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Introduction to Computer Operating System

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What is Operating System?

An OS (Operating System) is a software that acts as an interface between the end-user and the hardware of the computer. To perform other programs, every computer must have at least one OS. Applications such as Chrome, Games, MS Word, etc requires an environment where it runs and does its task. The OS allows you to communicate without being able to speak the language of your machine. Without an operating system, the user cannot use a computer or mobile device.

Types of Computer Operating Systems

Operating Systems are usually pre-installed in on any computer. Below we will discuss different types of Operating System:

1. Apple iOS

Apple’s iOS is a popular operating system for smartphones. It works on Apple hardware, including iPhone’s and iPad tablets. iOS features include an application shop where users can buy and download free apps, strong safety and encryption focus to limit what unauthorized users can remove from the phone and a simple, streamlined interface with minimal hardware buttons.

2. Microsoft Windows

Since 1985 Microsoft Windows has been in one form or another and remains the most common home and office software operating system. The latest versions are also used in some devices, including Windows 10, and the OS is also used on some internet and server computers. Windows may be used by machines from a variety of companies. Windows ‘ original versions worked with a previous Microsoft OS called MS-DOS modern interface on top of traditional DOS text-driven commands. Microsoft Windows UI’s signature features include windows themselves – panel-screens that represent individual applications in a rectangular shape. The start menu of Windows helped generations of users to find their programs and files.

3. Apple MAC OS 4. Linux Operating System

Linux is a  computer operating system which is similar to Unix built under the development and distribution model of free and open-source software. Linux’s popular feature is the Linux kernel, the first operating system kernel released by Linus Torvalds on September 17, 1991. The operating system is loading itself into memory and begins to control the computer’s resources. After that, it offers certain tools for other applications that the client wants to run. Most of the embedded systems run Linux today. Electronic gadgets such as internet router, washing machine, TV, refrigerator, etc can be run on Linux. Hence Linux is also one of the most popular operating systems nowadays.

How a Computer Operating System Works?

The computer operating system works in two different ways:

1. Real-Time Operating System

Real-Time operating systems are also called multitasking systems. The normal system is in charge of managing a computer’s hardware resources. The RTOS carries out such tasks but is particularly designed with high reliability to run applications at a scheduled or precise time.

2. Normal Operating System

GUI: The interface graphical mode is a mouse-based functional system where a user carries out tasks or operations without typing the keyboard commands. Through pressing with a mouse button, files or icons can be opened or closed. The mouse and keyboard are used for several purposes to control the GUI operating systems.

Let’s have a comparison between the bit operating system:

Parameters 32 Bit

64 Bit

Architecture and Software Allow 32-bit simultaneous data processing. Allow 64-bits simultaneous data processing.

Compatibility Applications 32-bit requires 32-bit operating systems and CPUs. A 64-bit Operating System and CPU are required for 64-bit applications.

Systems Available Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows XP and Linux models are all available. Vista, 7, Mac OS X, and Ubuntu. Effective Windows XP.

Memory Limits Systems with 32-bit RAM is limited to 3.2 GB. 64-bit systems allow a maximum of 17 Billion GB of RAM.

Conclusion – Types of Computer Operating System

In this article, we have seen what is operating system, types of operating systems along with its examples and how the operating system enables computer hardware to communicate with and run computer programs. I hope you will find this article helpful.

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Essential Tips To Secure Your Operating System

The further you protected your own operating system, the not as likely someone else can try to get access to information they don’t possess the rights to get.

A protected operating system is critical in the world today, whether you’re working with your private device or of a organization.

Baseline Security

You want to consider your working system as a bodily atmosphere. It is possible to interact with the surroundings everything that you wish to. It follows your safety has to be secure from its foundation.

Your safety score is a set of prerequisites which all inside your own body should comply with. When there’s absolutely no compliance, then the non-compliant element isn’t to be permitted inside your system. Should you would like to get a safe system, you then want to be sure you’ve got a security evaluation.

File Systems

Any file system that you simply decide you need to use, have to have the ability to support the safety protocols which you’ve setup or intend to prepare. You also need to take into consideration that the”right of privilege.”

