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Imagine if you have been tasked to sort a list of people based on some criteria or priority; how would you go about it? Doing so manually without a proper approach can take you a lot of time and might not even result in accurate sorting. Now take that list of people to be a massive dataset of numbers and values. Instinctively, you will not manually do the dirty work but seek a visual data structure where you can study the criteria/priority relationship between data points. Binary heaps, which are tree-like data structures, are the most appropriate data structures to accomplish this. Wondering what it would look like? Read to know more about this interesting data structure, including what is a binary heap and how it represents relationships between a node and its (at most) two children.

What is a Binary Heap?

A binary heap is a data structure used to store and visualize data as a binary tree. The word “binary” here implies that each node (other than the root/starting node) of this tree has at most two children. Secondly, the key (or value) associated with each node ‘x’ should be greater than or equal to the keys (or values) of the children.

Here’s an example to help you understand better. Imagine a hospital’s emergency room and a queue of patients. The priority queue can be represented as a binary heap in the following manner.

Patient with the most urgent health requirement (highest priority) is placed at the front (root of the tree).

Other patients (nodes) are arranged in a way that a patient’s (node’s) condition is more critical or at least equivalent to that of the succeeding patients (children of the node).

How is Binary Heap Represented?

Binary heaps are represented using arrays. Arrays are containers that store elements in a specific, pre-determined order that satisfies the property. For instance, an ascending array will store values in an ascending (increasing) order.

As heap elements are stored in an array, you’ll need an index. The root or the starting value is stored at the 1st position. For any other element ‘i’ in the array, 

The left child is at 2*i th position.

The position of the parent node of i th element is at ⌊1/2⌋.

The right child is at 2*i +1 th position.

Source: Andrew CMU Ed

Here, let’s say that you want to compute the position of G. As per the array, G is at the 5th position. To know its child’s position, use 2*i. That’ll give you J as the 10th element. 

Binary Heap Properties

A binary heap in data structure has certain properties.

Shape Property (or Complete Binary Tree Property)

Binary heaps should be “complete” to satisfy the shape property. Being complete implies that all levels (nodes) of the tree are filled, leaving the last one aside, which is filled from left to right.

Heap Order Property (Binary Min Heap and Binary Max Heap)

The heap order property states that binary heaps could be of two primary types: max and min. It ensures that the highest (or lowest) priority element is always at the root of the heap, making it efficient for priority queue operations.

Types of Binary Heaps

There are two types of binary heaps: a min-heap and a max-heap.


In a minimum binary heap structure, for every node ‘x’ (besides the root), the key (value) stored in children is less than or equal to the key (values) of x. In other words, the minimum element is always at the root, and the value of each parent node is less than or equal to the values of its children.

As you can see in the image above, the key (value) of the root is less than the keys of its children.


Contrary to a min-heap, for every node ‘x’ (besides the root), the key (value) stored in it should be less than or equal to the keys (values) stored in its children. Simply put, the maximum element is always at the root, and the value of each parent node is greater than or equal to the values of its children.

As you can see here, the key (value) of the root is greater than the keys of its children.

Binary Min Heap vs Binary Max Heap

CrtieriaBinary Min HeapBinary Max HeapDefinitionFor any node ‘x,’ the key (value) in ‘x’ is less than or equal to the keys (values) in its chúng tôi any node ‘x,’ the key (value) in ‘x’ is greater than or equal to the keys (values) in its chúng tôi Key (or Value)MinimumMaximumSortingAscendingDescendingInsertionA new element to be inserted is placed at the appropriate position to maintain the min-heap chúng tôi new element is placed at the appropriate position without disturbing the max-heap property.DeletionThe minimum value (root value) is removed and the last element in the heap replaces it. The entire heap is then accommodated to satisfy the min-heap chúng tôi maximum value (root value) is deleted. The last element of the heap replaces it, and the heap is finally adjusted to satisfy the max-heap property.ApplicationUsed where the minimum is to be chúng tôi where the maximum is to be assessed.

Binary Heap Operations

Binary heaps are widely used in sorting-based applications, assessing the minimum/maximum and prioritization. As a result, there is a whole set of operations that you can do with binary heap arrays. The most commonly used heap operations are mentioned below.

getMin() and getMax()

The getMin() operation returns the minimum value (root element) of a binary min heap. Contrarily, getMax() returns the maximum value (root) of a binary max heap.

