a comparison like this, you should never add commas:

I ski, as well as my sister.

I ski as well as my sister. [We ski equally well.]

I, as well as my sister, ski. [We both ski. No comparison is being made.]

Is there ever a comma after “as well as”?

No, you shouldn’t insert a comma directly after “as well as” in normal usage. “As well as” is supposed to connect directly to the phrase that comes after it, so it shouldn’t be separated from it by a comma.

He spoke to me

as well as, to you


In some rare cases, a comma may appear directly after “as well as,” such as when it appears parenthetically as an alternative to some other conjunction or when it is immediately followed by an interrupter. But these cases are quite unusual.

Examples: Comma after “as well as”The new policy will be enforced instead of

, not as well as,

the old one.

She did make some positive contributions as well as, I must admit, some grievous errors.

If you introduce a mid-sentence phrase with “as well as” preceded by a comma, though, you do always need another comma at the end of the phrase:

My mother

, as well as a friend of mine

suffers from the condition.

My mother

, as well as a friend of mine,

suffers from the condition.

Comma before “as well”

Sometimes, “as well” (without the second “as”) is tagged on at the end of a sentence to mean “too.” Adding or omitting the comma in this context is just a matter of personal choice. Adding the comma creates more of a pause before “as well,” which may or may not be what you want.

If you use “as well” in this way, follow your own instincts about whether to add a comma:

There are snacks and drinks

available as well.

There are snacks and drinks

available, as well.

If you insert “as well” in the middle of a sentence as an interrupter (a phrase that interrupts the flow of the sentence to qualify or emphasize something), then you should add commas both before and after it (not just one comma). Note that it tends to read more smoothly to use “too” in these contexts, though.

It wasn’t only my thinking that changed.

My habits as well were


It wasn’t only my thinking that changed.

My habits, as well were


It wasn’t only my thinking that changed.

My habits as well, were


It wasn’t only my thinking that changed.

My habits, as well, were


Worksheet: Comma before “as well as”

If you want to test your understanding of how to use commas with “as well as,” try completing the worksheet below. Just add commas to the sentences wherever you think they’re needed (or don’t add any if they aren’t needed).

Practice questions

Answers and explanations

The hotel offers guests access to a gym as well as a swimming pool.

Kara as well as Jim works as a software developer.

I can’t dance as well as you.

This session will offer an introduction to the topic as well as addressing frequently asked questions.

The storm damaged vehicles as well as houses and caused several injuries.

The hotel offers guests access to a gym(,) as well as a swimming pool.

No comma is needed before “as well as” here, but you can optionally add one. Doing so has the effect of further de-emphasizing the phrase “a swimming pool.”

Kara, as well as Jim, works as a software developer.

You need commas surrounding the “as well as” phrase here. Unlike “and,” “as well as” cannot be used to create a compound subject (like “Kara and Jim”). Instead, the “as well as” phrase needs to be separated from the subject and treated as parenthetical. Also note that, due to subject-verb agreement , the singular verb form “works” is used to match the singular noun “Kara.”

I can’t dance as well as you.

Here, “as well as” is not used to mean “in addition to” but simply to make a comparison. When “as well as” is just used to make a comparison, no commas are needed.

This session will offer an introduction to the topic, as well as addressing frequently asked questions.

When “as well as” connects two verbs and the second verb is in the present participle form (the “-ing” form: “addressing”), a comma is usually added before “as well as.” If “address” was used instead of “addressing,” there would usually be no comma.

The storm damaged vehicles(,) as well as houses(,) and caused several injuries.

Here, the comma before “as well as” is optional again. It has the effect of reducing the emphasis on “houses.” If you do add this comma, you also need to add one after “houses,” because the “as well as” phrase becomes parenthetical. So this sentence should have either both commas or none—not just one or the other.

Other interesting language articles

If you want to know more about commonly confused words, definitions, common mistakes, and differences between US and UK spellings, make sure to check out some of our other language articles with explanations, examples, and quizzes.

Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

This Scribbr article

Caulfield, J. Retrieved July 10, 2023,

Cite this article


Butterfield, J. (Ed.). (2024). Fowler’s dictionary of modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Garner, B. A. (2024). Garner’s modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

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