This usually means you ought to be sure to permit the customers of your working system that the right to execute their tasks within the limits of your working system, and nothing else. This prevents the users from manipulating a variety of elements of your document systems they don’t have any business tampering with. You retain certain areas of your working system off-limits from customers.

Service Removal

Afford the opportunity to get rid of any services from the body you don’t intend to use. There’s not any need to store such things around if you won’t utilize them. For starters, this may free up space in your system.

In addition, this is just one less support your safety protocols need to monitor. If you maintain services round that you don’t mean to utilize, they can easily be utilized as a means to piggyback dangerous files in your system. Such elements have a tendency to readily develop into a vulnerability dilemma.

That having been said, please make confident that additional essential services don’t trust the service that’s going to be eliminated. This might easily render a essential support as useless. Bear in mind, each service which you let to run is an additional way that an assault can happen. So, only permit the complete required services to operate on your customers’ systems. Keep support amounts to the minimal possible. This keeps your odds of an assault to a minimum too.

So as to maintain your operating system protected, among the simplest ways which you can make sure this is to maintain the latest security updates and software upgrades available. Additionally, don’t hesitate to consult with your various system upgrades as stains, should you desire.

Updating Your System

You can not enable your system to operate from obsolete security upgrades. This leaves the machine quite vulnerable. In the company world, you truly have to make certain all system upgrades are examined before they are used on devices that are important. It’s a great idea for you to maintain a device near which is not directly connected to a system. This may become your evaluation apparatus.

Be sure you know different types of system upgrades or patches, too. This merely suggests that the upgrade will fix you particular issue with your system. From that point, you might have an upgrade that consists of over 1 hotfix. This is referred to as a service package. Ordinarily, a service package was examined out several times ahead to be certain it will not cause any unnecessary harm to your system.

Your Own Network

Your system is all the many elements of your system or your own business united. You have to make certain all the components inside your system are protected. You should make certain you utilize your safety baseline across every facet of your network and system. As you eliminate services, make confident they are eliminated from the whole network.

Remember you will need to look at each one your servers on the community too so as to keep security. You ought to always audit all traffic in your system so that you can determine any patterns you might decide to be strikes of any type. Control various kinds of accessibility across your system, and undoubtedly include net access to this. The net might be the simplest way an attack could occur. This permits you to safely examine those out firmware upgrades before releasing them in to your system.

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Be alert to the amount of account which you have in your system and your system. By restricting the amount of accounts you let, you also restrict the amount of individuals who have access to a system. This makes it possible to keep a watch on who should be obtaining your system. Should you by chance get a security violation, a restricted number of accounts need to be able to help you discover where the violation came out. You’ll find fewer people to maintain watch over.


Policies may contain things like passwords. Policy frameworks help guarantee the safety of your systems and your system.

Think about a coverage concerning password strength testers. You can not use a password unless it’s deemed worthy to be stored and used. Additionally, there are a number of companies that need their customers to upgrade their passwords every month.


Tracking various activities inside the machine can definitely assist with security steps. There has to be a running record maintained of each the different activities which take place in a system every day.

Such actions to be listed include anything with logins. As a consequence, that you ought to keep a log of logins which are powerful in addition to ineffective. If enough failed logins happen, then this may be a red flag which an attack has been attempted.

Make confident there is a timing mechanism connected with observation. In the event an attack happens, it’ll be quite valuable to have a working record of each the instances that things occur.

It’s a great idea that you’ve got a security system setup for the tracking system. You do not need users using the log files to your system.

Integrity Round Your System

Integrity is considered as a procedure by which other procedures happen. In simpler terms, as soon as you make a system or a set of principles, continue to use the exact same system installation or principles procedure. By making use of a system continuously and always, you’re way more inclined to possess precisely the very same outcomes. This ought to be a procedure which may be replicated so you have a system that’s like the rest.

You could also compare 1 system to another so you may find anything out of the normal that could result in an assault or an attempted assault. Please be certain you backup your information and other system data frequently so you don’t eliminate everything after something crashes.

Closing Words

There are lots of distinct ways which it is possible to secure your operating system. The majority of the precautions which you could take are very straightforward.

