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Pathways could enable multimodal models that encompass vision, auditory, and language understanding simultaneously. So whether the model is processing the word “leopard,” the sound of someone saying “leopard,” or a video of a leopard running, the same response is activated internally: the concept of a leopard. The result is a model that’s more insightful and less prone to mistakes and biases.
PaLM 2 vs. PaLM and LaMDA: How does Google’s latest LLM compare to predecessors?
PaLM 2’s capabilities have given Google Bard a pretty big boost in terms of capabilities. When it first launched in early 2023, the chatbot used the LaMDA language model under the hood. And with the move to PaLM 2 now, Google catapulted past the first-generation PaLM model.
Google has published a 92-page technical report detailing how PaLM 2 improves upon its predecessors, but let’s cut to the chase. Here’s a quick summary of the improvements over the company’s previous models:
PaLM 2 was trained on a mix of languages and its training data included many non-English text samples. It also performs better at foreign language tests than LaMDA and first-gen PaLM.
It sports better logical reasoning capabilities than its predecessors and even manages to match GPT-4 in the tests Google performed.
Google’s Bard chatbot can now generate and debug code. That wasn’t possible with the company’s previous language models.
PaLM 2 can translate between languages better than previous language models. In fact, it can also surpass Google Translate in certain languages like Portuguese and Chinese.
With the new Pathways architecture, PaLM 2 is more efficient to train and use. This makes it more economical and feasible to include in Google services like Gmail.
Google can fine-tune the PaLM 2 model for specific use cases. For example, Sec-PaLM is optimized to detect cybersecurity vulnerabilities, while Med-PaLM provides answers to medical queries.How does PaLM 2 compare to OpenAI’s GPT LLMs?
OpenAI, the creator of ChatGPT, has so far managed to surpass other language models in terms of capabilities. But with the release of PaLM 2, can Google take the crown? According to the company’s technical report, it scores better on common-sense tests. However, synthetic benchmarks don’t necessarily translate to real-world performance.
So to find out which one comes out ahead, I asked Google Bard and Bing Chat a couple of riddles. Microsoft uses OpenAI’s GPT-4 as the foundation for Bing Chat and I used a bit of creative prompt engineering to keep it from searching the internet for a response. Here’s the result of the first riddle I asked.
As you can see in the above screenshots, both Google Bard and GPT-4 managed to solve the riddle correctly. In fact, PaLM 2 also gave me an alternative solution that Bing Chat did not offer up.
However, Google’s Bard chatbot refused to solve another riddle I threw at it. Bing Chat, meanwhile, gave in-depth detailed reasoning and the correct solution when asked the same riddle.
While these two examples don’t test PaLM 2’s full capabilities, they prove that Google has started to catch up with the competition but still has a fair bit of work left to do.
How will Google use PaLM 2?
At Google’s I/O developer conference, we got a glimpse at the company’s plans for the future of PaLM 2 and its AI developments in general. The latest language model will power everything from a new “Help me Write” feature in Google Docs and Gmail to AI image generation in Slides. Broadly, these features fall under Google’s Duet AI for Workspace umbrella and we should see them roll out in the coming months.
Google has also developed a version of PaLM 2 to fit on smartphones. Codenamed Gecko, this condensed language model could someday make it possible to use generative AI completely offline on a typical Android smartphone.
Finally, software developers can now access PaLM 2 programmatically via APIs. This means we may see other companies rely on Google’s large language model, just like we’ve seen Duolingo and Khan Academy adopt GPT-4 for their respective AI-powered features.
Google PaLM 2 is the large language model that powers Bard, the company’s AI chatbot, and other features like Help me Write in Gmail.
Google hasn’t released Med-PaLM 2 yet. The company will first grant access to a small group of trusted testers. It’s unclear if it will ever become publicly available.
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I’m something of a grumpy old man when it comes to camera phones–for years, I’ve resisted them, complaining that I just didn’t see the point. “Using a camera phone dumbs down photography,” I’d say, citing poor image quality and lack of control. When I wrote “Five Tips for Great Photos With Your Cell Phone,” I did it reluctantly, mainly because my friends insisted that phones with cameras were incredibly popular.Set Your Expectations Accordingly
Compare, for example, a photo of my cat taken with a Nikon D200 (above) and another with my iPhone (linked here). The photo from my Nikon digital SLR has rich detail, excellent color, and it’s sharp enough to cut yourself on. The grainy, slightly blurred iPhone snapshot on the right speaks for itself. And this is the best of a half-dozen attempts.The Fun Factor
Sure, the photos aren’t great. But camera phones are so much fun! I’ve fallen in love with a $3 iPhone app called Pano, for example, that lets you take a series of photos and stitch them together into a panoramic shot right in the phone. It works amazingly well, and it even has a guide that helps you line up successive photos.
