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Introduction

In world of computing, data compression has become a crucial tool in many applications. It is used to reduce size of files, improve transfer speed, and save storage space. Linux operating systems come with a wide range of compression tools, including popular gzip and bzip2. However, there is another compression tool that is becoming increasingly popular in Linux world, and that is xz compression. In this article, we will explore what xz compression is, how it works, and how to use it effectively in Linux.

What is xz Compression?

xz compression is a high-ratio data compression tool that is used to compress files in Linux environment. It was developed by Lasse Collin and is based on LZMA (Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain-Algorithm) compression algorithm. xz compression algorithm has a very high compression ratio, meaning that it can compress files to a much smaller size than other compression tools like gzip and bzip2.

How Does xz Compression Work?

The xz compression algorithm works by breaking input data into small blocks, and then compressing each block independently using LZMA algorithm. compressed blocks are then combined and stored in output file. LZMA algorithm uses a combination of dictionary-based and statistical compression techniques to achieve high compression ratios.

The xz compression tool uses .xz file extension for compressed files. xz format is a container format that supports multiple compression algorithms, including LZMA, BCJ (Branch Target Injection), and Delta.

Using xz Compression in Linux

To use xz compression in Linux, you need to install xz utilities package. Most Linux distributions come with xz package pre-installed. If it’s not installed on your system, you can install it using your package manager. Once installed, you can use xz command-line tool to compress and decompress files.

To compress a file using xz, you can use following command −

xz filename

For example, to compress a file named “example.txt” using xz, you can use following command −

xz example.txt

This will compress file and create a new file named “example.txt.xz”. original file will be deleted.

To decompress an xz compressed file, you can use following command −

unxz filename.xz

For example, to decompress a file named “example.txt.xz”, you can use following command −

unxz example.txt.xz

This will decompress file and create a new file named “example.txt”. original compressed file will be deleted.

Using xz Compression with Tar

The xz compression tool can also be used in conjunction with tar utility to create compressed tar archives. Tar is a file archiving utility that is used to combine multiple files into a single archive file. To create a compressed tar archive using xz, you can use following command −

tar -Jcvf chúng tôi files...

For example, to create a compressed tar archive of all files in current directory, you can use following command −

tar -Jcvf chúng tôi *

This will create a compressed tar archive named “archive.tar.xz” containing all files in current directory.

To extract files from a compressed tar archive, you can use following command −

tar -Jxvf archive.tar.xz

This will extract all files from compressed tar archive.

Using xz Compression with Pipe

For example, to compress output of “ls” command and save it to a compressed file named “ls_output.xz”, you can use following command −

This will compress output of “ls” command and save it to a compressed file named “ls_output.xz”.

To decompress data on fly using xz, you can use following command −

xz -d < compressed_file.xz

For example, to decompress a compressed file named “example.txt.xz” and display output on terminal, you can use following command −

xz -d < example.txt.xz

This will decompress file and display output on terminal.

Advanced Usage of xz Compression Compression Level

The xz compression tool supports different compression levels ranging from -0 (fastest) to -9 (slowest but highest compression ratio). By default, xz uses -6 compression level, which provides a good balance between compression speed and ratio. To specify a different compression level, you can use -z option followed by compression level. For example, to use highest compression level (-9), you can use following command −

xz -9 filename

This will compress file using highest compression level, resulting in a smaller compressed file but at expense of longer compression time.

Memory Usage

The xz compression tool can use a lot of memory during compression process. By default, xz uses maximum amount of available memory to achieve best compression ratio. However, if you have limited memory or if you want to reduce memory usage, you can specify maximum amount of memory to use using –memory option. For example, to limit memory usage to 512 MB, you can use following command −

xz --memory=512M filename Multi-threading xz -T4 filename Integrity Check

The xz compression tool can also perform an integrity check after compression to ensure that compressed file is not corrupted. By default, xz performs an integrity check using CRC32 algorithm. To disable integrity check, you can use -S option followed by none. For example, to disable integrity check, you can use following command −

xz -S none filename

This will compress file without performing an integrity check.