Even if there are facets to safety which come across as really complicated, you want to be positive it can be repeatable in order that all sections of your network and system are alike. This can help you realize any attack efforts.

Be sure you keep your system current. Also, make certain you check out each your potential updates on a system that is not connected to the primary system. This may keep your whole system from crashing.

Additionally, attempt to maintain a limit on the number of accounts which you enable on your system.

Fix Vmware Operating System Not Found Boot Error

VMware applications are some of the most popular for creating and managing virtual machines. However, it’s not uncommon to see users experience a variety of problems when operating them. For example, when booting a newly created virtual machine, it fails to load but then throws an error message that says the Operating system is not found.

VMware operating system not found

The VMware boot error is not exclusive to specific operating systems or installation media. You can get it when you attempt to install the operating system from a bad ISO file or when installing from physical storage without properly configuring VMware for it.

This error message pops up when working with different Windows editions. In this section, we’ll explore the various causes of the VMware boot error and look into the best ways to fix it, next.

Your virtual machine files are corrupted.

When creating the virtual machine, you didn’t instruct VMware to read from a physical storage media.

The ISO file from which you want to create the virtual machine is not a bootable one.

The PXE boot delay period is too brief.

How to fix this VMware boot error

Here, I’ll show you the general methods used to fix the VMware boot problem. If VMware is unable to find your operating system, you should go over the causes of the issue outlined in the above section.

From those, you can likely nail the exact cause and pick the troubleshooting technique that applies to your case.

Confirm that the ISO is bootable.

Re-make the virtual machine with BIOS.

If installing from a physical drive, let VMware know.

Increase the PXE boot delay period.

If you’re not sure how to carry out the above operations, then continue reading this guide. Below are detailed explanations for these solutions.

1] Confirm that the ISO is bootable

You need to mount an ISO file on your virtual machine, and this ISO has to be a bootable OS to work. However, not every ISO files are bootable. Some of them are actually operating system updates.

Therefore, before going into more complex troubleshooting techniques for the VMware boot error, first, confirm that the ISO is bootable. If the ISO is not bootable, then you have to get a bootable one. On the other hand, if you find that the ISO is bootable, you can then begin the repair.

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2] Re-create the virtual machine with different settings

If you’re using a bootable ISO, and VMWare cannot find your operating system, a second suspect it that the machine isn’t configured with UEFI. In the course of creating the VM, if you selected UEFI, you are likely to run into these boot errors. You need to go back, create a new virtual machine, and set it to BIOS and not UEFI. Here’s what to do:

Launch VMware and from the left-hand menu, go to Home. Select New Virtual Machine from the right section and hit Next.

Choose the installation source and then hit the Next button. If you use VM Fusion or VMware workstation, unmark the Easy Install checkbox.

Select your preferred type of virtual machine based on the hardware of the host operating system. Now, select Custom from the next page where you are asked to choose between Typical and Custom.

Name the new virtual machine and select the directory to save it.

At this point, you can run the new virtual machine to check that the boot error no longer shows up.

3] If installing from a physical drive, let VMware know

Many users who install operating systems from a bootable disk run into the Operating system not found boot error because they didn’t point out the drive from which to boot. To prevent this problem, VMware should be aware that you’re installing it from that specific drive.

Navigate to the Hardware tab and select CD/DVD (SATA) from the list of devices.

Change the Connection to Use physical drive.

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4] Increase the PXE boot delay period

The configuration of your virtual machine could cause VMware to attempt to PXE boot. This could be the root of the boot error you’re experiencing because you may not be able to get into the Windows Installer screen fast enough.

VMware allows you only a brief window to press any key to boot into Windows Installer. Therefore, a great way to tackle this issue is to increase the boot delay to 6 seconds or more.

First, shut down all open virtual machines and then close the VMware application.

Launch File Explorer and go to the following directory:

C:Users[your username}DocumentsVirtual Machines

Remember to replace the [your username] part in the path above to your actual user account name.

This guide will help you show file extensions in the folder if you do not see them.

In the open document, go to the bottom end of the text and then paste the code below:

bios.bootDelay = "6000"

Save the document now and close your text editor.

Let us know if this worked for you.