This iPhone app will never replace taking high-quality panoramic photos with a digital camera and stitching the panorama together on your PC with a program like Windows Live Photo Gallery, but I’m almost giddy with delight when I make a complete panorama using nothing more than my cell phone. The immediacy is amazing.
Speaking of fun, the iPhone uses a touch-based focusing system–just touch the part of the screen where you want the lens to focus. It’s simply delightful.The Convenience Factor
Not long ago, I wrote about six unusual uses for your camera. I recently had a real-world application when I came home to find the pump in my 90-gallon fish tank had died. I snapped some photos of the dead pump with the Palm Pre–thank goodness the phone includes a tiny flash–and used it to get the right replacement at the store that evening. The camera phone’s 3-megapixel-resolution and its multi-touch screen meant I could zoom in and show the sales clerk small details with a simple two-fingered pinch gesture, right on the phone’s display.
So I’m feeling a lot more optimistic about mobile phone cameras these days. I still worry that camera phones will replace dedicated cameras, and we’ll come to accept grainy, blurry photos as acceptable in the same way that teenagers listen to low-quality MP3s instead of higher quality LPs and CDs–but maybe that’s just the curmudgeon in me.Hot Pic of the Week
Here’s how to enter: Send us your photograph in JPEG format, at a resolution no higher than 640 by 480 pixels. Entries at higher resolutions will be immediately disqualified. If necessary, use an image editing program to reduce the file size of your image before e-mailing it to us. Include the title of your photo along with a short description and how you photographed it. Don’t forget to send your name, e-mail address, and postal address. Before entering, please read the full description of the contest rules and regulations.
This Week’s Hot Pic: “The Clock,” by Marlena Davis, Cumberland, Rhode Island
Marlena writes: “I took this picture on an afternoon walk in my neighborhood. I used my Canon PowerShot AS590 IS in macro mode. I like how this one captures the details of the dandelion in the foreground while foreshadowing the dandelion’s future in the background.”
Kevin took this pensive shot with an Olympus C-4000.
HTTP/2 (also referred to as h2) is a network protocol that servers, browsers and bots can use to transfer data from a server.
HTTP/2 is more efficient than the older HTTP/1.1 protocol and is able to transfer data at faster rates the older protocol.
The benefit for publishers is that this will result in less server load, which means there is a decreased possibility of an error (like a timeout error) when Google is crawling a site at the same time the server is under a heavy load.
An additional upside is that with less strain the site will be able toremain zippy for users that are accessing the website.
The announcement that Google was sending out notices was made over Twitter by Google’s Gary Illyes.
The tweet said:
“just pressed the button to send a large batch of messages to sites which have been opted in to HTTP/2 crawling. if something is not clear, follow the link in the message”
It was accompanied by a screenshot of an example of a notice, showing what it looks like.
According to Gary:
“the h2 crawler traffic is gradually ramping up, it’s not like you got the message and suddenly all crawl is h2. it may take a few days”Will Googlebot Crawl all Eligible Sites?
Google will determine whether a site benefits from the new HTTP/2 crawl. If it sees there is no benefit then Google may decide not to use the new HTTP/2 protocol.According to Google:
“In our evaluations we found little to no benefit for certain sites (for example, those with very low qps) when crawling over h2. Therefore we have decided to switch crawling to h2 only when there’s clear benefit for the site. We’ll continue to evaluate the performance gains and may change our criteria for switching in the future.”
Crawling with HTTP/2 also depends on whether or not your server is set up to handle it. If you don’t know if your site can handle HTTP/2 crawling give it a check at KeyCDN.
This is the OnePlus 2 (unboxing and hands-on)
The second in a line of OnePlus smartphones is here, just aching to have its place in the sun alongside the top-tier devices from the world’s top manufacturers. The OnePlus 2, says the company, is a “flagship killer”. We’ll see about that once the device is put through our review trials. For now we’re having a peek at the basics. This device has just arrived at SlashGear headquarters in its final form. Final software and final hardware – and a camera we’ll be battling against the top smartphone cameras in the field. Both in the dark and in the light.