Conclusion

In conclusion, xz compression is a powerful compression tool that can help save storage space, reduce transfer times, and improve performance. It offers a very high compression ratio, making it a popular choice for Linux users. xz compression tool is easy to use and can be used in conjunction with other Linux utilities like tar and pipe to create compressed archives and compress or decompress data on fly. If you’re looking for an efficient and effective compression tool for your Linux system, give xz compression a try.

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Auto Logout In Linux Shell Using Tmout Shell Variable

Introduction

When using a Linux shell, it’s essential to ensure that user is logged out when they are not actively using system to ensure security and efficiency. This can be achieved by setting an automatic logout timer using TMOUT shell variable. In this article, we will explore how to set up auto logout in Linux shell using TMOUT shell variable, its benefits, and how to modify settings.

What is TMOUT Shell Variable?

TMOUT is an environment variable in Linux shell that defines number of seconds a shell session can be idle before it is automatically logged out. When this variable is set, shell will terminate session if there is no input activity for set time. This feature ensures that system is secure and that users do not waste system resources by staying logged in when they are not using system.

How to Set up Auto Logout in Linux Shell Using TMOUT Shell Variable −

Setting up TMOUT shell variable is a simple process that requires modifying user’s shell configuration file. In most Linux distributions, this file is either ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile. To set up auto logout in Linux shell using TMOUT shell variable, follow these steps −

Open your shell configuration file using a text editor −

$ nano ~/.bashrc

Add following line to file to set TMOUT variable to desired value (in seconds) −

TMOUT=600

In this example, TMOUT variable is set to 600 seconds, which means that shell session will be automatically terminated after 10 minutes of inactivity.

Save changes to file and exit text editor.

To apply changes, source shell configuration file −

$ source ~/.bashrc

After completing these steps, TMOUT shell variable will be active, and shell will automatically log out user after specified period of inactivity.

Benefits of Auto Logout Using TMOUT Shell Variable

There are several benefits of using TMOUT shell variable to set up an automatic logout timer in Linux shell −

Enhanced Security

An idle shell session is a security risk as it can be hijacked by malicious users. By setting up TMOUT variable, you can ensure that your system remains secure by automatically logging out idle users.

Resource Optimization

When users remain logged in without actively using system, system resources are wasted. auto logout feature ensures that resources are optimized by freeing up system resources when users are not using system.

Increased Productivity

When users are automatically logged out after a period of inactivity, they are forced to re-enter their credentials to log back in. This process serves as a reminder that they are taking up system resources and encourages them to use system efficiently, leading to increased productivity.

Modifying TMOUT Shell Variable Settings

Once TMOUT shell variable is set up, it’s possible to modify its settings to meet your specific needs. To modify settings, follow these steps −

Open your shell configuration file using a text editor −

$ nano ~/.bashrc

Modify value of TMOUT variable to desired value (in seconds).

TMOUT=1200

In this example, TMOUT variable is set to 1200 seconds, which means that shell session will be automatically terminated after 20 minutes of inactivity.

Save changes to file and exit text editor.

To apply changes, source shell configuration file −

$ source ~/.bashrc

After completing these steps, new TMOUT value will be active, and shell will automatically log out user after new specified period of inactivity.

It’s important to note that modifying TMOUT shell variable settings will affect all users who use same shell configuration file. Therefore, it’s essential to communicate any changes to all users to avoid confusion and frustration.

Disabling TMOUT Shell Variable

If you no longer need TMOUT shell variable, you can disable it by removing it from your shell configuration file. To do this, follow these steps −

Open your shell configuration file using a text editor −

$ nano ~/.bashrc

Find line that sets TMOUT variable and remove it.

Save changes to file and exit text editor.

To apply changes, source shell configuration file −

$ source ~/.bashrc

After completing these steps, TMOUT shell variable will be disabled, and shell will no longer automatically log out users after a period of inactivity.

Another important consideration when using TMOUT shell variable is that it can potentially cause data loss or disruption for users who are working on a task that takes longer than set time limit. For example, if a user is in middle of editing a large file and session times out, they may lose unsaved changes.