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Sonos S2 Operating System Upgrade, For Compatible Speakers Only

Sonos’ wireless speaker system is receiving the Sonos S2 operating system update this month. It will bring “new features, usability updates, and more personalization moving forward… to enable higher resolution audio technologies for music and home theater.” But, not all Sonos products will receive the benefit. More concerning, if you have a collection of mixed compatible speakers, you may need two apps to enjoy your hardware.

Sonos S2 upgrade

The Sonos S2 upgrade has been rumored for a while and its original intent to brick legacy devices caused controversy with customers. Sonos’ CEO made a corrective decision, to allow older devices continued operation, even after the new OS launched.

Forthcoming Sonos S2 operating system upgrade promises new abilities and higher resolution audio experiences, but it will not cover the full line of existing and previous hardware device.

Most Sonos products will enjoy compatibility with the new Sonos S2 OS and the subsequent control app. Older devices will lack compatibility because onboard memory and processing abilities are lacking. Older devices will continue to operate as normal, just lacking newer feature abilities.

Here is the breakdown:

Sonos S2 FAQs

Per the Sonos support page, there are several important considerations that Sonos owners need to make about their experience, especially if they utilize a mixed system of current-soon-to-be-previous generation “S1” hardware and upcoming “S2” compatible hardware. A condensed list of these items is below.

Do I have to update to Sonos S2?

No. If your setup includes incompatible hardware and would like to keep your system operating as-is, do not upgrade the OS. The current Sonos app will be renamed “Sonos S1 Controller” and continue operating your existing products, music services, and voice services. When the app prompts for an update, confirm your preference to continue with “your current experience.” If all products are S2 compatible, Sonos recommends running the update to enjoy new features.

What if some of my hardware is S2 compatible, but others are not?

You can continue using the Sonos S1 Controller app to control your speakers. You may also want to consider creating two separate systems: 1) with hardware that is Sonos S2 compatible; 1) with products that are not. If you choose this method, there is an even more complicated Sonos support article, which outlines the ways to operate both systems, requiring two individual apps.

If I choose to continue with the Sonos S1 Controller app, what is my future experience?

Your system will continue with all current functionalities. Bug fixes and security patches will be offered, if necessary. No new software functionality will be added to your system. Sonos does issue a warning, however, that they “will work with our partners to keep your music and voice services working with our older products for as long as we can.”

Are new products incompatible with the Sonos S1 Controller app?

Any products released after May 2023, will not be compatible with S1, including the brand new Arc soundbar.

How do I upgrade to Sonos S2 compatible products?

Sonos is offering a Trade Up program with the ability to save 30% on any new, compatible product. Access the Sonos Trade Up program to determine which of your products are eligible and initiate a trade-in.

When/How does the new Sonos S2 app launch?

There will be a push notification from the existing controller app when the newer version is available. It will launch in the month of June 2023, but an exact date is not published at this time.

Contigious And Non Contigious Memory Allocation In Operating System


In operating systems, memory allocation refers to the process of assigning memory to different processes or programs running on a computer system. There are two types of memory allocation techniques that operating systems use: contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation. In contiguous memory allocation, memory is assigned to a process in a contiguous block. In non-contiguous memory allocation, memory is assigned to a process in non-adjacent blocks.

Contiguous Memory Allocation

Contiguous memory allocation is a technique where the operating system allocates a contiguous block of memory to a process. This memory is allocated in a single, continuous chunk, making it easy for the operating system to manage and for the process to access the memory. Contiguous memory allocation is suitable for systems with limited memory sizes and where fast access to memory is important.

Contiguous memory allocation can be done in two ways

Fixed Partitioning − In fixed partitioning, the memory is divided into fixed-size partitions, and each partition is assigned to a process. This technique is easy to implement but can result in wasted memory if a process does not fit perfectly into a partition.

Dynamic Partitioning − In dynamic partitioning, the memory is divided into variablesize partitions, and each partition is assigned to a process. This technique is more efficient as it allows the allocation of only the required memory to the process, but it requires more overhead to keep track of the available memory.