Insertion via insert()

You can insert new elements using the insert() operation. The new element is generally inserted at the bottom right of the heap to maintain the complete tree property. The order property is then restored by appropriate swapping after comparing the newly inserted value with its parent.

Deletion via delete()

This operation deletes the root (min in min-heap and max in max-heap). Then the last element of the heap is moved to the root position, and the entire heap is adjusted to satisfy the required order property. The adjustment is done by comparing the new root value with its children’s value. 

extractMin() and extractMax()

The extractMin() command is used to remove the minimum element (root) from a binary min heap. Contrarily, the extractMax() command is used to remove the maximum (root) from a binary max heap.

Implementing Binary Heap

Here are some of the common ways to implement Binary Heap:

Array Representation 

The most efficient way to represent binary heaps is via arrays. For a binary heap represented as an array, the following properties hold:

Parent-child Relationship

For any element at position i (with the root at 1), its left child is at 2*i and the right is at 2*i +1.

Heap Order

Min-Heap: the value of each parent node is less than or equal to the values of its children nodes.

Max-Heap: the value of each parent node is greater than or equal to the values of its children nodes.

Source: YouTube

Heapify Algorithm 

If you have an array and wish to convert it into a valid binary heap, you have to use heapify algorithms. It is an essential step in building a heap or restoring the heap property after an operation like insertion or deletion. There are two primary variations of heapify algorithms (also called heap sort): sift-down and sift-up.

Sift-Down (Bubble-down): It is used when the heap property gets violated at an index (usually a root of any subtree). To ensure that the subtree satisfies the heap order property, sift-down algorithms start at a random node and move the value down the tree by comparing it with subsequent children’s smaller values. The procedure keeps on going till a position is attained where the subtree root is less than both its children.

Source: Alberta Uni

Pseudocode for Sift-Down Heapify

Sift-Up (Bubble-up): It is used when a new element is added to the heap at the last position and ensures that the newly inserted element is moved up to its correct position to satisfy the heap property. This algorithm swaps a node (too large in value) with its parent (hence moving it up). The process carries on till the value is no longer larger than the parent above.

Source: Middle Sexcc

Pseudocode for Sift-Up Algorithm Insertion and Deletion Operations 


Add the new element to the bottom-rightmost position.

Repeat the above step till the heap property gets satisfied.



Remove the last element and place it at the root.

Compare this new root with child nodes.

Repeat the above step till the property is restored.


Time Complexity of Binary Heap Operations 

In this section; we’ll explore the time complexity of binary heap operations. Different operations take different durations of time to be performed. 

Analysis of Insertion and Deletion Operations

Insertion: This operation adds a new element to the binary heap and sifts up the element to maintain heap order property. 

Time Complexity of Insertion: The best case would be if the inserted element is already satisfying the heap order property. In this case, the time complexity would be O(1).

On average, the time complexity is O(log n), where n is the number of elements in the heap. This is because we’ll keep checking till the parent-child values satisfy the condition, and this could take as many as log n checks and shifts.

Source: Opengenus

However, in case an element is to be sifted up the entire binary heap, then the duration will be proportional to (log n).

Deletion: Deletion involves removing the root element and replacing it with the last element in a heap, followed by sift-down (bubble-down) to maintain the heap property.

Time Complexity of Deletion: The best case would be if the inserted element is already satisfying the heap order property. In this case, the time complexity would be O(1).

Generally, it would be O(log n), where n is the number of elements in the heap. The complexity starts from the best case at 1 and then increases at 1,2,3,4… till the max complexity of log n is attained. 

Source: Opengenus

However, in cases where the elements are sifted down the entire length of the heap, the time complexity would be proportional to log n.

Analysis of Heapify Operations 

Unlink insertion and deletion, heapify operations sift down every node except the leaves. Simply put, the operation does not necessarily start from the root. Let’s calculate the time complexity of the sift-down heapify operation to have a better understanding.

If you’re starting at level zero, the time complexity would be O(0), as there are no child nodes.

At a level above (level 1), the complexity would be O(1) as this level has only a level of children to shift down to.

Similarly, as you go up, the complexity increases by 1 until it reaches O(log n). 

For each of the levels, the number of nodes reduces exponentially with a power of 2. So if level 0 has n/2 nodes, level 1 would have n/4, and so on.

As a result, the number of checks and shifts would be 

This can be simplified to:

As we are only talking about an approximation, this can be substituted by the asymptotic result—O(N).