Inside the box you’ll find the device, a white and red wall charger, and a spun-up rubbery USB plug for charging and connecting to your computer. This device’s USB is a USB 2.0 Type-C, which means you’re going to be able to plug it in either way, but you’re going to need this specific kind of cord to plug in, sync, and power up.
The display up front of the OnePlus 2 is a 5.5-inch LTPS LCD with 1080 x 1920 pixels, coming in for a 401 pixels-per-inch density. That’s not quite as sharp as some of the other top-tier smartphones on the market today, but we’re going to go ahead and guess that it’ll mean a longer battery life than the competition.
This display is sharp and extremely bright. While we’re hesitant to say it’s the brightest display on the market, it’ll make for some reasonable outdoor viewing – albeit a short amount once the high-blasting LCD hits the battery.
Up front is Corning Gorilla Glass 4, the newest in the brand’s scratch-resistant reinforced glass for mobile devices. You’ll also find an extremely thin (nearly invisible) screen protector applied to this device right out of the box.
On the right side you’ll find two buttons – one for power and locking the device, the other a volume rocker. Both are made of metal, as is the rim of this device. Glass up front and metal around the rim make for a premium feel for the OnePlus 2, while a “sandstone black” textured back cover makes you feel like you’ve really got something unique in your hand.
On the left is a switch. The first thing this switch does is flip between standard mode and “No interruptions” mode – and at the moment we can’t think of a better use for a hardware switch than that.
The back cover for this device is removable, revealing a pull-out tray with room for 2x SIM cards. That’s it. No removable battery this time.
Up front you’ll find a single home button and two capacitive buttons, all of which can be turned off in the device’s software. The left and right buttons work with “back” and multitasking abilities and can be switched in the device’s settings drawer.
The home button also functions as a fingerprint scanner. Our (relatively limited) experience with the scanner so far suggests a high-functioning well-implemented scanner – but we’ll see after extended use.
Unlike a Samsung smartphone, this home button is not loose in its casing. This button does not have a physical press-down action, instead opting for capacitive tap action instead.
This home button as well as the buttons around it have several different tap and hold abilities, all of which are set by the user. For example you’re able to set the device so that a double-tap to the home button brings up the device’s camera app. A single button hold – something like “Force Touch”, as Apple would call it – can also activate commands.
The left and right buttons have a dim blue light to them – this light can be switched or turned off entirely, just as the buttons as a whole can be switched to on-screen controls in the device’s standard settings drawer.
Up front you’ve got a 5-megapixel camera and a single speaker for calls, while all media audio is handled by a speaker or speakers facing downward, near the device’s USB port.
Also at the back of the device is a 13-megapixel camera capable of capturing 4128 x 3096 pixels photos with optical image stabilization (OIS) and a dual-LED flash. This device has laser autofocus not unlike the LG G4 and LG G3.
This is just the beginning. Stick around our OnePlus tag portal as well as our big Android hub as we begin to test the OnePlus 2’s camera, battery, software, and everything in-between. Below you’ll find a number of benchmarks run on this device – let us know if you’d like to see more, and which tests you’d like us to run!
Vividness bias is the tendency to focus on certain attributes of a decision or situation while overlooking other elements that are equally or more important.
Vividness bias examplePeople often prioritize a prospective employer’s reputation, the prestige of a title, or a higher salary over other things that they may value more, such as work-from-home possibilities or a shorter commute to work. Prioritizing prestige over what we actually value most is a sign of vividness bias.What is vividness bias?
Vividness bias is a phenomenon in social psychology in which the most evocative information dominates our thinking and greatly influences our decision-making. In general, the “vividness” of information is the degree to which it is emotionally engaging, concrete, imagery-producing, and personal.
In other words, vividness is essentially the information that is most persuasive or that stands out the most. Recently, vividness bias has become popular specifically in the context of job negotiations, where vividness highlights our concerns to seek status and prestige. Because of vividness bias, we tend to “fall for” the flashier option and are often led to decisions and choices that do not fully align with our priorities and values.What causes vividness bias?
Vividness bias is believed to be caused by the so-called vividness effect. Here, “vivid” information inherently influences our judgment more than non-vivid information. Vivid messages are thought to be more effective in changing our opinion or behavior. This is because vivid information is more readily available in our memory—we tend to pay more attention to it and recall it more frequently.
Vividly designed communications usually incorporate images, metaphors, and concrete, colorful language. These are more impactful than abstract messages and ideas, like statistics or charts, because the latter fail to draw or hold our attention.