Advantages of Contiguous Memory Allocation

Simplicity − Contiguous memory allocation is a relatively simple and straightforward technique for memory management. It requires less overhead and is easy to implement.

Efficiency − Contiguous memory allocation is an efficient technique for memory management. Once a process is allocated contiguous memory, it can access the entire memory block without any interruption.

Low fragmentation − Since the memory is allocated in contiguous blocks, there is a lower risk of memory fragmentation. This can result in better memory utilization, as there is less memory wastage.

Limited flexibility − Contiguous memory allocation is not very flexible as it requires memory to be allocated in a contiguous block. This can limit the amount of memory that can be allocated to a process.

Memory wastage − If a process requires a memory size that is smaller than the contiguous block allocated to it, there may be unused memory, resulting in memory wastage.

Difficulty in managing larger memory sizes − As the size of memory increases, managing contiguous memory allocation becomes more difficult. This is because finding a contiguous block of memory that is large enough to allocate to a process becomes challenging.

External Fragmentation − Over time, external fragmentation may occur as a result of memory allocation and deallocation, which may result in non − contiguous blocks of free memory scattered throughout the system.

Overall, contiguous memory allocation is a useful technique for memory management in certain circumstances, but it may not be the best solution in all situations, particularly when working with larger amounts of memory or if flexibility is a priority.

Non-contiguous Memory Allocation

Non-contiguous memory allocation, on the other hand, is a technique where the operating system allocates memory to a process in non-contiguous blocks. The blocks of memory allocated to the process need not be contiguous, and the operating system keeps track of the various blocks allocated to the process. Non-contiguous memory allocation is suitable for larger memory sizes and where efficient use of memory is important.

Non-contiguous memory allocation can be done in two ways

Paging − In paging, the memory is divided into fixed-size pages, and each page is assigned to a process. This technique is more efficient as it allows the allocation of only the required memory to the process.

Segmentation − In segmentation, the memory is divided into variable-sized segments, and each segment is assigned to a process. This technique is more flexible than paging but requires more overhead to keep track of the allocated segments.

Advantages of Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation

Increased Memory Utilization − Non-contiguous memory allocation allows for more efficient use of memory, as small gaps in memory can be filled with processes that need less memory.

Flexibility − This technique allows for more flexibility in allocating and deallocating memory, as processes can be allocated memory that is not necessarily contiguous.

Memory Sharing − Non-contiguous memory allocation makes it easier to share memory between multiple processes, as memory can be allocated in non-contiguous blocks that can be shared between multiple processes.

Increased Overhead − This technique requires more overhead than contiguous memory allocation, as the operating system needs to maintain data structures to track memory allocation.

Slower Access − Access to memory can be slower than contiguous memory allocation, as memory can be allocated in non-contiguous blocks that may require additional steps to access.

Difference between contigious and non contigious memory allocation in operating system


Contiguous Memory Allocation

Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation


Allocates memory in a contiguous block to a process

Allocates memory to a process in non-contiguous blocks

Block Size

Memory allocated in a single, continuous chunk

Memory allocated in noncontiguous blocks of varying sizes


Easy to manage by the operating system

Requires additional overhead and can be more complicated to manage

Memory Usage

May result in memory wastage and external fragmentation

Efficient use of memory and reduces fragmentation within memory blocks

Suitable For

Systems with limited amounts of memory and fast access to memory is important

Larger memory sizes and systems that require more efficient use of memory


Simple and efficient technique for memory management

More flexible and efficient technique for larger memory sizes and systems that require more efficient use of memory

Can be inflexible and result in memory wastage and fragmentation

Requires additional overhead and can be more complicated to manage


In conclusion, memory allocation is an important aspect of operating systems, and contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation are two techniques used to manage memory. Contiguous memory allocation is a simple and efficient technique for allocating memory to processes, but it can result in memory wastage and fragmentation. It is suitable for systems with limited amounts of memory and where fast access to memory is important. Non-contiguous memory allocation, on the other hand, is a more flexible and efficient technique for larger memory sizes and systems that require more efficient use of memory. However, it requires additional overhead and can be more complicated to manage, particularly in the presence of fragmentation within memory blocks. The choice between these two techniques depends on the specific requirements of the system in question, and effective memory management is essential for optimal system performance.