To mitigate this risk, it’s a good idea to provide users with a way to disable or adjust TMOUT variable on a per-session basis. One way to do this is to provide a command that users can run to temporarily disable variable or set a longer time limit for their current session. For example, you could create an alias for command export TMOUT=0 that sets variable to zero and disables automatic logout.

It’s also important to communicate clearly with your users about automatic logout policy and reasons for implementing it. Make sure that users are aware of time limit and any potential risks associated with policy, and provide them with guidance on how to work within limits of policy.

In addition, you may want to consider logging user sessions to help track and monitor user activity. This can help you identify potential security issues or violations of your security policies, and provide you with a record of user activity that can be useful for auditing and analysis.

Overall, TMOUT shell variable is a valuable tool for enforcing automatic logout policies in Linux environments. However, it’s important to use variable judiciously and in combination with other security measures to ensure overall security and integrity of your system. By doing so, you can help protect your system from unauthorized access and mitigate risk of data loss or disruption for your users.

Conclusion

In conclusion, TMOUT shell variable is an essential feature that can enhance security, efficiency, and productivity of a Linux shell. By automatically logging out idle users, system remains secure, system resources are optimized, and productivity is increased. Setting up TMOUT shell variable is a simple process that requires modifying user’s shell configuration file. It’s also possible to modify settings and disable feature altogether. It’s crucial to communicate any changes made to TMOUT shell variable settings to all users to avoid confusion and frustration.

An Introduction To Using Zenmap On Linux

Zenmap is a cross-platform application which is available for Linux, Windows and OS X. Other than any Linux specific information, like the installation process, this tutorial applies equally to all of the supported platforms. Talking of the installation process, you can install it on Ubuntu using the Ubuntu Software Center (just search for “zenmap”) or from the command line using:

sudo

apt-get install

zenmap

The above command also works on the Raspberry Pi and probably most other Debian or Ubuntu derived distributions. For other distros that use yum, like Fedora, then use:

su

-c

"yum install nmap-frontend"

Although Zenmap can be launched via the desktop, it is however best to start it via the command line with root privileges, otherwise Zenmap can’t use some of nmap's functionality.

To start it on Ubuntu run:

sudo

zenmap

There are two main ways to start nmap scan using Zenmap, either by entering a target address and selecting a scan type from the “Profile” drop-down list or by entering the command directly in the “Command” field. If you are familiar with nmap or you want to try out some of the commands from the previous articles, you can use the “Command” field directly.

The power of Zenmap is that it stores and sorts all the information from any scans performed and allows you to build up a picture of your network. The easiest thing to do is a Ping scan to see what devices are alive on your network. In the “Target” field enter 192.168.1.1/24 and select “Ping scan” from the Profile list. If you are using a different network range from 192.168.1.x then I will assume from here on that you know how to enter the correct range. For more details, please see the previous parts of this series.

Down the left side of the window, you will see a list of the devices (hosts) found on your network and on the right, the output from the nmap command. Above the output pane is a set of tabs: “Nmap Output”, “Ports/Hosts”, “Topology”, “Host Details” and “Scans”. Each one of these tabs shows more information about your network and the information presented is accumulative. This means the more scans you do, the more information is available.

Run an Intense scan against 192.168.1.1/24 to discover all the open ports and operating system on each host. After the scan, the OS icons will change in the hosts list on the left and the Ports/Hosts tab plus the “Host Details” tab will offer more information about each host.

Each circle on the diagram represents a host found on the network. If a host has less than three open ports, it will be green; more than three but less than six open ports, yellow; and more than six open ports, red. Hosts with filtered ports will have a yellow padlock symbol next to them.

Conclusion

As a further exercise try using some of the scans listed in the first two parts of this series by entering them directly into the “Command” field. Also if you want to permanently add these to the “Profile” drop-down list then use the built-in profile editor (under the Profile menu). The profile editor is also a good way to experiment with other scan parameters since the editor itself presents many of the nmap options as part of its user interface.

Gary Sims

Gary has been a technical writer, author and blogger since 2003. He is an expert in open source systems (including Linux), system administration, system security and networking protocols. He also knows several programming languages, as he was previously a software engineer for 10 years. He has a Bachelor of Science in business information systems from a UK University.