Studies suggest that vividness does not affect persuasion, but rather what people think would persuade others, regardless of their own reactions.Vividness bias example
Vividness bias can explain why we’re more drawn to the fun or bold aspects when faced with an option, such as which company to work for.
Example: Vividness bias in the workplaceMany tech companies in the recent past have tried to outdo one another in their offerings of fun workplace perks, such as ping-pong tables and free gourmet meals. Hiring managers thought that these vivid elements would attract young talent.
Although it seemed like a generally accepted belief that fun work perks were effective, the idea probably worked well at the very beginning, when hiring managers would walk prospective employees through the office. Over time, employees could see through all of that.
These perks served as the vivid elements of the job offer and although some employees were (or might still be) lured by them, recent studies have shown that this is not what young employees want. Instead, workers younger than 35 place more value on respect, which is reflected in some of the increasingly popular perks like flexibility, paid time off, and mental health support. It seems that the longer people are in the workforce, the less interested they are in the vivid aspects of a role.How to avoid vividness bias
Vividness bias can harm negotiations, so it’s important to have a strategy in place to avoid it. The following steps can help you do so:
Be conscious of your priorities. We can’t stop and think about every little decision we make in our daily lives. However, before entering a negotiation or making a decision that can have a major impact on our lives (such as where to study or which job to choose), it’s worth pausing for a moment to think about what is most important to you. Setting our priorities straight beforehand can shield us from vividness bias.
Avoid the pitfall of social comparison. We are often tempted to compare ourselves to others, particularly to individuals that society considers successful. This is part of human nature. However, when we compare ourselves to people who have different values to us, we are bound to fall for vividness bias. We might accept the position that comes with the flashier title or expensive electronics, when in reality what we want is a company culture that aligns with our values.
Reflect on your choice. Once you have made up your mind, look at the factors you are most drawn to. Are these your true priorities or vivid factors? Thinking through your choice will help you pinpoint vividness bias. Taking a moment to reflect can also help us avoid other types of bias that influence decision-making, like anchoring bias and the availability heuristic.Other types of research bias Frequently asked questions about vividness bias
Why is vividness bias important?
Vividness bias is important because it can affect our decisions and negotiations. It causes us to assign more weight to vivid information, like a perception of prestige, rather than other factors that, upon greater reflection, are more important to us. As a result, we get distracted and lose sight of our goals and priorities.
What is a real-life example of vividness bias?
A real-life example of vividness bias can often be observed in the outcome of business negotiations. Price is usually the most vivid information, while other aspects, such the complexity of implementation, or the time needed to complete the project, might be ignored.
What is the vividness effect in communication?
The vividness effect in communication is the persuasive impact that vivid information is thought to have on opinions and behaviors. In other words, information that is vivid, concrete, dramatic, etc., is more likely to capture our attention and sway us into believing or doing one thing rather than another. On the contrary, information that is dull or abstract is not so effective. The vividness effect relates to the vividness bias.Sources in this article
We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.
This Scribbr article
Nikolopoulou, K. Retrieved July 10, 2023,
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Criterion validity (or criterion-related validity) evaluates how accurately a test measures the outcome it was designed to measure. An outcome can be a disease, behavior, or performance. Concurrent validity measures tests and criterion variables in the present, while predictive validity measures those in the future.
To establish criterion validity, you need to compare your test results to criterion variables. Criterion variables are often referred to as a “gold standard” measurement. They comprise other tests that are widely accepted as valid measures of a construct.
Example: Criterion validityA researcher wants to know whether a college entrance exam is able to predict future academic performance. First-semester GPA can serve as the criterion variable, as it is an accepted measure of academic performance.
When your test agrees with the criterion variable, it has high criterion validity. However, criterion variables can be difficult to find.What is criterion validity?
Criterion validity shows you how well a test correlates with an established standard of comparison called a criterion.
A measurement instrument, like a questionnaire, has criterion validity if its results converge with those of some other, accepted instrument, commonly called a “gold standard.”
A gold standard (or criterion variable) measures:
The same construct
Conceptually relevant constructs
Conceptually relevant behavior or performance
When a gold standard exists, evaluating criterion validity is a straightforward process. For example, you can compare a new questionnaire with an established one. In medical research, you can compare test scores with clinical assessments.
However, in many cases, there is no existing gold standard. If you want to measure pain, for example, there is no objective standard to do so. You must rely on what respondents tell you. In such cases, you can’t achieve criterion validity.