Types Of Error In Php

Introduction to Error in PHP

The event of the occurrence of deviation of the result from the accurate result is termed as an Error. In PHP, error can be generated because of the usage of an incorrect format of coding or implementation of non-feasible functionality. Based on the root cause and level of severity, errors in PHP are categorized in 4 types, such as:

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Syntax error (Parse error)

Warning Error

Notice error

Fatal error

Types of Errors in PHP

Lets discuss the Types of Error in PHP.

1. Syntax Error (Parse Error)

In PHP, the scripting needs to follow standard grammar to develop an executable code. When the written code syntax gets deviated from the standard, syntax error takes place. It is also called as parse error. This error gets checked in the compilation stage itself and execution of the code gets stopped. It does not allow the execution unless the error is not fixed and compilation is completed without any syntax flaw. The error constant that is used to represent compile time parse (syntax) error: E_PARSE


The below code snippet is developed to assign values to PHP variables and display the stores values on the output window.

<?php $Correct_Var = "Writing a code to demonstrate Syntax(Parse Error)"; Incorrect_Var = "The '$' symbol is missing for variable y!!!"; echo $Correct_Var; echo Incorrect_Var;


PHP compiler understand existence of any variable when a string is associated with $ symbol. In the above code, definition of variable Incorrect_Var does not satisfy the grammar, hence the compiler throws syntax error for the code and execution is interrupted.

2. Warning Error

This error arises when the PHP script is trying to process any invalid information such as trying to perform a file operation on a file which does not exist or try to call a function with number of input values i.e. different from number of arguments present in the calling function definition. These are serious errors but does not stop the execution of the program and ends in exhibiting unexpected result. The error constant that is used to represent run time warning without terminating script execution: E_WARNING


The below code snippet is written to call another script file within the current programming.

<?php echo "Beginning of program execution"; $Correct_Var = "Writing a code to demonstrate Warning Error"; echo $Correct_Var; include ("MissingScript.php"); echo "Ending of program execution";


According to the programming, compiler successfully compiled to code and starts execution. The execution continues sequentially. For the command include (“MissingScript.php”), it is looking for the script in the default path …/usr/share/php and does not found any script with the given name. Thus it ends in resulting the warning message for that specific command and execution the rest of the code as designed.

3. Notice Error


<?php echo "Beginning of program execution"; $Correct_Var = "Writing a code to demonstrate Notice Error"; echo $InCorrect_Var; echo "Ending of program execution";


The compiler does not recognize the variable $InCorrect_Var as it is not defined in the code. Hence it throws the Notice error.

4. Fatal Error

A compile time error that is encountered due to any invalid command such as missing of function definition for a calling function, is coined as fatal error. Severity level of this type of error is critical and hence it does not let the execution to be proceed and throw fatal error message as output. The error constant that is used to represent the fatal error which triggers script termination: E_ERROR


The below code snippet is designed to call demonstrate application of function in PHP scripting.

<?php echo "Beginning of program execution"; $Correct_Var = "Writing a code to demonstrate Fatal Error"; echo $Correct_Var; UndefinedFunction();//Calling a function which is not defined in the script echo "Ending of program execution";


Additional Note

1. Error handling is easy in PHP. If any developer does not have access to the complete code for any application, it is recommended to use error handling functions in possible scenarios.

2. In order to avoid new error in the PHP programming, developer is expected to follow proper coding guidelines and stays alert towards probabilities of various types of errors, warnings and notices.

3. It is recommended not to allow any error or warning or notice to be displayed to the user. Hence the best practice for any safe PHP programming to ensure the required configuration to be available in chúng tôi file.

The desired value for the below variables are:

error_reporting as ' E_ALL' display_errors as 'Off' log_errors as 'On'

The below code can be included in any PHP script to configure the desired values in the chúng tôi file:

error_reporting(E_ALL); ini_set('display_errors','0'); ini_set('log_errors','1');

This function needs to be designed with some specific guidelines as follows:

Function should be capable of handling minimum of two input parameters: error message and error level and maximum of 5 input parameters by including the optional parameters such as line number, file and error context.

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