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Locale Environment Variables In Linux

Locale Environment Variables in Linux

Locale environment variables in Linux play a crucial role in enabling users to communicate effectively with operating system. locale environment variables are responsible for setting language, encoding, and cultural conventions in a system. In this article, we will explore different aspects of locale environment variables in Linux.

What is a Locale?

A locale is a set of parameters that define user’s language, country, currency, and other cultural conventions. locale defines format of dates, time, and numbers, and character sets. For example, US locale uses dollar as currency symbol, while UK locale uses pound. Similarly, US locale uses mm/dd/yyyy format for dates, while UK locale uses dd/mm/yyyy format.

A locale is identified by a name that comprises a language code, country code, and encoding. For example, US locale is identified by name en_US.UTF-8, where en stands for English, US stands for United States, and UTF-8 stands for Unicode Transformation Format.

Setting Locale in Linux

The locale environment variables can be set at different levels in Linux. highest level is system level, which applies to all users in system. system-level locale is defined in chúng tôi file. file contains a single line that sets value of LANG variable, which is default locale for system. For example, to set US locale as default system locale, chúng tôi file should contain following line −

LANG=en_US.UTF-8

The LANG variable sets language, country, and encoding for system. In addition to LANG variable, chúng tôi file can also contain other variables that specify different aspects of locale, such as LC_TIME, LC_NUMERIC, LC_CURRENCY, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, and LC_MESSAGES.

The second level is user level, which applies to individual users in system. Each user has a home directory that contains a .bashrc file, which is a shell script that is executed when user logs in. .bashrc file can contain commands that set user’s locale. For example, to set US locale for a user, .bashrc file should contain following line −

export LANG=en_US.UTF-8

The export command makes LANG variable available to all child processes of shell. In addition to LANG variable, .bashrc file can also contain other variables that specify different aspects of locale, such as LC_TIME, LC_NUMERIC, LC_CURRENCY, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, and LC_MESSAGES.

The third level is application level, which applies to individual applications in system. Each application can set its own locale environment variables. For example, Firefox web browser can set LANG variable to user’s preferred locale. locale environment variables set by an application take precedence over user and system-level variables.

Managing Locale Environment Variables

The locale environment variables can be managed using locale command in Linux. locale command can be used to view current locale settings, as well as to set locale for current session or permanently.

To view current locale settings, run following command −

$ locale

The output will display values of different locale environment variables, such as LANG, LC_TIME, LC_NUMERIC, LC_CURRENCY, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, and LC_MESSAGES.

To set locale for current session, run following command −

$ export LANG=en_US.UTF-8

This command sets LANG variable to US locale for current session. new locale settings will be effective only for current session and will be lost when session is closed.

To permanently set locale, chúng tôi file can be edited to set value of LANG variable. This change will apply to all users in system.

For example, to set US locale as default system locale, chúng tôi file should contain following line −

LANG=en_US.UTF-8

In addition to LANG variable, other variables can also be set in file to specify different aspects of locale.

Examples of Using Locale Environment Variables

Let’s explore some examples of how locale environment variables can be used in Linux.

Example 1: Setting Date and Time Format

The LC_TIME variable is used to set date and time format in system. variable can be set to a value that corresponds to a locale that defines desired format.

For example, to set date and time format to US format, run following command −

$ export LC_TIME=en_US.UTF-8

This command sets LC_TIME variable to US locale, which uses mm/dd/yyyy format for dates and 12-hour clock format for time.

Example 2: Setting Currency Symbol

The LC_MONETARY variable is used to set currency symbol in system. variable can be set to a value that corresponds to a locale that defines desired currency symbol.

For example, to set currency symbol to euro symbol, run following command −

$ export LC_MONETARY=en_US.UTF-8

This command sets LC_MONETARY variable to US locale, which uses dollar symbol as currency symbol. However, if a program uses LC_MONETARY variable, it will display euro symbol instead of dollar symbol.

Example 3: Sorting and Collation

The LC_COLLATE variable is used to set sorting and collation rules in system. variable can be set to a value that corresponds to a locale that defines desired sorting and collation rules.