Applications of Binary Heap

Binary heaps hold significant importance as they make the implementation of sorting and prioritizing algorithms more efficient. Here are some standard applications.

Priority Queues

One of the most widely used applications of binary heaps is in priority queues— queues where elements have associated priorities and need to be processed based on their priority. These queues are used to schedule tasks, event simulations, graph algorithms like Dijkstra and Prim’s, etc. 

Heapsort Algorithm

Heap sort is an efficient sorting algorithm that utilizes binary heaps. This algorithm constructs a max-heap (ascending), and min-heap (descending) using the input array and then extracts the max (min), respectively. The final output is a sorted array. Heap is often used in scenarios where in-place sorting with a guaranteed worst-case performance (where elements are to be sifted through the entire length of the heap)  is required.

Binary Heap vs Binary Search Tree

By now, you must have learned what a binary heap is. Let’s talk about a binary tree—a tree data structure with at most 2 children at each node. A binary heap and a binary tree might sound near-similar, but there are some differences.

CriteriaBinary HeapBinary Search TreeStructureA binary tree with heap and ordering properties.A tree data structure with at most 2 children at each node.OrderMay not be ordered/partially ordered.Completely ordered.DuplicationAllows duplicatesDoes not allow duplicates.Insertion or DeletionO(log n)O(n)OperationsEfficient for insertion, deletion, and retrieval of the minimum (or maximum) elementEfficient for searching, insertion, deletion, and traversalCommon ApplicationsPriority queues, heap sort, event-driven simulationsEfficient searching, ordered data storage, dictionary, symbol tables

Similarities Between Binary Search Trees and Binary Heaps

Both, binary heaps and search tress follow a hierarchical structure, with nodes and leaves.

Each node in both can have at most two children

In both binary heaps and binary trees, each node (except for the root) has a parent node.

In a binary tree, each node can have at most two child nodes (left child and right child). On the other hand, the parent-child relationship is defined based on the position of nodes in the array representation in a binary heap.

Both can be defined recursively. 

Each subtree in a heap or a tree is itself a heap or a tree, respectively.

Binary heaps and binary trees can be traversed using similar traversal algorithms, such as inorder, preorder, and postorder traversals.

Real-world Examples of Using Binary Heaps

Binary heaps are used in ample ways in the real world. Here are some examples.

Job Scheduling: Binary heaps can schedule tasks/jobs based on their deadlines. Jobs with an earlier deadline are prioritized, ensuring they’re executed first. Each job is assigned a priority, and a max heap is used to keep track of the highest priority job. The heap is continuously updated as more jobs arrive and the existing ones get completed.

Memory Management: In memory management, binary heaps are used to allocate and deallocate storage units dynamically. Operations like malloc() and free() are used in heaps to maintain a record of memory blocks still available.

Dijkstra’s Algorithm: Dijkstra’s is a well-known traversal algorithm for finding the shortest distance between nodes. Heap data structures are widely implemented to create priority queues for Dijkstra’s algorithm. The algorithm utilizes a min heap to efficiently extract the node with the smallest distance from a source node.

Operating System Process Scheduling: The techniques used by operating systems for scheduling processes often use binary heaps. Processes are prioritized, and the process with the highest priority is tracked using a min-heap. The scheduler chooses and starts the process at the top of the heap, and the heap is updated as necessary as tasks are completed, or new ones are added.

Median Computation: Binary heaps are used to find the median. By analyzing two heaps, one for elements with lesser values than the current median and another for greater values.

Network Routing: Network routing algorithms, like Routing Information Protocol (RIP), also utilize binary heaps. This is done to maintain a list of all available routes and then choose one based on the cost or distance.

Advanced Topics in Binary Heap

D-ary Heap

Source: ResearchGate

Fibonacci Heap Final Word

We’re sure that you must have learned quite a bit about binary heaps and their vitality in sorting algorithms, as well as in the real world. These robust data structures are highly efficient in managing, sorting, and prioritizing data. Whether you’re using a priority queue or arranging elements in an ascending/descending order— binary heaps provide a scalable solution. To explore more intricacies of these data structures and learn more about other similar ones, Analytics Vidhya is an excellent choice. Analytics Vidhya is a comprehensive online platform that offers verified educational content, tutorials, and articles, and courses on various topics related to data science, algorithms, and programming. Not only this, with courses like the AI and ML Blackbelt Program, AV teaches you how these modern-day technologies are aiding standard data operations. So without further ado, head over to the website.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. How is a binary heap different from a stack?