It’s important to keep in mind that criterion validity is only as good as the validity of the gold standard or reference measure. If the reference measure suffers from some sort of research bias, it can impact an otherwise valid measure. In other words, a valid measure tested against a biased gold standard may fail to achieve criterion validity.
Similarly, two biased measures will confirm one another. Thus, criterion validity is no guarantee that a measure is in fact valid. It’s best used in tandem with the other types of validity.Types of criterion validity
There are two types of criterion validity. Which type you use depends on the time at which the two measures (the criterion and your test) are obtained.
Concurrent validity is used when the scores of a test and the criterion variables are obtained at the same time.
Predictive validity is used when the criterion variables are measured after the scores of the test.Concurrent validity
Concurrent validity is demonstrated when a new test correlates with another test that is already considered valid, called the criterion test. A high correlation between the new test and the criterion indicates concurrent validity.
Establishing concurrent validity is particularly important when a new measure is created that claims to be better in some way than its predecessors: more objective, faster, cheaper, etc.
Example: Concurrent validityA psychologist wants to evaluate a self-report test on body image dissatisfaction. The concurrent validity of the test can be assessed by comparing the scores of the test with a clinical diagnosis that was made at the same time.
Remember that this form of validity can only be used if another criterion or validated instrument already exists.Predictive validity
Predictive validity is demonstrated when a test can predict future performance. In other words, the test must correlate with a variable that can only be assessed at some point in the future, after the test has been administered.
For predictive criterion validity, researchers often examine how the results of a test predict a relevant future outcome. For example, the results of an IQ test can be used to predict future educational achievement. The outcome is, by design, assessed at some point in the future.
Example: Predictive validitySuppose you want to find out whether a college entrance math test can predict a student’s future performance in an engineering study program.
A student’s GPA is a widely accepted marker of academic performance and can be used as a criterion variable. To assess the predictive validity of the math test, you compare how students scored in that test to their GPA after the first semester in the engineering program. If high test scores were associated with individuals who later performed well in their studies and achieved a high GPA, then the math test would have strong predictive validity.
A high correlation provides evidence of predictive validity. It indicates that a test can correctly predict something that you hypothesize it should.What can proofreading do for your paper?
Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words, and awkward phrasing.
See editing exampleCriterion validity example
Criterion validity is often used when a researcher wishes to replace an established test with a different version of the same test, particularly one that is more objective, shorter, or cheaper.
Example: Criterion validityA school psychologist creates a shorter form of an existing survey to assess procrastination among students.
Although the original test is widely accepted as a valid measure of procrastination, it is very long and takes a lot of time to complete. As a result, many students fill it in without carefully considering their answers.
To evaluate how well the new, shorter test assesses procrastination, the psychologist asks the same group of students to take both the new and the original test. If the results between the two tests are similar, the new test has high criterion validity. The psychologist can be confident that the new test will measure procrastination as accurately as the original.How to measure criterion validity
Criterion validity is assessed in two ways:
By statistically testing a new measurement technique against an independent criterion or standard to establish concurrent validity
By statistically testing against a future performance to establish predictive validity
The measure to be validated, such as a test, should be correlated with a measure considered to be a well-established indication of the construct under study. This is your criterion variable.
Correlations between the scores on the test and the criterion variable are calculated using a correlation coefficient, such as Pearson’s r. A correlation coefficient expresses the strength of the relationship between two variables in a single value between −1 and +1.
Correlation coefficient values can be interpreted as follows:
r = 1: There is perfect positive correlation
r = 0: There is no correlation at all.
r = −1: There is perfect negative correlation
You can automatically calculate Pearson’s r in Excel, R, SPSS or other statistical software.
Positive correlation between a test and the criterion variable shows that the test is valid. No correlation or a negative correlation indicates that the test and criterion variable do not measure the same concept.
Example: Measuring criterion validitySuppose you are interested in developing your own scale measuring self-esteem. To establish criterion validity, you need to compare it to a criterion variable.
You give the two scales to the same sample of respondents. The extent of agreement between the results of the two scales is expressed through a correlation coefficient.
You calculate the correlation coefficient between the results of the two tests and find out that your scale correlates with the existing scale (r = 0.80). This value shows that there is a strong positive correlation between the two scales.
In other words, your scale is accurately measuring the same construct operationalized in the validated scale.Other interesting articles
If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.Frequently asked questions about criterion validity Cite this Scribbr article
Nikolopoulou, K. Retrieved July 10, 2023,
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