For example, to set sorting and collation rules to Spanish locale, run following command −

$ export LC_COLLATE=es_ES.UTF-8

This command sets LC_COLLATE variable to Spanish locale, which uses traditional Spanish alphabet for sorting and collation.

Conclusion

Locale environment variables play a critical role in enabling effective communication between users and operating system. variables define language, encoding, and cultural conventions that are used in system. Linux provides several levels at which locale environment variables can be set, allowing users to customize their locale settings to suit their preferences. By understanding how to manage locale environment variables, users can ensure that their systems are set up to meet their specific needs.

Image Compression Techniques That Will Help You Rank

Web image compression may have a dramatic effect on search engine results. In April 2010, Google announced that site speed would be a major ranking factor going forward. Consequently, reducing picture size has become the de facto standard for increasing load times. But, compared to importance and credibility, speed is still a minor factor.

Images used on websites should always be compressed before being uploaded. Because of this, you’ll lose weight just by yourself. Enough to keep the website’s credibility and usefulness intact. The two have remained separate thanks to lossy and lossless picture compression methods.

How do you Define Image Compression?

When talking about data compression methods, picture compression is the most common and widely used method for digital images. This method is used to lessen the burden of picture transmission and storage.

Image compression, as opposed to more general data compression approaches, yields aesthetically attractive and statistically sound pictures. Using this method, a picture may be shrunk down to a manageable size without suffering any discernible loss in quality.

As image sizes are decreased, more pictures may be kept in the same amount of space. As a bonus, uploading and downloading pictures from the web takes far less time than a few years ago. Thus, you may get better pictures that take up less space, load more quickly, and boost your page rank.

Why Is It Necessary to Compress Images?

For websites, particularly mobile ones, photos must be lightweight or minimal in size. Having a quick download time is a top priority for mobile websites. Image compression is a practical method for this. Since compressed photos take up far less space, your website will load much more quickly.

Visuals are just as crucial as words when it comes to information. To put it simply, they are not an ornament. So, they need the same degree of caution as text.

Using relevant images helps to break up the text, making the page simpler to skim. This addition improves the entire user experience. Image compression may improve the user experience and boost your search engine optimization efforts.

Hence, instead of photos to make easy-to-read web pages, you should use images to increase your SEO ranking and provide a rich user experience. The only way to do this is to compress your photographs like you would compress text.

Methods of Picture Compression that Improve Search Engine Results

When compressing an image, how exactly does it happen? When compressing images, you may choose between two distinct methods: lossy and lossless.

Please take a moment to look at the two of them together.

Lossless Compression

To shrink an image’s file size while keeping its original quality is the goal of lossless compression. It’s analogous to a digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) that lets you choose between multiple image files formats like JPEG and RAW.

JPEG files take up less space and won’t quickly fill up your hard disc, but you may lose some information in the converting process. If you are a professional user, you will benefit greatly from working with uncompressed RAW files.

Lossy Compression

When compressing images, the lossy compression method is another option since it eliminates data without changing the quality of the picture.

In order to become used to the lossy compression method, it might be helpful to practice by limiting the image’s color palette to the most often used hues and saturations. It’s a common approach for GIF images and is sometimes used for PNGs to reduce file sizes significantly.

With proper training and dithering, one may get results that are almost indistinguishable from the originals. Let’s compare lossless and lossy image compression algorithms so that you can have a better grasp on both types of compression.

Both lossless and lossy image compression methods are available.

Although many options exist for compressing images, lossy and lossless compression is the most popular. You may determine which will most likely meet your needs by comparing the two methods.

Lossless Compression

By “image compression,” we mean lowering a picture’s file size while maintaining or improving image quality. This is often done by stripping extraneous information from images like JPEGs and PNGs.

Common lossless picture formats include BMP, GIF, PNG, and RAW. Remember that JPEG is a lossy format; thus, selecting the highest quality setting may lead to some picture artifacts or loss of clarity. This issue may arise even when using Photoshop’s “save for web” option.

Lossless compression is preferred because it allows for the preservation of picture quality while yet reducing file size. Thus, lossless compression is ideal if you care about maintaining picture quality.