A. A binary heap is a hierarchical, tree data structure, whereas a stack is a linear data structure that provides static memory allocation for temporary variables. 

Q2. What is the time complexity of building a heap from scratch?

A. Building a binary heap from an array of n elements takes O(n) time complexity.

Q3. How are binary heaps represented in memory?

A. They are stored as arrays, where parent-child relationships are calculated using index calculations. 

Q4. Give an example of heap sorting in real life.

A. Heap sorting can be done at banks. Those who are only there to withdraw or deposit via machines can go in first as they will take lesser time. People who have a more time significant requirement can be sent in later.


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What Is Firmware? Definition And Types

Better known as ‘software for hardware,’ Firmware is a program that comes embedded in a piece of hardware such as a keyboard, hard drive, BIOS, or a video card. It is designed to give permanent instructions to communicate with other devices in a system and perform functions like basic input/output tasks.

What is Firmware?

Firmware, like drivers, has the same function but differs in a way that it is stored on the hardware device itself while drivers are installed inside the operating system. Also, firmware can start on its own and do what it is programmed or designed to do while drivers must be run by the operating system.

Types of firmware BIOS

The first thing to come to life after the computer is powered on is BIOS. It can interact with the hardware and check for any unknown errors. It then signals another program called bootloader which does the job of waking up the operating system sleeping inside the hard drive and put it in the random access memory. So, BIOS is primarily responsible for handling your computer’s hardware components and ensure that they function properly. Although good, the low-level software has remained almost unchanged for the last two decades, and because of this, it is now becoming outdated and un-supportive of modern technologies. For instance, BIOS still uses 16-bit code while most laptops and PCs run 32 and 64-Bit code.


Knowing your computer’s BIOS version can help you find if you have the most up-to-date version of the firmware. On Windows computers, you can get the firmware version information using the Command Prompt. Alternatively, you can use an upgrade assistant for your device.

Read: Check if your PC uses BIOS or UEFI.

Updating Firmware

Firmware updates are available from the hardware manufacturers. For instance, a firmware update for a network router may be released to fix bugs, security holes or enhance its capabilities.

Some firmware updates are applied normally and just seem like a regular software update. However, others can be quite time-consuming as they might involve copying the firmware to a portable drive and then loading it onto the device manually. That said, some devices, feature a dedicated section in the administrative console that lets you apply a firmware update or a user manual for a complete reference.

Read: Fix Firmware update failed in Windows.

It’s extremely important to make sure the device that’s receiving the firmware update does not shut down while the update is being applied. A partial firmware update leaves the firmware corrupted, which can seriously damage how the device works. So, just make sure that once you start a firmware updater, you let the update finish.

Benefits and Importance of Firmware Update

Firmware update not only improves the functionality and features of your device but also fixes the performance issues. Moreover, the firmware update also helps a device remain competitive with the newer models in the market.

The firmware updates also contain the latest security patches. When you update your firmware, these latest security patches are automatically applied to your system. These security updates help protect your device from such types of attacks. Hence, a firmware update is important to tackle the increasing firmware attacks.

Read: How to update Router Firmware.

Firmware vs. Software difference

Often, the word Firmware and software are used interchangeably, i.e., single or a collection of computer programs assigned with some task to do on the machine. But in reality, it’s the work that defines the roots of these categories (firmware and software) in which we put them.

For example, the software is virtual so it can be Copied, Changed, and Destroyed. It is often stored in memory that is easily accessible and even replaceable by the user. But in the case of firmware, the memory that it stores is often embedded in the device itself and is not replaceable by the user. This is done deliberately to prevent any tampering or removing as it is critical for the device to run and can cause serious consequences if removed.

Read: What are Device Drivers?

Also, software is often upgraded, and so the information stored in it is often modified/altered with each execution of the application. In contrast, the firmware does not really change much unless you modify the settings very often. There is also very little or no requirement to change the firmware of a device.

Firmware vs Hardware difference

As explained earlier in this article, Firmware is a program or set of instructions fed into a hardware device. This set of instructions is necessary for the hardware device to function properly. On the other hand, hardware refers to the components of a computer and any other device. Processor, motherboard, RAM, hard disks, sound cards, Network Interface Card (NIC), etc., are some examples of hardware.