Lossy Compression

The term “image compression” is used to describe a method of reducing the size of a picture by eliminating details that weren’t originally there. A change in this direction cannot be undone. As a result, after you’ve converted the picture to lossy, you can no longer change the original file. More compression results in lower-quality images. Lossy picture formats include GIFs and JPEGs.

Conclusion

The website’s load time is crucial to improve the user experience and the site’s overall rating. It’s smart to put a lot of money into the content sector, but don’t forget about the photos; they also have a significant impact on your website’s SEO.

Now that you understand the value of image compression and the many methods at your disposal, you can work to improve your search engine rankings by compressing every picture on your website.

Partition In The Terminal On Linux

Partition editing or making new file systems on Linux usually means one thing: installing the Gnome Parted partition editor (GParted). For most Linux users, this is the only way to go about it. Still, what if you could edit these partitions and file systems right in the terminal? You can! Here’s how!

Creating a basic Linux partition layout with CFdisk

Here’s how to make a basic Linux partition scheme right from the command line. The first thing to do is open your terminal. Once you’re there, you’ll need to identify what hard drive you’re looking to change. This can easily be figured out with one simple command.

Once you’ve run lsblk, you should get a detailed list of each hard drive currently on your system. Look through this generated list, and figure out the denotation to the drive you want to change. In this article I’ll be using sdb for the sake of example.

In your terminal enter this command. It will launch a powerful terminal-based partition editing program.

Note: replace sdb with whatever lsblk told you your hard drive was.

When this command is entered, you’ll be inside the partition editor and will have total access to the hard drive you wish to modify.

Since hard drive partitions are different, depending on a user’s needs, this part of the guide will go over how to set up a split Linux home/root system layout.

To start, a root partition will need to be created. This will require a bit of math as the gigabytes on the hard drive need to be divided up. My test drive is 32 GB.

In CFdisk using the arrow keys on your keyboard, select some free space. Once you’ve found some, use the arrow key to select [ NEW ] and press the Enter key.

The program will ask you to input the partition size. Once you’ve specified the size, press the Enter key. This will be known as the root partition (or /dev/sdb1).

Next it’s time to create the home partition (/dev/sdb2). Once again, you’ll need to select some free space in CFdisk. Use the arrow key to select the [ NEW ] option, and press the Enter key. Input the size of your home partition, and press the Enter key to create it.

Finally, the swap partition needs to be created. Like the two times before, find some free space, and use the arrow key to select the [ NEW ] option. After that calculate exactly how big your Linux swap partition needs to be.

Note: a swap partition is usually about as big as a computer’s physical RAM.

Now that the swap partition has been created, it’s time to specify its type. Highlight it with the up and down arrow keys. After that use the left and right arrow keys to select [ TYPE ]. Find Linux swap in the menu, and press Enter.

All of the partition creation is out of the way. All that’s left is to write it to the disk. Using the right arrow key, select the [ WRITE ] option, and press the Enter key. This will write your newly created layout directly to the hard drive.

Creating file systems with mkfs

Sometimes you don’t need to make an entire partition layout. Sometimes you just need to make a file system. This can easily be accomplished directly in the terminal with the mkfs command.

To start, figure out what you’re looking to modify. Enter lsblk in your terminal to find out. It’ll print out a list, and after that just find the partition or drive you want to make a file system on.

In this example, I’ll point it towards the first partition of the secondary drive /dev/sdb1. It’s also possible to just point mkfs to /dev/sdb (to make use of the entire drive).

To create the new file system on a specific partition, just enter

sudo

chúng tôi

/

dev

/

sdb1

into the terminal. It should be noted that mkfs.ext4 can be changed to whatever file system you want to use.

Conclusion

Though editing file systems and partitions is easier using a graphical tool, the terminal is arguably more efficient. It’s much more faster to just load up a terminal, tap a few buttons and be done. With GParted and tools like it, it’s a whole ordeal. I hope that with the help of this tutorial you, too, understand how efficient editing file systems in the terminal can be.

Do you prefer to use terminal-based programs to edit partitions on Linux? Why or why not? Tell us below!

Derrik Diener

Derrik Diener is a freelance technology blogger.

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