Is firmware a type of hardware?

Firmware is not a type of hardware. It is completely different from the hardware. Hardware refers to the components of a device, like Integrated Circuit (IC), CPU, GPU, RAM, etc. On the other hand, firmware is a program embedded into a piece of hardware. Firmware contains the set of instructions necessary for performing different tasks by the hardware.

What happens if I don’t update my firmware?

Hope this explains what firmware means.

Now read: How to update BIOS.

Healthcare Hyperautomation: Use Cases & Best Practices

Hyperautomation was one of the top technology trends in 2023. According to IBM, healthcare in particular is a prime candidate to benefit from it, with so many repetitive processes and regulations to follow.

In this article, we’ll explore why hyperautomation is important for the healthcare industry, its use cases, its challenges and how to overcome them.

Why does the healthcare industry need hyperautomation?

Hyperautomation is an emerging approach to digital transformation that involves automating every business process possible while digitally augmenting those processes that can’t be automated fully. The need for hyperautomation is not different from the need for digital transformation: According to Gartner, hyperautomation is inevitable and is quickly becoming a condition of survival instead of an option for businesses.

The healthcare industry also has its own unique challenges that require hyperautomation to address:

Consumer preference is rapidly shifting to digital, and the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated this trend. Patients demand more convenient, transparent, and personalized healthcare services. Healthcare providers are aware of this trend as more than 90% of healthcare technology executives say achieving a better patient experience is their top desired outcome when implementing digital technologies.

Legacy systems are still the norm in the healthcare industry. 80% of healthcare organizations use legacy systems that no longer receive support from their manufacturers. Replacing these systems is a challenge because it can disrupt operations and lead to integration issues. By leveraging hyperautomation tools with screen scraping and OCR capabilities, healthcare businesses can integrate these systems with modern technologies and automate the operations relying on them.

What are the use cases of hyperautomation in healthcare?

We have explored use cases of individual hyperautomation technologies in healthcare, such as:

Hyperautomation combines these technologies for end-to-end process automation. Use cases include:

1. Patient services

A combination of conversational AI and intelligent process automation bots can handle most patient service tasks, improving patient experience and employee productivity. Bots can:

Interact with patients about their health problems through different channels,

Enable self-service scheduling by providing patients with suitable physicians and time slots,

Send reminders and allow rescheduling or canceling appointments,

Collect data from patient interactions to be analyzed for customer service improvement,

Assist human customer service reps during their customer interactions.

2. Regulatory compliance

Healthcare providers, health insurance companies, pharmacies, and other healthcare entities must comply with regulations such as HIPAA in the US and GDPR in the EU. Failure to comply with such regulations can lead to fines ranging from $100 to $100,000 per violation. Since a fifth of healthcare employees would be willing to sell patient data to unauthorized parties for as little as $500, adopting digital technologies is imperative for compliance.

Hyperautomation can help with ensuring regulatory compliance for healthcare organizations:

Intelligent bots can log every action in healthcare systems and document the activity log when demanded,

AI/ML models can be used to predict potential healthcare fraud,

Automating internal audit processes can help evaluate risks and internal controls more efficiently and frequently.

3. Research & development

Hyperautomation technologies such as AI models and digital twins can accelerate pharmaceutical R&D:

Drug discovery: Deep learning algorithms can be used to discover drug candidates for specific diseases.

Testing new drugs: To test new drugs and treatments, companies can use digital twins to build digital representations of tools, drugs, human organs, genomes, or individual cells.

4. Health insurance processing

Processing claims efficiently is important for health insurance companies since:

Nearly 90% of customers say effective claims processing influences their decisions when choosing a vendor,

In the US, claim submissions account for $4.5 billion of medical industry spending, representing 13% of all administrative transactions.

Around $300 billion is lost each year due to health care fraud in the United States.

By leveraging NLP methods and AI/deep learning models, a hyperautomation approach can help health insurance businesses:

Minimize manual work during preauthorization and claims processing,

Reduce human errors,

Detect and prevent healthcare fraud more accurately,

Ensure customer satisfaction with shorter claims cycles.

What are the challenges and how to overcome them?

Data privacy: Medical data contains highly sensitive patient information protected by data privacy regulations. This can create a roadblock on the path to hyperautomation for healthcare organizations. Businesses must invest in privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) to develop innovative products without risking patient privacy.

Process understanding: Processes are often poorly documented, and businesses may lack a comprehensive understanding of them. Process mining tools and digital twins can help businesses understand how actual processes are carried out and how to improve them. In this way, healthcare organizations can prepare themselves for their journey toward hyperautomation.

Change management: Building a company culture around hyperautomation is just as important as selecting specific tools, since cultural deficit is one of the main reasons why digital transformation initiatives fail. Organizations should create opportunities for reskilling and upskilling and improve top-down communication about why these changes are needed. For more, check our article on the importance of organizational culture for digital transformation.

Check our article on intelligent automation strategy for more.

Further reading

If you have other questions about hyperautomation and its applications in the healthcare industry, feel free to reach us:

Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.





Jetpack Ai Assistant: Pricing, Features And Use Cases

Create compelling and professional content within WordPress with this powerful AI assistant.

About Jetpack AI Assistant

JetPack AI Assistant is an AI tool that creates engaging content within the WordPress Editor. It allows users to write blog posts, edit content, and adjust the tonality of the posts using AI. The tool can also suggest titles, generate summaries, and translate text into various languages.

JetPack AI Assistant has an intuitive interface with powerful AI capabilities to help users produce high-quality content faster. It can generate various types of content, including tables, blog posts, structured lists, or detailed pages. The tool is integrated into WordPress. So you can start using it immediately after creating your free account.

Jetpack AI Assistant Features

Jetpack AI Assistant offers several impressive features for WordPress users. Some of the best functionalities of this tool include the following:

It can easily be integrated into the WordPress editor.

It has an intuitive and beginner friendly interface.

It generates content on a diverse range of topics.

JetPack AI Assistant adjusts the tone to match the style and context of the blog post.

It detects and corrects spelling and grammatical errors.

Users can request the tool to generate a title or summary for a blog post.

It translates content into multiple languages.

It creates content faster, saving the time of writers and website owners.

Jetpack AI Assistant Use Case – Real-World Applications

JetPack AI Assistant can be used for various purposes. Some of its applications include the following:

Content creators can use it to write blog posts, articles, or website content.

Editors can use it to spot errors in the content and edit them.

Businesses can use it to ensure their content is of high-quality.

It can be used to produce content in various languages.

Jetpack AI Assistant Pricing

JetPack AI Assistant has a free and paid plan. The prices of its plans vary depending on the features and number of requests they can handle. Below is an overview of both JetPack AI Assistant plans:

Free – $0 per month – It can handle up to 20 requests, create tables, blog posts, lists, adjust tones, and solve grammatical issues.

Paid – $12.54 per month – It includes everything offered in the free plan, high-volume request access, and priority support.


Does the JetPack AI Assistant Premium Plan have a request limit?

No, the premium plan doesn’t impose any limit on the number of requests sent or processed by the platform. It supports an unlimited number of requests with priority access to the support team. However, the company says that it will impose an upper limit on the number of requests in the coming months. Keep checking their announcement page for the latest information.

Can the JetPack AI Assistant adjust the tone?

Yes, the JetPack AI Assistant allows users to modify the tone of their content. You can choose between a formal or conversational tone, and the tool will edit your content accordingly.

Is the JetPack AI Assistant available for free?

Yes, the JetPack AI Assistant is available for free. However, it only supports 20 requests and offers limited features. To enjoy all the premium features and get priority access to the support team, you need to switch to the premium plan.

Is the JetPack AI Assistant available within WordPress?

Yes, you can access the JetPack AI Assistant within your WordPress editor. It is integrated within WordPress and doesn’t require you to download any software or tool separately. You have to install the JetPack AI Assistant Plugin, and you will get all its features right within the WordPress editor.

Can I use JetPack AI Assistant to write blog posts for publishing online?

You can use the JetPack AI Assistant to write blog posts for your online blog. It can generate blogs on diverse topics and publish them online. It generates unique, plagiarism-free content that can be used for personal or commercial purposes.

JetPack AI Assistant is a powerful companion for writers and editors. It can rapidly write and edit various types of content within the WordPress editor. The tool is ideal for freelancers, editors, and businesses that want to save time while producing high-quality content.

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Top 6 Use Cases Of Generative Ai In Education

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of digital technologies to enhance education has significantly increased as many students around the world have had to shift to online learning. For example, investment in education for adopting innovative technologies increased from $7 billion to $20 billion during the pandemic as trends suggest. However, digital technologies also have the potential to transform the education experience in other ways beyond just online classes. The application of generative AI in education is an example to this.

Generative AI is a digital technology that can quickly create new and realistic visual, textual, and animated content. In other articles, we investigated its use cases in different  sectors, such as healthcare and banking. While other technologies like conversational AI and robotic process automation (RPA) are implemented in education, generative AI is not properly implemented in education. Despite this, it has potential use cases for improving it. This article explains the top 6 potential ways to use generative AI in education.

1. Personalized Lessons

Personalized lesson plans are a powerful way to ensure that students receive the most effective education tailored specifically to their needs and interests. These lesson plans can be generated by using AI-powered algorithms to analyze student data, such as:

Their past performance

Their skills 

And any feedback they might have given regarding content

AI-based systems can leverage such information to generate customized curriculum that is more likely to engage each student and help them reach their potential. This can be important for children with learning disabilities or disorders.

For example, Speechify is a generative AI-driven tool. It offers text-to-speech or speech-to-text generations on desktops or on online use.

2. Course Design

Generative AI tools can help design and organize course materials, including syllabi, lesson plans, and assessments. They can also personalize course material based on students’ knowledge gaps, skills and learning styles, such as practice problems or interactive exercises. 

Generative AI can create simulations and virtual environments once paired with other technologies, such as virtual reality. Consequently, it offers more engagement and interactive courses, improving students’ learning experience.   

For example, a generative AI system could create a virtual laboratory setting where students can conduct experiments, observe the results, and make predictions based on their observations.

3. Content Creation for Courses 

Generative AI can assist in creating new teaching materials, such as questions for quizzes and exercises or explanations and summaries of concepts. This can be especially useful for teachers who need to create a large amount and a variety of content for their classes. By using AI, it is possible to create modified or brand-new content from the original content.

Furthermore, generative AI can facilitate generating additional materials to supplement the main course materials, such as: 

Reading lists

Study guides 

Discussion questions 



Also, AI can generate scripts for video lectures or podcasts, streamlining multimedia content creation for online courses. Image generation is another important ability of generative AI for education. Teachers may want to generate images with specific modifications that respond to particular course needs.

For example, NOLEJ offers an e-learning capsule that is AI generated in only 3 minutes. This capsule provides an interactive video, glossary, practice, and summary for a target topic (see Figure 1 below).

More established companies are using AI to generate content that supports their main products. For instance, Duolingo, a language learning platform, uses GPT-3 to correct French grammar and create items for their English test. The company concludes that with the implementation of GPT-3, second language writing skills of customers are increased.

4. Data Privacy Protection for Analytical Models

Using synthetic data, which is created by AI models that have learned from real-world data, can provide anonymity and protect students’ personal information. Synthetic data sets produced by generative models are effective and useful for training other algorithms, while being secure and safe to use.

For more on how generated synthetic data enables data privacy, you can check out these articles:

5. Restoring Old Learning Materials

Generative AI can improve the quality of outdated or low-quality learning materials, such as historical documents, photographs, and films. By using AI to enhance the resolution of these materials, they can be brought up to modern standards and be more engaging for students who are used to high-quality media.

These updates can also make it easier for students to read, analyze, and understand the materials, leading to a deeper understanding of the content and, ultimately, better learning outcomes.

Using a version of generative AI, Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), it is possible to restore low-quality images and remove simple watermarks. In Figure 2 below, you can see a prototype for image restoration via GANs. Such image restoration can be adapted to educational materials. For example, in art and design schools, restoring old images would provide the detection of important details of artworks. Also in history classes and research, scanning and restoring old documents can be facilitated.

Figure 2. Image restoration with GANs. (Source: Towards Data Science)

6. Tutoring 

Another use case of generative AI is to provide tutoring. Generative AI can be used to create virtual tutoring environments, where students can interact with a virtual tutor and receive real-time feedback and support. This can be especially helpful for students who may not have access to in-person tutoring.

According to academic studies, private tutoring children with severe reading difficulty improved their reading skills by 50% in a year. However, providing tutoring to all students can be a challenge. Generative AI can tackle this issue by creating virtual tutoring environments. In these environments, students can interact with a virtual tutor and receive feedback and support in real-time. This can be especially helpful for students who may not have access to in-person tutoring.

For example, TutorAI is trying to implement this kind of use of generative AI in education. It offers an educational platform that generates interactive content on a variety of topics.

Another generative AI work for teaching purposes can be the implementation of chatbots for tutoring. Chatbot Life’s 2023 chatbot report shows that education is the third biggest industry benefiting from chatbots.

Lately, Chat GPT from OpenAI stormed the internet with its ability to engage in highly personalized conversations and definitive answers. It can answer course-related questions from a variety of domains, and can even write essays on the target topic. 

On the other hand, implementing generative AI-based chatbots specified and regulated for educational purposes is a future plan. However, it offers potential uses and benefits:

One potential use would be to provide around-the-clock support to students and their parents, including help with homework.

Generative chatbots can also assist with administrative tasks, such as answering student or parent questions, freeing up time for educators to focus on other tasks, such as grading and lesson planning.

The flexibility and natural feeling of generative chatbots make them useful in educational settings, particularly with elementary and middle school children.

Challenges of generative AI in education

Although generative AI has a lot of potential to improve educational practices, it may also pose some potential challenges. These can be shortly listed as:

Biases in educational materials

False or inaccurate information

Abuse of it for self interest

Unemployment risks for some teachers or other education professionals

For a detailed discussion on the ethical challenges of generative AI, you can check our article.

For more on generative AI

To explore more about generative AI, you can check our other articles:

Discover the top generative AI tools from our detailed list sorted by category:

If you have questions regarding generative AI, feel free to reach out:

Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.





7 Use Cases Of Chatgpt In Marketing For 2023

The share of artificial intelligence in the marketing industry is rapidly increasing (see Figure 1). However, the use of relatively new tools, such as generative AI and, in particular, ChatGPT in marketing is not widely known. 

Figure 1. Market value of artificial intelligence (AI) in marketing worldwide from 2023 to 2028

In this article, we will explain 7 use cases of ChatGPT to help digital marketers have an effective marketing strategy. 

1- Content creation

Content creation, text generation in specific, using ChatGPT can be a powerful tool for marketing. These AI-generated texts can be used for a variety of purposes other than generating ideas, such as:

Contents generated by ChatGPT can be integrated with other marketing strategies and channels like:

Creating various contents for digital marketing campaigns

Preparing posts for social media platforms

Generating personalized, attractive and persuasive emails for email marketing.

For more on the use cases of generative AI in copywriting, check our comprehensive article.

2- Personalized customer experience

ChatGPT with its natural language processing (NLP) can generate personalized content for your customers based on their preferences, past behavior, and demographics. This can help you create targeted content that resonates with your audience, which can lead to higher engagement and conversion rates.

3- Audience research

Audience research involves gathering data and insights about your target audience to better understand their interests, preferences, behaviors, and needs. This information can help you create more effective marketing strategies, including content creation, ad targeting, and product development.

ChatGPT can be used to analyze customer data such as: 

Search queries

Social media interactions

Past purchases to identify patterns and trends in customer behavior. 

By analyzing this data, ChatGPT can help you identify your target audience’s preferences, interests, and pain points, which can inform your marketing messaging, content, and product development.

4- SEO optimization

ChatGPT can be a valuable tool for SEO in marketing. SEO, or search engine optimization, involves optimizing your website and content to rank higher in search engine results pages (SERPs) for relevant keywords and phrases. Here are some ways that ChatGPT can help with SEO:

Generate attractive topic ideas for content marketing

Make keyword research

Find the right and attractive titles

Group search intent

Create content structure

Generate meta descriptions

Figure 3. ChatGPT SEO-friendly title suggestions for contents in B2B marketing

5- Writing product descriptions

Product descriptions are a crucial part of marketing, as they provide potential customers with information about the features, benefits, and value of a product. ChatGPT can help create compelling and informative product descriptions that resonate with your target audience.

6- Chatbot for customer support

ChatGPT can be integrated into a chatbot to provide instant and personalized customer support. Chatbots can help customers with frequently asked questions, provide technical support, and even troubleshoot issues. Chatbots in marketing can help: 

Improve customer satisfaction

Reduce response times

Decrease the workload of customer service representatives.

7- Creating customer surveys

Surveys are an effective way to gather feedback and insights from customers, which can help marketers improve their products, services, and marketing strategies. Here are some ways that ChatGPT can help with creating customer surveys:

Question generation

Organizing survey structure

Making surveys multilingual with its translation ability

Survey analysis

If you have questions or need help in finding vendors, please contact:

Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.





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